Examples of Students Essays

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Essay Example

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Essay

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs The theory of needs by Abraham Maslow is a psychology theory that humans have a hierarchy for both physical and emotional needs in the following order: Physiological (food and water), Safety (employment, property and health), Love/belonging (friendship, family and sexual intimacy), Esteem (friendship, family and sexual intimacy) and Self- actualization (morality, creativity, problem solving and lack of prejudice).

Maslow’s psychological approach to his theory was the humanistic approach, because he ranks out all human needs from most-essential (bottom of pyramid) to least essential (top of pyramid) – Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Essay introduction. Maslow’s theory views the average human achieving perfection. If the human follows his hierarchy of needs in a bottom to top fashion which figuratively speaking is an accurate of the way of life, due to most humans start from the bottom when they are brought in to the world and then thrive to reach their maximum potential later on in life. Maslow incorporates a pyramid image of our needs, in his designed theory.

More Essay Examples on Motivation Rubric

This is an excellent representation of the human life, because certain members of society are equipped with the ability to keep on growing physically and emotionally throughout our years of life until we reach our goal, which is portrayed as the top of the pyramid. As individuals we all have our own approaches on how we satisfy our needs. But speaking in a general/personal fashion, we humans must complete all of our physiological needs and safety needs for survival in Canada, because without food, water, breathing and property one wouldn’t last a week in a Canadian winter.

The third level to Maslow’s pyramid is Love/belonging; there are various ways to satisfy these needs. Personally, I am fortunate enough to have caring individuals surround me, that help myself achieve the satisfaction in this stage by doing various action of love throughout my daily life. The fourth level to Maslow’s pyramid is Esteem which could be satisfied through achievements or confidence boosters. Personally, I become satisfied with this need by receiving compliments, getting a good mark on a test and winning games in sports.

Lastly, is the need of self-actualization which personally I feel I am still a too young to be involved in frequent situations where I can satisfy most these needs. But over the course of my life I have touched upon some subjects. Such as creativity and problem solving, personally I satisfy these needs through high school and my everyday life. Every day I am faced upon situations where I need to think clearly and critically of my actions through problem solving.

Times where I satisfy my needs of creativity are where I am asked by my schooling to create a piece of my own through either design classes or sciences. Therefore, Abraham Maslow’s theory of needs is a very accurate and well thought theory and I believe if all goes right along the way and with the right amount of motivation the average human has, he or she can achieve their maximal potential and complete this pyramid thoroughly. But unfortunately in the world we live not all do.

Examples of Students Essays

Traditional Chinese Law and Its Contribution to Understanding the Contemporary Chinese Lawintroduction Essay Example

Traditional Chinese Law and Its Contribution to Understanding the Contemporary Chinese Lawintroduction Essay

Name of the student: Course: Instructor: Date of submission: Traditional Chinese law and its contribution to understanding the contemporary Chinese lawIntroduction | | In order to develop a proper understanding on to what level the ancient or traditional law is significant to understanding and comprehending contemporary Chinese law, it is imperative to acknowledge the cultural, political, social and historical facets of the Chinese legal tradition – Traditional Chinese Law and Its Contribution to Understanding the Contemporary Chinese Lawintroduction Essay introduction || | In order to develop a proper understanding on to what level the ancient or traditional law is significant to understanding and comprehending contemporary Chinese law, it is imperative to acknowledge the cultural, political, social and historical facets of the Chinese legal tradition. Chinese present legal system reveals a number of influences including the Chinese culture and deeply rooted philosophies of classical China such as Confucianism and legalism.

Nonetheless, one concept that has attained a great level consensus is the idea of Confucianism that has contributed largely to the development and understanding of the modern China law. For instance, some historians and legal analyst explains that the advancement of traditional Chinese legal system is defined by the confucianization of law, while some argues that China has Confucian foundation legal account[1]. In fact, this concept played a significant role in developing the ancient Chinese legal system, the legal success of Tang and numerous dynasties that later contributed highly to the development of the contemporary laws.

More Essay Examples on Law Rubric

Furthermore, even though there is little explicit evidence linking China’s imperial and modern laws, the impacts of Confucian philosophy and ethos is readily obvious in the modified and transformed Chinese legal culture[2]. An Introduction to Confucianism Confucius (Kong Fuzi) who lectured at an era of pronounced social disorder during the Seventh Century B. C. , on the foundation of the traditional approaches and principles, particularly as prescribed by the ancient Zhou (Chou) rulers or as documented in their deeds (3.

14), convention li, which implies numerous effects, but specifically, denial of the eternal and operative normativity of official and sanction. Confucius essentially champions social and political order via a procedure of persuasion and instance, which can be got from the concept of Confucian Viewpoint that defines the human treatment of the emperor. For example, when it postulates that the moral strength of a gentleman is likened to wind, while that of a common man is compared to grass.

According to Confucius, human nature is kind, therefore, he prefers personal-cultivation and education as the way by which people should be directed. In essence, he underpins that people should be guided by virtue is emphasized for benefits, values and compromise so as to prevent any kind of friction and form a perfect universe of peace and harmony in which the proper coexistence of human and nature can be noted. Confucius’ approaches towards law can be easily be got from Analects as can be supported by the phrase when he says “ I could adjudge lawsuits just like any other person.

However, I would love to make lawsuits needless”. This is because, the people ought to be motivated positively by li, conduct themselves in a correct way as punishment is nothing but a source of making people shameless. Confucius similarly encourages the human relationship between the leader and the subjects and also between families. On the contrary, the legalists maintains that human beings can coexist in a society harmoniously only when the offenses are handle by prompt punishments and underpins state powers and control instead of championing morality[3].

The law which at times is called (fa), as their entity is discouragement, enforces severe penalty for failure to adhere with the responsibilities levied by the government and the moral concerns are rigorously exempted in the conduct of the state. Confucianism and legalism had co-occurred, with uneven effect and conflicts in the entire China history. After being implemented as a national ideology, the Confucians, on one side recognized the superiority of li to fa, which subsequently, as a result of being Confucianized, played a subservient role to li[4].

The spirit and at times the real necessities of the Confucian li were integrated into the legal ciphers. For instance, from the time of Han onwards, the disguising of offenses that involves between father and son, which was handled by Confucius, legally allowed and in effect, the “ten outrages” described by the Tan, illustrated the significance Confucian morality. Hence, the disciplinary codes are illustrated as a distillation of Confucian legal teaching cast into the kind of rules and regulations associated with sanctions.

On the other hand, the Confucian similarly acknowledged that based on the existent situations State laws were relevant and required. However, they were inferior to li. The laws should majorly be used as a way of enhancing order, which could assist in supplementing and instilling moral values prescribed by Confucian li. Regarding both li and fa as mechanisms of emperor to govern the dual resources of power that reinforce each other in underpinning a system, makes it more convenient to comprehend why Legalism and Confucianism coexist with tension.

In real sense, a lengthy process of knowledge amalgamates these dual strands to generate a distinct Chinese concept of legality[5]. Structures of China’s Legal Tradition Confucian principles and values were applied by Dong Zhongshu and the idea of supporting these principles was to unite the nation and to attain a cosmic harmony. During this era, the concept of Confucian was bolstered through all the legal codes and rules as the foundation spirit ancient Chinese law. There are four key features of traditional laws that had help significantly in constructing the contemporary laws.

Traditional laws explicitly acknowledge and protect the uneven status of the Chinese citizenry. Perhaps, the most noticeable impacts on imperial Chinese law are the concept of legalized imbalance[6]. Chinese law ceaselessly varied its treatment based on the individual status in the society, his or her relationship between the victim and the offender and the particular situation such as age, sex which were in this matter in accordance with the Confucianism and as part of the set natural order with respect to the world harmony.

Moreover, a stiff hierarchy within family and also within the society which always defines Confucian social thinking was similarly emphasized. For example, a father who wronged his son would be penalized much less severely compared to a son who offended his father. Furthermore, according to the penal codes, females were separately discussed from the rest of the society. Besides, social status was seemingly more significant than the legal penal codes or rules[7].

The people of China similarly engaged the commitment of those who helped other with pleadings and lawful documents for economic gain even though these people enjoyed less respectable status. In many kingdoms, the laws and penal codes allowed for the severe punishment of the persons convicted of assisting others to come up with false accusation. In real sense, less number of institutions of private laws were established for instance the Ming Dynasty. There is a gap of private law in grand China. The

private issues were handled on when they had something to do with criminal or administrative law. Li to certain degree established the foundation for all laws associated with the private matters. Complicated issues related to family such as marriage, inheritance, separation and divorce, based on the Confucian principles, the leader of the family mostly the father acted as conciliator, and incase this family figure is absent, an outsider or relative with a renowned achievement and character could serve as a conciliator to handle this issues.

Where the parties involved in the conflict were not related to each other but are from the same kin-group, or stay in the same locality, here the eldest of the king-group or the elite, or the seniors of the guild were engaged to act as a reconciliator. The Confucian-trained magistrates officials in the department of justice even though not specialize in law, often, acknowledge the verdict made by the leaders of the local communities and shunned people from the coming up with the private dispute in the court.

Generally, as the basics of Confucian morality dictates, there is no notable substantive variation in the Chinese penal codes as it preserves respect for the ancestors, shown in and strengthened by the rites. Indeed, the concept of Confucian in some perspective can be shown by its recourse from the ancient times as a way of upholding the present legal system[8]. The Influence of Confucianism on Contemporary Chinese Law

The concept of Confucianism had one time fought and suppressed particularly during the Cultural Revolution owing to its association with the anti-socialism and feudalism and because of this, apparently there is not notable link between the traditional law and the modern legal system of China. However, the influence and the impact of the ancient law, particularly the old-style legal system, on Contemporary law cannot be wished away or ignored. Ideally, one can easily and conveniently identify some Confucian influence and impacts provision and values from the contemporary Chinese law.

Confucius’s concept take on and views on courts attribute the measure of settling matters on courts as lack of proper virtue within the society. This is to be prevented by all possible means. The significant of mediation as an idea found mainly in the contemporary legal system through courts and judges can be noted as a continuation of the Confucian ideas which represent the traditional legal system. Basically, the idea of li that emphasizes on the concept of mediation to solve disputes and conflicts within the society can still be found in the present Chinese legal system.

For example, according to Article 111 of the contemporary Chinese legal system through their constitution stipulates that the residents and the committees have the mandate to mediate civil undertakings and sustain public harmony and order. Another pair of instances can be got from the “Civil Procedure Law” , one of which according to Article 16, constitute the people conciliation committees to assist parties on charitable basis to attain agreement and settle their conflicts.

Similarly, based on chapter 8, the law gives the courts the mandate to conduct conciliation between conflicting parties prior to or during the court-martial. Confession and re-education are highly essential. Traditionally and contemporarily, the grand penal codes have certain rules that, under certain situations, should accord offenders who sincerely confess their wrong and amoral activities, full or partial exclusion from chastisement. These rules and penal codes originate from the concept of Confucian punishment as a suitable for correction of the hopeless wicked.

Hence, the initial essential step in any prosecution process is the effort to get from the accused a confession, which strengthens and forms the basis of decision-making process of the court. The attitudes and the character of the lawbreakers or delinquents in any trails process neither considered unnecessary nor unrecognized for the verdicts and will similarly be supported by the contemporary Criminal Law acts under Article 72 to 80, which stipulates that a sentence or any kind of punishment may be suspended or lessen depending on the prevailing situations or circumstances.

For example, in Article 78, a criminal figure during the time of punishment , may have his or her sentence lessen if he honestly and earnestly recognize and follow to the latter prison regulations, admit reforms via education among other measures and conditions of the prison. Some practices of imbalances that exist in the modern law system in China, such as the need to search for approval from a highly classed authority prior to investigating and prosecuting high-placed official in the society may be attributed to Confucian concept which in this case, represented traditional concept of legal system.

According to some Party rules and regulations, Highly-classed party officials are mainly disciplined in person. There are some rules and regulations precisely and exclusively designed for Party officials, for instance, the aforementioned parallel investigation process autonomous upon the Criminal Procedure Law. In practice, the inquiry of criminal activity involving this clique of people is clandestinely carried out at particular place and time by separate Party members or special personnel.

Based on the investigation, if any of these officials found guilty or the situation of the Crime have spread in the public, then the highly rank CCP officials may opt to take his or her name forward and recommend the victim for prosecution through Prosecuting organs[9]. The most recent and conspicuous case of this scenario is the bribery case of Cheng Kejie, who was the former governor of Guangxi Zhuang, a minority and independent Region.

Similarly, we can also find, from the Organic Law of the Local People’s, which stipulates that “no deputy to any local people’s Congress at or above the county rank may be detained or arrested or placed in a criminal lawsuit prior to the consultation and consent of the presidium of the people’s congress or when the people’s congress in not in session, without the consent of its standing committee. ” This traditional legal concept is not established on democracy but on totalitarianism. The rulers were crowned as sons-of-heaven that cannot be affronted that is based on clause 3.

13 of the old or traditional legal constitution. It goes ahead in chapter 16. 8 where it directs that gentle men should leave in fear and hence, had the supreme authority of punishment[10]. Presently, the ideology of supremacy of law and the penal codes are still not completely accepted by the government officials. Some researchers and law analysis postulates that the Chinese legislation is applied to enhance present party policy and subject to further legal reflections. It is therefore obvious that the law has to a significant level boosted to the center stage of the society.

However, this elevation does not ensure the sovereignty of law in the society. Party policies and principles, and governmental authorities are still often rendering law a secondary power in the society. For example, even though the present China courts are institutionally autonomous and are not in any way interfered by the government of the day, they are scarcely structurally immune from the influence of the government, since most judges are also Party officials and members and so have to follow the direction of the senior officials who are normally highly-ranked government officials.

One of the most striking situations is that the sovereignty of the Party and rule of law has a tenacious impact on both officials and the common man in the society. Nonetheless, Chinese leader and officials in recent past, called for the their government to govern the country based on the rule of law, which stipulates that the Party and the government officials should be put before the law as nobody in the country is immune to the law and penal codes of the country. Legalism The second philosophy that defines one of the traditional legal systems of the people of China is the concept of legalism.

According to legalism concept, rewards and punishments were all meant to sustain order and harmony within the Chinese society. In fact, the legalist postulates that man was essentially wicked and selfish and needed a draconian collection of laws that would him convenient to control and to avoid or evade social disruption. The legalist philosophy encourages the destroying the feudal privileges, strict responsibility for any amoral actions and the standardization of the individual responsibilities in a way whereby everyone is subjected equally to the similar standard[11].

They further underpinned that the set standards are universal and everybody within the society are subjected to it, regardless of the persons’ status in the society. In fact they ensured that these standards do not favor the noble members of the society over the common or meek members. The legalist also saw the law as a way to protect institutional sustenance by way of a strict, coherent and public penal code. The legalist argues that an emperor or any ruler could not rule effectively and efficiently devoid of set of laws.

Their doctrine was inclined to law enforcement with a view of strengthening the state over the governing of family or clan. Group duties and responsibilities were directed within the family or among the simple units of the families and everybody was under a privilege to report crime of be subjected to communal penalty. The continual threat to severe punishment resulted to the Chinese distrust and negative attitudes to all forms of government[12]. With regards to the present legal structure of the republic of China, the concept of legalism has donated some of its significant concepts to the advancement of the current China legal system.

Given that legalist emboldens application of law as a means of directing and governing China Citizenry, these laws with similar intentions albeit written in chapters and articles are presently used to govern the Chinese. Breaking of these laws comes with a consequence just like the ancient legalist who postulates that every person must be accountable for his or her amoral behavior and to emphasize on this, this philosophy believed in severe punishment regardless of the criminal’s social status or rank.

This hence, helps one to comprehend the implication, the origin and the consequences of the written contemporary rules meant to govern the people of china. Unlike the Confucian view that underpins the need of conciliation between the offender and the offended, implying that instead punishing the crook in the society, there are conciliators within the societies who help to make sure that the conflict between the two parties are amicably solved[13]. Conclusion The legalism and Confucian concepts have contributed highly to advancement and transformation of the Asian countries’ contemporary legal system, particularly China.

Basing its foundation on the concept of Confucian and Legalism, modern Chinese law systems have been advancing rapidly in the last three decades. In essence Legalism and Confucianism, each has contributed significantly for the structuring and developing the China legal system up to its both classical and contemporary state[14]. Confucianism, in contrary to Legalism, upholds that the verdict class is directed by the societal virtue but not law. While on the other hand, Legalism fosters suppression of the dissent. However, both ancient legal systems sough to ensure the reuniting of then split China, although they took dissimilar approaches.

Acknowledgement of these philosophies and scholarly hypotheses provides any scholar or outsider a comprehensive understanding of how legal system of the people of China are viewed by its citizenry particularly with regards to its roles and how these postulations contributed to the current status of the contemporary system[15]. Bibliography Bellows, T. J. (2003). The Republic of China Legislative Yuan: a study of institutional evolution. Baltimore, Md. : School of Law, University of Maryland. Black, E. A. , & Bell, G. F. (2011). Law and legal institutions of Asia: traditions, adaptations and innovations.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chai, M. , & Chai, W. (2007). China A to Z: everything you need to know to understand Chinese customs and culture. New York: Plume. Dikotter, F. (2002). Crime, punishment, and the prison in modern China. New York: Columbia University Press. Ebrey, P. B. (2010). The Cambridge illustrated history of China (2nd ed. ). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Goh, B. C. (2002). Law without lawyers, justice without courts: on traditional Chinese mediation. Aldershot, Hampshire, England: Ashgate. Hoobler, T. , & Hoobler, D. (1993). Confucianism.

New York: Facts on File. Jia, M. (2011). Legal aid and the rule of law in the People’s Republic of China. Baltimore, Md. : University of Maryland School of Law. Kidane, W. (2012). China-Africa dispute settlement: the law, economics and culture of arbitration. Alphen aan den Rijn, The Netherlands: Kluwer Law International ;. Kissinger, H. , & Kissinger, H. (2011). On China. New York: Penguin Press. Krieger, S. , & Trauzettel, R. (1991). Confucianism and the modernization of China. Mainz: V. Hase & Koehler Verlag. Kuhn, D. (2009). The age of Confucian rule: the Song transformation of China.

Cambridge, Mass. : Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Liu, Y. (1998). Origins of Chinese law: penal and administrative law in its early development. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press. Peerenboom, R. P. (2002). China’s long march toward rule of law. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Poon, K. (2008). The political future of Hong Kong: democracy within communist China. London: Routledge. Pierre L. & Roderick M. , 2003. Comparative Legal Studies: Traditions and Transitions, CambridgeUniversity Press Spence, J. D. (1990). The search for modern China. New York: Norton.

Tay, A. E. , Mach, G. , & Ziegert, K. A. (2004). Law and legal culture in comparative perspective. Stuttgart [Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag. Weber, M. (1951). The religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism. Glencoe, Ill. : Free Press Woo, M. Y. , & Gallagher, M. E. (2011). Chinese justice: civil dispute resolution in contemporary China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press ———————– [1] Bellows, T. J. (2003). The Republic of China Legislative Yuan: a study of institutional evolution. Baltimore, Md. : School of Law, University of Maryland. [2] Kuhn, D. (2009).

The age of Confucian rule: the Song transformation of China. Cambridge, Mass. : Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. [3] Weber, M. (1951). The religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism. Glencoe, Ill. : Free Press [4] Tay, A. E. , Mach, G. , & Ziegert, K. A. (2004). Law and legal culture in comparative perspective. Stuttgart [Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag. [5] Little, S. , & Eichman, S. (2000). Taoism and the arts of China. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago Slavicek, L. C. (2002). Confucianism. San Diego, Calif. : Lucent Books. [6] Tay, A. E. , Mach, G. , & Ziegert, K. A.

(2004). Law and legal culture in comparative perspective. Stuttgart [Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag. [7] Peerenboom, R. P. (2002). China’s long march toward rule of law. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. [8] Spence, J. D. (1990). The search for modern China. New York: Norton. [9] Kissinger, H. , & Kissinger, H. (2011). On China. New York: Penguin Press. [10] Goh, B. C. (2002). Law without lawyers, justice without courts: on traditional Chinese mediation. Aldershot, Hampshire, England: Ashgate. [11] Ebrey, P. B. (2010). The Cambridge illustrated history of China (2nd ed. ).

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [12] Jia, M. (2011). Legal aid and the rule of law in the People’s Republic of China. Baltimore, Md. : University of Maryland School of Law. [13] Goh, B. C. (2002). Law without lawyers, justice without courts: on traditional Chinese mediation. Aldershot, Hampshire, England: Ashgate. [14] Poon, K. (2008). The political future of Hong Kong: democracy within communist China. London: Routledge. [15] Bellows, T. J. (2003). The Republic of China Legislative Yuan: a study of institutional evolution. Baltimore, Md. : School of Law, University of Maryland.

Examples of Students Essays

Management and Employee Motivation Essay Example

Management and Employee Motivation Essay


Management and Employee Motivation

More Essay Examples on Management Rubric

Management comprises directing and controlling a specific group of people that has a certain mission and vision for the betterment of the company – Management and Employee Motivation Essay introduction. It is crucial for a company to be managed objectively using “Management By Objectives” or MBO. It is for the purpose of coordinating and harmonizing them towards accomplishing a goal. Management often encompasses the logistic deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources. Management can  refer to the person or people who perform the acts of management as well (Richard Barrett,Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People, 2003). Management has to do with power by position, whereas leadership involves power through influence. For-profit work, management has as its primary function the satisfaction of a range of stockholders. This usually involves making a profit (for the shareholders), creating valued products at a reasonable cost (for customers), and providing rewarding employment opportunities (for employees) (Richard Barrett,Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People, 2003) . In non-profit management, add the importance of keeping the faith of donors. In most models of management/governance, shareholders vote for the board of directors, and the board then hires senior management. Some organizations have experimented with other methods (such as employee-voting models) of selecting or reviewing managers; but this occurs only very rarely. In the public sector of countries constituted as representative democracies, voters elect politicians to public office. Such politicians hire many managers and administrators, and in some countries like the United States political appointees lose their jobs on the election of a new president/governor/mayor. Some 2500 people serve at the pleasure of the United States Chief Executive, including all of the top US government executives (Richard Barrett,Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People, 2003) .Public, private, and voluntary sectors place different demands on managers, but all must retain the faith of those who select them (if they wish to retain their jobs), retain the faith of those people that fund the organization, and retain the faith of those who work for the organization. Whenever they fail to entice or compel employees of the advantages of staying rather than leaving, they may tip the organization into a downward spiral of hiring, training, firing, and recruiting. Management also has the task of innovating and of improving the functioning of organizations. Headhunters for other companies are on the hunt for competent employees as well. Headhunting is one of the villains in MBO (Management By Objectives) The basic of elements of management plays a crucial part for the company to achieve its goals. Each element is essential for management integration. Planning is deciding what needs to happen in the future (today, next week, next month, next year, over the next five years, etc.) and generating plans for action. Organizing is making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful carrying out of plans. Leading/Motivating is exhibiting skills in these areas for getting others to play an effective part in achieving plans. Controlling is monitoring and checking progress against plans, which may need modification based on feedback (Richard Barrett,Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People, 2003). The formation of various business policies is a must as well. Each company has its own standards whenever it comes to their rules and regulations, as well as their standard ordered procedures. The mission of the business is its most adamant and sole purpose.. The objective of the business refers to the ends or activity at which a certain task is aimed.  The business’s policy is a guide that stipulates rules, regulations and objectives, and may be used in the managers’ decision-making. It must be flexible and easily interpreted and understood by all employees. The business’s strategy refers to the plan of action that it is going to perform, as well as the resources that it will be utilized in order to achieve its mission and objectives. It is a guideline to managers, stipulating how they ought to use best the factors of production to the business’s advantage and for the betterment of the company as well. Initially, it could help the managers decide on what type of business they want to form. There are various levels of management as well. Top-level management are top-level managers require an extensive knowledge of management roles and skills. They have to be very aware of external factors such as markets. Their decisions are generally of a long-term nature. They are responsible for strategic decisions. They must come up with the plan and see that plan may be effective in future. Middle management are mid-level managers have a specialized understanding of specific managerial tasks. They are held for and carrying out the decisions made by top-level management. They are the ones responsible for tactical decisions. Lower management ensures that the decisions and plans taken by the other two are carried out. They are like quality assurance mangers. Lower-level managers’ decisions are generally short-term ones (Richard Barrett,Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People, 2003).  These level managers are complemented by the company policies for them to perform tasks in an objective manner. It serves as a guideline for managers which they can benefit and learn from. They give mid-level and lower-level managers a good idea of the future plans for each department. An apt framework is created wherein plans and decisions are made. Mid- level and lower-level management may add their own plans to the business’s strategic ones. Senior management is generally a team of individuals at the highest level of organizational management who have the day-to-day responsibilities of managing a corporation. There are most often higher levels of responsibility, such as a board of directors and those who own the company (shareholders), but they focus on managing the senior management instead of the day-to-day activities of the business. They are sometimes referred to, within corporations, as top management, upper management, or simply seniors. Middle management is a layer of management in an organization whose primary job responsibility is to monitor activities of subordinates and to generate reports for upper management. In pre-computer times, middle management would collect information from junior management and reassemble it for senior management. With the dawn of inexpensive PCs this function has been taken over by e-business systems. During the 1980s and 1990s thousands of middle managers were made redundant  for this reason. Lower management  A Supervisor is responsible for the productivity and actions of a small group of employees (Richard Barrett,Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People, 2003). The Lower-level manager or supervisor has several managerial functions like roles, responsibilities, and powers. Two of the key differences between a supervisor and a manager are: first, the supervisor does not typically have “hire and fire” authority. Second, the supervisor does not have budget authority. Towards the end of the 20th century, business management came to consist of six separate division. Each has a specific function which is integrated for the company to reached its goals in an efficient way. These divisions are: Human resource management , Operations management, Production management, Strategic management,Marketing management, Financial management, Information technology management responsible for management information systems (MIS).

Employee Motivation

Management matters doesn’t only concern external matters that the company encounters everyday. The company ensures that its employees are motivated for their job. Arguably, an employee’s behavior is commensurate to his job, this means it an employee’s behavior is reflected on how he is contented with his job and its benefits he gets from it. With this in mind, each company has its own standard incentive program. Incentive programs are focused on employees for them to stay with the company and for them to feel secured with their jobs. This motivates them to perform their jobs more than the satisfactory level that a manager expects from a subordinate. All the factors that affect behavior must be recognized, including: motivation, skills, recognition, an understanding of the goals, and the ability to measure progress (Richard Barrett,Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People, 2003).




Many companies mistakenly assume that what works for one organization will work well for all organizations. Companies often attempt to create incentive programs without thinking in detail about how each program feature will best suit their targeted audience. Providing pie and ice-cream when employees desire flexible work hours, paid time off, training, or the ability to work from home is an example of a negative incentive. To facilitate the creation of a profitable program, every feature must be tailored to the participants’ interests.

A successful incentive program requires clearly defined rules, suitable rewards, efficient communication strategies, and measurable success metrics. By adapting each element of the program to fit the target audience, companies are better able to engage program participants and enhance the overall program effectiveness. An incentive program represents a substantial investment to most organizations. Receiving a sufficient return on that investment requires the full participation of the program participants. Incentive programs are based upon the concept that effort increases as people perceive themselves progressing towards their goal. In “The Art of Motivation: An Incentive Industry Primer,” the Incentive Marketing Association ties incentive programs to the psychological equation: Ability x Motivation = Performance (The Art of Motivation: An Incentive Industry Primer). In order to properly motivate, programs must be designed to offer a variation of products and services to program participants based on their unique interests and diverse needs. Successful programs need to carefully develop their reward methods to keep participants eager to approach a new goal once they have achieved a reward. In order to create an effective program, organizations must keep the overall objective in mind when considering program design and implementation.

Objectives should be formed based on the organizations overall goals and should be straightforward and specific so participants clearly understand the expectations. Program objectives can vary depending on the needs of each individual organization. They should be challenging, yet achievable. If objectives are viewed as unattainable, the program will be destined for failure. Objectives may include motivating employees, recognizing performance, persuading customers to make a purchase, or even reinforcing a marketing message.

Once the program goals have been determined, every aspect of the program must be measured against this goal in order to ensure the programs success in goal achievement. Whenever successful, objectives should provide measurable outputs allowing the organization to monitor performance and measure the overall success of the program. There are specific types of incentive programs like: points program, employee, consumer, dealer, and sales. For employees to be motivated such incentives like cash incentives, non-cash incentives, and non-monetary rewards as well. Managers need to understand how company employees see them in order to manage the impression they make, not just their intentions. Whenever a business wants its people to make a lot of money for them, then it should set high standards and give employees something they can be excited about and making them secured with their jobs as well.  The average workplace is about midway between the extremes of high threat and high opportunity. Motivation by threat is a dead-end strategy, and naturally staff are more attracted to the opportunity side of the motivation curve than the threat side. At lower levels of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, such as Physiological needs, money is a motivator, however it tends to have a motivating effect on staff that lasts only for a short period (in accordance with Herzberg’s two-factor model of motivation). At higher levels of the hierarchy, praise, respect, recognition, empowerment and a sense of belonging are far more powerful motivators than money, as both Abraham Maslow’s theory of motivation and Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and theory Y (pertaining to the theory of leadership) demonstrate (Geen, R.G, Human motivation: A social psychological approach, 1995) . Reality checked,  motivated employees always look for better alternatives to perform their jobs. Motivated employees are more quality oriented and prolific because the company gives them additional motivation though incentives that augments their performance. The business is empowered by this mutual relationship of employee and the company. These are based on reality and psychological facts as well. All of these facts are practically based on Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.




Barker, S.  Psychology (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.(2004).

Deci, E. L.  Intrinsic Motivation. New York: Plenum Press. (1975).

Geen, R. G. , Human motivation: A social psychological approach. Belmont, CA: Cole.


Ormond, Jeanne Ellis.  “Educational Psychology: Developing Learners” Fourth Edition.

Merrill Prentice Hall. (2003).

Spevak, P. A., Ph.D. & Karinch. . “Empowering Underachievers” First Edition. New

Horizon Press.(2000)

Bernard, L. C., Mills, M. E., Swenson, L., & Walsh, R. P. . An evolutionary theory of human motivation. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 131, 129-184. Full text, (2005)

Geary, D. C. . The motivation to control and the origin of mind: Exploring the life-mind joint point in the tree of knowledge. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61, 21-46. Full text.(2005)

David McClelland . Human Motivation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Contemporary Educational Psychology/Chapter 6: Student Motivation (motivation in classroom contexts),(1985)

Geen, R., Human Motivation-A Psychological Approach. Wadsworth Publishing. 1994.

Richard Barrett, Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People  Business & Economics,(2003)
















































































































































































































































































Examples of Students Essays

China: Land of Dragons and Emperors Essay Example

China: Land of Dragons and Emperors Essay

Respond to the questions below either as a direct post or by linking a Google Doc or Word Doc – China: Land of Dragons and Emperors Essay introduction. If it’s a Google Doc, make sure it’s in your Humanities folder so that I can see it. 1. The book will talk about six families who rules China for two millennia. How long is two millennia? Two millennia is equal to 2,000 years. 2. Using the Table of Contents, list the six dynasties. Han Dynasty, Tang Dynasty, Song Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty, Ming Dynasty, and Qing Dynasty. 3.

According to Chinese legend, how is the fish related to the dragon? The fist dragon was a fish that swam up to the top of a mountain along the way the fish encountered many difficulties including a locked gate at the top but was successful. After the fish reached the top, it transformed into a dragon. 4. List three reasons that the number nine is important in Chinese culture. Number nine is associated with dragon (the emperor) and the word jiu sounds like the Chinese word for long life. 5.

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According to the Chinese Zodiac, 2012 is the year of the dragon. What is the animal for 2013 (You may have to look this up online. )? Snake is the Zodiac Sign for 2013. 6. If you had a phone in China, why would you not want the number 1414-4444? The number “four” in Chinese sounds like the word for death and therefore considered to be a bad omen to use this number. 7. List three reasons that the color red is important in China. In China, the color red symbolizes success, happiness, and good luck. 8.

List three reasons that the color yellow is important in China. In China, the color yellow symbolizes the center. Yellow was also the color that was reserved for the emperor and members of the imperial family. 9. Find two pieces of evidences on pages 12–13 that silk was extremely valuable to China over a thousand years ago. Silk was an extremely valuable item because it was very complicated to make. Silk was even used as money and most important and rich people around the world wore clothing made from Chinese silk.

Examples of Students Essays

Compare and Contrast Clayton Paul Alderfer’s Erg Theory of Motivation and Abraham Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Essay Example

Compare and Contrast Clayton Paul Alderfer’s Erg Theory of Motivation and Abraham Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Essay

Needs-based motivation theories are based on the understanding that motivation stems from an individual’s desire to fulfill or achieve a need – Compare and Contrast Clayton Paul Alderfer’s Erg Theory of Motivation and Abraham Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Essay introduction. Human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs, and certain lower needs must be satisfied before higher needs can be satisfied. In general terms, motivation can be defined as the desire to achieve a goal, combined with the energy, determination and opportunity to achieve it. This Wiki explores Abraham H. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory, Clayton P. Alderfer’s Existence Related Growth (ERG) Theory, and the expansion of David McClelland’s Need Theory by Henry A.

Murray. Abraham Maslow Abraham Maslow was born April 1, 1908, the first of seven born to his poorly educated Jewish immigrant parents. Encouraged by his parents to seek academic success, he began studying law at the City College of New York. After transferring briefly to Cornell, Maslow returned to New York before marrying and moving to the University of Wisconsin. While attending UOW he began his work in psychology, studying the behaviors of rhesus monkeys with Harry Harlow. Though the objective was to study attachment behaviors, Maslow noticed the monkeys’ behavior was driven by different sets of needs.

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This was the underlining basis for the beginning of his interest in personal need and motivation. (Boeree, 2006) After earning his Bachelor’s, Master’s, and Ph. D. in psychology, Maslow returned to New York where he began teaching at Brooklyn College. Additionally, he served as the chair of the psychology department at Brandeis University from 1951 to 1969, during which time he became involved with Kurt Goldstein and his theory of self-actualization, which ultimately led to the development of Maslow’s own Hierarchy of Needs theory. (Boeree, C. George, 1998, 2006) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

In 1943, Abraham Maslow developed one of the earliest theories of human motivation, commonly referred to as Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. In his classic article “A Theory of Human Motivation. ” Maslow utilized the term “prepotent” to express the theory that “in the human being who is missing everything in life in an extreme fashion, it is most likely that the major motivation would be the physiological needs rather than any others. ” (Maslow, 1943, p. 5) Whittington and Evans (2005), referring to that same article, stated that Maslow presented a “prepotent hierarchy in which at least five sets of needs compose the framework. (p. 114) The five sets of needs were divided into two categories: basic needs and higher-order needs.

The most basic human needs, represented by food, water, shelter, and safety, are considered essential for human existence. Higher-order needs are those associated with social activities, esteem building, and self-actualization or constant self-improvement. Elaborating further on this theory, Whittington and Evans (2005) stated that “each of these needs operates at all times, although one deficient set dominates the individual at any one time and circumstance. (p. 114) The motivation experienced by humans to fulfill these needs is either derived from internal or external factors. People who experience internal motivation are influenced by factors that cause a sense of accomplishment and pleasure, while externally motivated people are commonly influenced by factors controlled by others, such as money and praise. (Deci & Ryan, 1985) Maslow’s hierarchy is commonly displayed in a pyramid fashion, with the basic needs at the bottom and the higher needs at the top.

The needs were depicted in this way to show the significance of each need on the others, with the most important and broadest category being the physiological needs at the base. (Redmond, 2010) Basic-Order Needs: 1. Physiological Needs are basic needs that are physiologically necessary for one’s survival, such as oxygen, food, shelter, and sleep. These needs must be met before moving to satisfy needs higher in the order. 2. Safety Needs include the desire to feel safe and secure and to ensure that basic physiological needs will remain met.

Examples of this need include shelter or housing, physical ability to defend one’s self, the need to have limits or law (or a conscience), and a regular routine that an individual is comfortable with. Once one’s physiological needs have been met, s/he will move on to the safety needs. Higher-Order Needs: 3. Social Needs include friendship and companionship. One must know that he/she is not alone in the world and be able to communicate feelings and needs with other individuals. 4. Esteem Needs – An individual eventually needs to feel that he/she has a social status.

This goes beyond just having social relationships; the individual must feel that in work or at home he/she is making a contribution. This also includes recognition of achievement from others. 5. Self-actualization Needs – This is the final and highest level of needs. Meeting this need is characterized by continuously focusing on personal growth, problem solving, life appreciation, and peak experiences for oneself. (Huitt, 2004) Maslow’s concept of self-actualization (SA) represents “everything that one is capable of becoming. ” (Value Based Management. et, 2009) And he felt that the capacity for this concept was innate to all human beings. It was not learned through conditioning or earned through rewards. (Hall, 2007) When observing SA, it is important to note that the category does not complete Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Many researchers thought that Maslow believed achieving the SA category would result in the completion of the progression. Researchers found this unattainable because SA is elastic; as one nears their SA, their abilities develop and grow which makes their true potential even greater.

However, O’Connor and Yballe (2007) indicate that Maslow intended his theory to be “an ongoing process that involves dozens of little growth choices that entail risk and require courage. ” (p. 742) Maslow believed that in order for the higher-order needs to be successfully met and not affect basic needs, an individual must first acquire the basic-order needs, referred to as fulfillment progression. (Redmond, 2010) Clayton P. Alderfer Clayton P. Alderfer, born September 1, 1940, earned his B. S. degree in 1962 at Yale University and his Ph. D. in 1966.

Alderfer has contributed greatly to Applied & Professional Psychology though his instruction at Cornell University, Yale University, and Rutgers University. Early in his career, while studying needs in organizations, he formulated the Existence, Relatedness, and Growth (ERG) Theory, for which he is best known. He went on to serve a fourteen-year term as editor of the Journal of Applied & Behavioral Science, and his contributions to the field of organization psychology have been recognized though various awards; namely, the Harry Levinson Award for Excellence and the Janet Helms Award. Rutgers, 2010) Today, Clayton P. Alderfer continues to contribute to organizational psychology through his self-established consulting firm, Alderfer & Associates. (Alderfer, 2010) Alderfer’s ERG Theory Clayton P. Alderfer first presented the ERG Theory of Motivation in 1969 in his article, “An Empirical Test of a New Theory of Human Need. ” The ERG theory attempted to improve upon Maslow’s needs hierarchy by allowing more flexibility of movement between needs.

Alderfer decreased the number of levels and allowed the order of the needs to vary by the individual; he also allowed for different needs to be pursued simultaneously. Needs were separated into three separate categories: 1. Existence Needs: Physiological and safety needs, the most concrete of needs, such as food, shelter, and water. 2. Relatedness Needs: Social relationships and external esteem (e. g. involvement with family, friends, co-workers) 3. Growth Needs: Internal esteem and self-actualization, the most abstract of needs as they do not involve physical aspects. e. g. desire to be creative or productive) While Maslow’s theory was interpreted as portraying that satisfied needs are no longer a motivation (O’Connor & Yballe, 2007), Alderfer’s ERG theory clearly states that all categories of needs can become more important as they are satisfied. Additionally, individuals may place greater emphasis on any single category as opposed to the rigid hierarchy of moving from one need to the next (Alderfer, 1969). The main difference between Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy and Alderfer’s ERG Theory is the order in which needs are met.

Alderfer believed that needs are met simultaneously and in no specific order, while Maslow’s theory states that needs are met one by one and in a specific order (Alleydog, 1998). An example of Alderfer’s ERG Theory is a “starving artist,” who may place greater emphasis on creating art (growth) than on existence needs like food or shelter. (Redmond, 2010) An employee who seeks a promotion or increased responsibilities may be attempting to satisfy all needs by increasing pay (existence), developing a larger social network (relatedness), and increasing self-esteem (growth).

The following illustration depicts Alderfer’s ERG theory. Notice as one progresses from existence needs through relatedness needs to growth needs, s/he experiences satisfaction. However, regression through the needs levels results in frustration. The idea of frustration-regression is explained as reverting to a lower level need when a higher level need is not met. (Redmond, 2010) Along the same lines, Borkowski (2009) theorized that a person “regresses” to lower needs to once again achieve satisfaction. (Redmond 2010, p. ) There are, however, exceptions to frustration-regression. According to Brian Redmond, from the Pennsylvania State University, there are two exceptions to frustration-regression. The first exception is “failure to fulfill existence needs leads to greater existence needs” (Redmond, 2010). An example of the first exception is if one needs to sleep and is unable, s/he will develop a larger, more powerful need for sleep.

The second exception to frustration-regression is “fulfillment of growth needs leads to greater growth needs. (Redmond, 2010) For instance, if one achieves successful completion of an undergraduate degree program, one may then feel the need to attend graduate school in order to obtain more education and expertise. Maslow did realize that not everyone followed his pyramid of needs. While there are many types of people and personalities, introversion and extroversion are common distinctions. Huitt (2004), created the following chart to represent the collaboration of both Maslow’s and Alderfer’s theories, with levels of introversion and extroversion.

Examples of Students Essays

Comparison of China and Japan market Essay Example

Comparison of China and Japan market Essay


Labor costs

Japan’s employers pay higher hourly labor costs, including wages and social security payments, at 21.9 euros per hour (2,400 yen) – Comparison of China and Japan market Essay introduction. But in China, there is an unbalanced labor cost between inland China and coastal area of China. China has a lower cost compare with Japan. For the company, choice central and western China to build factories can reduce labor costs. Marketing factors

China is the world’s most important CD, DVD players market. The growing wealth of the Chinese people has added Chinese purchasing power. China’s main import markets, in order of importance, are Japan (13.3%), European Union (11.7%), South Korea (10.9%), Taiwan (9.1%), and the United States (7.2%). Therefore, Japanese products are competitive products in China. But we also contend with other Japanese company like: Sony, Panasonic. Local Chinese companies are holding an important market share. Trade barriers

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China has a trade policy that makes it impossible to export to them under normal conditions. It is more profitable than exporting there because their import tariffs are superfluous. But foreign companies need to cooperate with a local Chinese company. So, we should find and cooperate with a competitive company. The Chinese government encourages new and high technology into China. So, in China the company may have a relatively good business and growth environment.



The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in China was worth 8230 billion US dollars in 2012. The GDP value of China represents 13.27 percent of the world economy. GDP in China is reported by the The World Bank Group. From 1960 until 2012, China GDP averaged 1102.1 USD Billion reaching an all time high of 8230.0 USD Billion in December of 2012 and a record low of 46.5 USD Billion in December of 1962. The gross domestic product (GDP) measures of

national income and output for a given country’s economy. The gross domestic product (GDP) is equal to the total expenditures for all final goods and services produced within the country in a stipulated period of time. This page contains – China GDP – actual values, historical data, forecast, chart, statistics, economic calendar and news


Wages in China increased to 46769 CNY in 2012 from 42452 CNY in 2011. Wages in China is reported by the Mohrss, China. From 1952 until 2012, China Wages averaged 6426.4 CNY reaching an all time high of 46769.0 CNY in December of 2012 and a record low of 445.0 CNY in December of 1952. In China, wages are benchmarked using the average salary.


Consumer Price Index (CPI) in China decreased to 102.60 Index Points in August of 2013 from 102.70 Index Points in July of 2013. Consumer Price Index (CPI) in China is reported by the National Bureau of Statistics of China. China Consumer Price Index (CPI) averaged 105.82 Index Points from 1986 until 2013, reaching an all time high of 128.40 Index Points in February of 1989 and a record low of 97.80 Index Points in April of 1999. In China, the Consumer Price Index or CPI measures changes in the prices paid by consumers for a basket of goods and services.


Terms Of Trade in China decreased to 98.59 Index Points in July of 2013 from 101.12 Index Points in June of 2013. Terms Of Trade in China is reported by the National Bureau of Statistics of China. China Terms Of Trade averaged 99.20 Index Points from 2005 until 2013, reaching an all time high of 118.33 Index Points in February of 2009 and a record low of 81.75 Index Points in February of 2010.


China is expected to record a Government Budget deficit equal to 1.50 percent of the country’s Gross Domestic Product in 2012. Government Budget in China is reported by the Ministry of Finance of the People’s Republic of China. From 1988 until 2012, China Government Budget averaged -1.9 Percent of GDP reaching an all time high of 0.6 Percent of GDP in December of 2007 and a record low of -3.1 Percent of GDP in December of 1991. Government Budget is an itemized accounting of the payments received by government (taxes and other fees) and the payments made by government (purchases and transfer payments). A budget deficit occurs when an government spends more money than it takes in. The opposite of a budget deficit is a budget surplus.


Disposable Personal Income in China increased to 24565 CNY in 2012 from 21810 CNY in 2011. Disposable Personal Income in China is reported by the National Bureau of Statistics, China. From 1978 until 2012, China Disposable Income per Capita averaged 6249.3 CNY reaching an all time high of 24565.0 CNY in December of 2012 and a record low of 343.4 CNY in December of 1978.

Examples of Students Essays

Popuarity of fast food outlets Essay Example

Popuarity of fast food outlets Essay

In recent years, there have been many studies conducted on fast food – Popuarity of fast food outlets Essay introduction. According to the results of these studies, fast food has become an indispensible part of human life and has become quite popular. There are numerous reasons for the popularity of fast food restaurants among which the two most important ones are that they are cheap and easily available.

To begin with, one of the most significant reasons why many people today opt for fast food restaurants is that fast food is cheap. That is to say, because the cost of the ingredients of fast food is low, the prices are also low . Therefore, as expected, people have more of a tendency to eat fast food. For instance, students have generally limited pocket money and they tend to spend their money carefully. Thus, this situation compels them to eat fast food because it is more affordable for them. Briefly, the cheapness of fast food is one of the leading causes of its popularity.

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Another important reason why fast food restaurants are so popular is that they are easy available. In other words, today fast food branches are very widespread and people can find them almost everywhere. People can eat food without searching for a restaurant for a long time and when they find it, they don’t have to wait for long. To illustrate, students have limited time between classes and they can easily get fast food such as toasts and hamburgers in a place close to their school. In short people do not need to spend much time eating thanks to fast food.

In conclusion, there are a myriad of reasons why fast food restaurants are very popular. We always focus on the neglect effects of eating in fast food restaurants but actually we need to examine the causes of its popularity. Two main reasons are that fast food is affordable and easily available. Nevertheless, people, especially children, should be well informed about negative effects of fast food.

Examples of Students Essays

International strategy Essay Example

International strategy Essay

International strategy is important because business is a big factor that affects our world today – International strategy Essay introduction. Thus business among countries or nations is capable of strategy hence international strategy. With the development of each country and the fast changing of technology, companies are bound into promoting and/or developing strategies. These strategies are more than of a theory but rather a plan that a company develops and works into progress. Each company have their own goal, these goals are achieved by their strategy as a company thus promoting international strategy. In achieving their goal as a company, competition is part of it.

Competitiveness among different companies is of which develops their goal and maintaining a balance strategic ways. It is important for a company to maintain their goals and achieve it and to conquer the international market for a bigger profit and growth. In which these factors are applied thoroughly as to increase their competencies as a whole and to consistently provide what their customers needs. International strategy thus implies to all businesses and helps into the diversity of a company. On the other domestic planning involves the function of managers and the staff utilizing different plans in accordance to which a company is concern.

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Both international and domestic planning involves strategy but international strategy’s scope is wider than domestic planning. However, both are in formulation to achieve a goal for competitiveness and consistency in the challenge of growth in company’s profits and their capacity for changes and/or compete with a different strategy with their competitors. Strategic planning is important both internationally and domestically because of its effect and result and as to achieve a goal that will provide improvement and satisfaction.

Examples of Students Essays

McDonald’s vs. Wendy’s Essay Example

McDonald’s vs. Wendy’s Essay

In a world that is full of low fat low-carbohydrate diets and compulsive daily exercise, people seem to be more conscientious with their choices of foods they consume; but the twenty- first century demands convenience where fast food restaurants incorporates ones needs for quick, easy, and , inexpensive food – McDonald’s vs. Wendy’s Essay introduction. Sadly, the majority of this type of food can be a very unhealthy food choice. Fast food restaurants typically offer high fat processed foods.

In defense to this stereotype, two of the most popular fast food restaurants, Wendy’s and McDonald’s, are now offering choices low in carbohydrates and saturated fats on their menu without taking away the convenience and taste. Both of these restaurants fall under the category of fast food, yet they both carry distinctive quality in their healthy menu items, Although the difference in characteristics of their healthy choices, both Wendy’s and McDonald’s offer a variety of salads their healthy food menu.

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Perhaps the most extraordinary development with these two restaurants was when they introduced healthier hamburger alternatives to their menu. Wendy’s only has one healthy sandwich on their menu, the Ultimate Chicken Grill that contains only six grams of fat even when with all awesome toppings. Although Wendy’s only offers the ultimate grill chicken as their healthy menu sandwich, this particular item at Wendy’s has always been on top when comes down to a different variety of healthy meals. Their small chili only contains five grams of fat, is one of the most favorite healthy items they offer.

Furthermore, their baked potato, without adding a ton of fatty toppings, is a great alternative to satisfy ones healthy appetite. For example, a baked potato with chives and sour cream has only five grams of fat; whereas, the hot-stuffed baked potato with cheddar cheese and bacon has a high twenty-five grams of fat. Wendy’s has had selective healthy choices for some time, so if you were someone who wanted healthier food but didn’t have time to make it, one could successfully do so at Wendy’s. McDonald’s, on the other hand, just recently began to offer healthy menu items.

Today, McDonald’s offers a large variety of healthy menu items such as the fruit yogurt parfait that is made with all natural ingredients and only has two grams of fat. At some of their locations, green apple slices are offered with the kid’s menu instead of fries. McDonald’s new change to the healthier food menu offers the McVeggie, Whole Wheat Chicken McGrill, and Chicken Fajitas, as the healthier sandwich choice, the healthier sandwich choices fat content range from four grams to seven grams.

This is incredibly lower than the Big Mac, which contains thirty three grams of fat or the Double Quarter Pounder that has a shocking forty-four grams of fat – which according to netrition. com is twenty grams more than a person’s daily intake of saturated fats should be. In addition to the healthier food choices at Wendy’s, the display of healthy food choices is better. Wendy’s salads seem to be larger and fresher with a lot more toppings appropriately sized. Wendy’s salads have a small interference, excess water at the bottom of the bowl.

This happens in the iceberg lettuce salads and it can dilute the salad dressing. This, however, is a very small problem compared to the issues with McDonald’s salads. McDonald’s, however, does not establish a great display of healthy food choices. McDonald’s salads lack in freshness. Their salads often look wilted and just thrown in the container. The chicken in the Caesar and Garden salad sliced but not but not cut into pieces, therefore, it makes it harder to consume so eating these salads can be difficult without a knife, In addition to that, even though the salads are free of water, there are very little toppings.

Overall McDonald’s salads are lacking in the visual appeal of freshness. It is very hard to ignore that Wendy’s variety of delicious salads have become one of the more popular meal choices. According to wendystimeline. com was the first major fast food restaurant to offer the salad as the main course. Wendy’s did offer side salads prior to that, but never as the main course and they didn’t offer as large of a variety as the “Garden Sensations” salads that are on their menu today.

Wendy’s offers four salads that range from three grams of fat to a whopping thirty grams, the more toppings the higher the fat grams. The quality and variety of Wendy’s salads has helped them to establish a very popular reputation for the fast food chain. In McDonald’s defense to the huge demand of Wendy’s salads, they too are offering their salads as the main course. At one time, in attempt to portray a healthy image, McDonald’s offered a “stepometer” with a salad order for a short time.

The fat grams of McDonald’s salads are very comparable to Wendy’s Garden Sensations. Good presentation, meal variety, and several salad choices, are all part of the evaluation a fast food chain. In today’s era one is searching for a fast and easy way to eat healthy, and with fast food chains like Wendy’s and McDonalds, is making the healthier choices much easier. Most marketing strategies is to use sex to sell their product, yet it seems the need to slim down is the marketing strategy Mc Donald’s, Wendy’s, and many other fast food restaurants are using today.

Examples of Students Essays

Fast Food Restaurants Do More Harm Than Good Essay Example

Fast Food Restaurants Do More Harm Than Good Essay

Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen – Fast Food Restaurants Do More Harm Than Good Essay introduction. Today’s motion is fast food restaurants do more harm than good. As a definition, fast food restaurants mean restaurants that sell fast food, which can be prepared and served quickly by using preheated or precooked ingredients. The clash of today’s debate is whether the harm brought by fast food restaurants can outweigh the good. Our side strongly believes it can. Our side believes that fast food restaurants harm us in three aspects: physically, socially, and environmentally. I will now elaborate on the physical harm, whereas my second speaker will deal with the social and environmental harm.

As we may all know, most of the fast food is unhealthy. Burgers, French fries, fish and chips, etc are food that contains a lot of salt and fat. Take McDonald’s famous “Big Mac” as an example. According to US McDonald’s official documentation in 2011, the amount of sodium in a “Big Mac” is 1040 mg. However, the Reference Daily Intake (RDI)regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration and Health Canada recommends an upper limit of 2300 mg of sodium intake per day, which means that one burger fills up half of the sodium quota for one whole day !

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Moreover, “Big Mac” contains 10g of saturated fats, which is 50 percent of the RDI. Our opponent may argue that only American fast food is unhealthy. Well, I’m sorry to say, that’s not the reality. According to Yoshinoya’s official nutrition information last year, one regular beef bowl contains 57 percent of sodium and 60 percent of saturated fats we need every day. It shocks you right? It really shocked me, as we always think that Japanese cuisines are a lot healthier. But that’s not the case. A regular beef bowl is worse than a “Big Mac”.

So what are these figures telling us? Many fast food restaurants are adding lots of seasoning so as to make their food tastier, more appealing but a lot unhealthier. What’s more, fast food such as burgers, French fries, chicken nuggets often comes in wrappers coated with perfluoroalkyls (PAC) to prevent grease from leaking through them. These have been proven to get into the human body. PAC changes to a more harmful form inside the human body and can cause numerous health problems such as infertility, thyroid disease and even cancer.

Sadly, fast food restaurants have been continuing to encourage people to eat their unhealthy food using different strategies such as promotions and advertisements. The staff serving at the counter always introduce new items to customers and encourage them to buy more than they really need. Some tactics also target different age groups, from the young to the old. I guess everybody knows McDonald’s Happy meal, which is bundled with toys targeting young children, and the famous 20 dollar meal which targets students, blue collars and the low-income group.

Those restaurants also hold campaigns which encourage customers to gather a whole collection of goods, such as Hello Kitty or Snoopy dolls, in an attempt to make people visit those fast food restaurants every day. The heavy promotion and the almost ubiquitous presence of the fast food restaurants really have the power to urge customers to turn to fast food frequently, manipulating the choices they make. Ladies and gentlemen, as we can see the far reaching harm of fast food, today’s motion must stand. Thank you.