Examples of Students Essays

Project Motivation: Organizational Business Essay Example

Project Motivation: Organizational Business Essay

Motivation within the workplace is one of the most fundamental aspects in having a productive and successful company along with happy and encouraged employees – Project Motivation: Organizational Business Essay introduction. There are many ways in which motivational tactics are implanted with in the Fairmont community. Fairmont Hotels and Resorts take great pride and devotion in their employees and their satisfaction. Maslow’s motivational theory shows exactly why Fairmont Hotels and Resorts are able to motivate their employees and make it one of the most desirable places to work in terms of employee satisfaction and motivation.

For example, Fairmont has a significant recognition program, known as Service Plus. Every month, each department has the opportunity to nominate a leader and colleague that deserve to be recognized for outstanding progress. They must be nominated by another colleague/leader and this person indicates how this individual has exemplified the Fairmont’s four values. Once a month, the Service Plus committee, which is made up of one representative from each department within the hotel will get together and they choose who will win the title of Hotel Colleague of the Month and Memory Maker.

More Essay Examples on Business Rubric

The executive committee decides who will win Hotel Leader of the Month. The winner is given gift certificates, a plaque and a Service Plus pin in which they wear alongside their nametag. Having rewards and recognitions for a job well done is something that motivates employees and keeps them working hard. Motivational tactics like such rewards are pushing employees to accomplish their personal or communal goals within the company. According to Maslow’s motivational theory, once a person feels a sense of belonging and acceptance within the company, the need to feel important and significant arises.

An external esteem need could be recognition and the need for a social status. The Fairmont attempts to satisfy these personal needs of their staff by providing such motivational devices that recognize individuals and make their efforts go noticed. This is essential within a company to keep employees motivated and working hard to thrive within their job position. The top level in the hierarchy of needs is for one to reach self-actualization. Managers at the Fairmont help their staff to achieve his by giving their employees with jobs and tasks that will provide them with a challenge and an opportunity to reach their top potential within their career or current position. Fairmont actively engages their employees and makes them feel like they are being challenged and their tasks are valued. Once such challenges or jobs are accomplished, the employees are recognized in several ways and their efforts go noticed by the top managers within the Hotel.

As a closing note, one can clearly see how Hertzberg’s Two Factor Model and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs perfectly demonstrate how the Fairmont motivates their employees and makes sure that they are engaged in challenging yet rewarding tasks and that their hard work goes noticed by managers and also by the public. Fairmont Hotels and Resorts could be noted as one of the most fortunate places to work in due to the satisfaction of their employees and the positive work environment in which they offer.

Examples of Students Essays

Job Design & Reward Systems Influence Motivation Essay Example

Job Design & Reward Systems Influence Motivation Essay

How job design and reward systems can influence motivation Abstract Employees are the most valuable asset to organizations – Job Design & Reward Systems Influence Motivation Essay introduction. Employee’s performance is the main factor in determining the organization’s performance and ensuring the organization to run smoothly and successfully. In order to maintain a good employee’s performance, an effective performance management is compulsory. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between job design, rewarding system, and motivation. Introduction Why do we work? It’s the most important question we have to ask ourselves.

Most of us will have two answers either “we work because simply we have to” or “we work for money”. If we work because “we have to” so mangers should react with it by setting rewards and parchments for working hours and time to be at work and when to leave and make close supervising to minimizing any opportunity for shun there work. If the answer “we work for money” so managers should react with what satisfies the employees which is creating arrangements between the company and the employee as incentives for achieving targets but there is a question, why do volunteers work better than paid people?

More Essay Examples on Motivation Rubric

This also makes me realize that either we are working because we have to or working for money we have to understand more about personal motivation. Argumentations There are two main attributes plays the most important parts in influencing motivation Designing jobs that motivates people & enhancing the belief that desired rewards can be achieved. JOB DESIGN Job design is simply trying to put the right employee at the right position where he knows the best. Motivator – Hygiene Model

What makes an employee satisfied and what makes him dissatisfied. Motivator-Hygiene Model has been created shows the answers for this. Motivator Factors When an employee feels positive about his work this is may be because of taking delegations and if he do well it’s highly appreciated from the company, recognition or work itself makes him feel positive. All these attributes are mostly intrinsic factors not related to the organization & highly depending on the employee himself.

Hygiene factors Feeling safe in the company, stability, company policy, salary, working conditions & interpersonal relations. The absences of these factors are mostly related with negative feelings of individuals with the company they work for and the presence of it will not make them feel positive. They are mostly extrinsic factors or factors not related to the job itself more than it’s related the atmosphere of the job or the factors which are surrounding the job itself.

Argument I somehow disagree with the model inventor in the Hygiene Factor in what he mentioned that “the absence of the extrinsic factors will make a negative feeling while the presence of it will not provide a positive feelings” since the Financial Crises, most of the large companies start restructuring there organization to adapt with the new situation they are facing and as a result of this restructuring it start firing thousands of employees to reduce expenditures so after it was a dream for anyone to work in a multinational company it become a nightmare for the employees as they are feeling that every new day they are threatened to be kicked off the company.

My point is any employee having a good salary and feeling stable in the company he works for actually it’s a factor that makes him feel positive about the company he works for. It’s not any more a Hygiene factor only it’s also maybe a Motivator Factor as well. The model inventor claimed that the word satisfaction in work is not an opposite for the word dissatisfaction in work because the absence of what make me feeling positive (satisfied ) at work will not make me dissatisfied and vice versa i. e. Factors makes me feel positive is totally different than the factors make me feel negative. Job Characteristics Model Job characteristic model has implemented most of the motivator-hygiene model by implementing the motivator factors and trying minimizing the hygiene factors.

Job characteristics model increasing the amount of skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy & job feedback all these job characteristics will directly affects three critical psychological states which are experience the meaningfulness of work, experience the responsibility of the work outcomes & knowledge of the actual results of the work outcomes all these will logically affect the internal motivation of employees, increasing the job performance, increasing satisfaction & lowering absenteeism & turnover. Skill variety will help achieving work in the right way as you will need employees with different competencies to fulfill work.

On the other hand sometimes work should be in need for an employee with an identifiable piece of work, an employee who knows everything regarding this task from the beginning till the end with realizing a visible outcome or an employees with a substantial impact on the lives of other individuals from inside or outside the organization. Expectancy Model Expectancy model focuses on that employee should know what they desire from work and for how much deep they had been satisfied from what they do. Employee should believe that the effort done should lead to a desired level of outcomes which is grads of study, achievements of goals at work and this level will lead to a 2nd level of outcomes which is increase selfsteem, increase of happiness or approval from others. Instrumentality is the relationship between the 1st level of outcomes & the 2nd level of outcomes. There is always a preference towards the 2nd level of outcomes “valence”. Equity Theory

Equity Theory’s major premise is that individuals seek to achieve a balance between there inputs and outcomes. Equity exists, from perspective of individual, when this balance is achieved. It is very important to note that equity is not necessarily an objective determination, but rather it is perceptual and subjective in nature First, to understand the key factor within the job that influence employee to be motivated, it has to start with equity theory Simply, if there is inequity there is tension, and if there is equity there is motivation. Fair leads to high job satisfaction and performance. Outcomes have different types and are not always money, it can e several things for instance, it can be fringe benefits, job security, promotion, recognition, salary, status symbols, working condition and so on. Jobs which designed on inequity basis will counteract many reactions from their employees, for example, employee who believe he or she is underpaid he will start to decrease his productivity and effort. Moreover, individual who feel inequity can start to give fake image of his work and dramatize everything to get the favorable balance. Other employees who are suffering injustice feeling can change their benchmark in comparison to feel justice. Others to show that they deserve greater rewards distort the other input and output and when it became intolerable employee may ask to resign or move to other department.

On the other hand If fairness and equity is part of the job design the attitude will be the motivation and going beyond the call of duty, fairly treated employees join in citizenship behaviors because they want to give something back to the organization. Goal Setting and Rewarding Motivation can be either an internal or external force that drives behavior. The external motivation you provide in the form of rewards should be tied to the needs of the workforce as determined by the workers, who also should participate in the goal-setting process. You need to tap into your workers’ needs for survival, security and belonging for goals to work successfully.

Humans are motivated to fulfill their basic needs for food, water and clothing before higherorder needs can be achieved. By providing monetary rewards, you can help workers satisfy those basic needs and provide the basis for goals that deliver less tangible rewards such as praise, self-esteem and feelings of achievement. Goal setting is one of the most recognized and accepted forms of motivation in the workplace. Goal setting functions well as a tool to help improve organizational management, employee morale, and worker retention. To work effectively, goals must be specific and understandable, must be measurable, relevant to employees, and attainable within a set period of time.

Write down goals to avoid confusion. Key motivational aspects of goal settings include: o o o o Direct attention; helps employees focus on what is relevant and important. Regulate effort; motivate employees to act Increase persistence; supports in overcoming obstacles and avoid making excuses if ones fail Foster strategies and action programs; encouraging for developing strategies and action programs for achieving the goals. Those participating in the process should be able to easily recognize specific goals. For example, setting a goal of increasing sales is vague, while a goal that requires sales people to increase sales by 10 percent within six months is specific.

Goals need to be clear and leave no room for interpretation, to be effective. Clearly spell out the specific bonus or other reward employees will earn. Not all employees will be able to attain the goals set forth in plans. Worker motivation can be improved in increments. Provide workers with smaller rewards that acknowledge their efforts without discouraging them from trying to reach the ultimate goals. Increase employee motivation by providing incentives for progress based on specific percentages and levels of achievement. For example, sales people who increase sales by seven percent may receive a smaller bonus than those who meet the 10-percent goal.

To achieve organizational goals, managers and workers must be in agreement as to the terms of the contract, particularly when a team effort is required. Goal setting is an opportunity to practice consensus building within an organization. Without buy-in, the goal setting process can backfire and create animosity and resentment in the workplace. Feedback makes goal setting and individual response to goal achievement a dynamic process. Providing information to employees about how well they are performing enables individuals to relate received rewards to those expected. The consequences of a person reaching his/ her goal include willingness to accept future challenges and to increase his or her commitment to the organization. Conclusion

Motivational process indicates that individuals behave in certain ways to satisfy their needs. There is two basic human needs approaches to motivation, Maslow proposed that individual have five types of needs (physiological, security, esteem, and self-actualization), and that when a need is satisfied it no longer motivates a person ,on the other hand McClelland have three learned needs (power, achievement, affiliation). Tow factor affect person motivation, motivator –hygiene factors. Motivator factor lead to job satisfaction, hygiene factor prevent job dissatisfaction. Job characteristic focuses on skill variety, task significance, task identity, autonomy and feedback.

Regarding expectancy model, it hold that individual understand what they want from work, effort expended will lead to first level of outcome and this level of performance will lead to the desired reward (second-level outcome). Also equity have the importance in motivation as well, an individual compare input and outcome to others. so, if there is equity there is motivation, if there is inequity there is tension and it will lead to six common reaction. Reward program represent a great tool motivating individual and team performance. Profit sharing, informal rewards, Skilled based pay, flexible benefit are rewards that designed to enhance performance and motivation.

The goal of management became not simply to direct and control employees seeking to shun work, but rather to create conditions that make people want to offer maximum effort. Having employees harness, self-direction, and self-control in pursuit of common objectives, it turned out, was far preferable to imposing a system of controls designed to force people to meet objectives they didn’t understand or share. Rewarding people for achievement was a far more effective way to reinforce shared commitment than punishing them for failure. Giving people responsibility caused them to rise to the challenge. Unleashing their imagination, ingenuity and creativity resulted in their contributions to the organization being multiplied many times over.

Examples of Students Essays

Maslow theories Vz Herzberg Essay Example

Maslow theories Vz Herzberg Essay

Maslow theories Vz Herzberg


More Essay Examples on Abraham Maslow Rubric

Herzberg a psychologist proposed a theory about job factors that motivate employees.

Maslow a behavioral scientist and contemporary of Herzberg’s developed a theory about the rank and satisfaction of various human needs and how people pursue these needs.

Abraham Maslow

Hierarchy of needs

            Maslow believes people attempt to satisfy these needs in a specific order.  A person will meet physiological needs (for food, sleep etc) before addressing needs for safety, love and so forth.  Moreover, Maslow considers the first four needs in his hierarchy “deficiency needs” which stop providing motivation once they are satisfied.  However the hierarchy’s final need – self actualization is a “being” or “growth” need that drives behavior throughout a person’s life.  Therefore, if a business continually gives its employees opportunities to meet this high-level need, the company can expect a well motivated workforce.

            Maslow identified five levels in his need hierarchy.  They are

a)                  Physiological needs

The most basic level in the hierarchy, the physiological needs, generally food, shelter, clothing, sex are some example.  According to the theory once these basic needs are satisfied, they no longer motivate.  When physiological needs are reasonably satisfied, safety needs begin to manifest themselves.

b) – Maslow theories Vz Herzberg Essay introduction. Safety needs

            This second level of need is equivalent to the security need.  One aspect of the safety need is economic security or security of job, which assures continuity of income with which to satisfy physiological needs.  Another aspect of safety is security of income against such contingencies as sickness, injury, loss employment during working life and security in old age after retirement.

c).        Love need

            This third or intermediate, level of needs closely corresponds to affection and affiliation needs.  He feels the need for belonging for being an accepted members of a group.

d)                 Esteem need

The esteem level represents the higher needs of humans.  The needs for power achievement and status can be considered to be part of this level.  Maslow carefully pointed out that the esteem level contains both self esteem and esteem from other.

e)                  Needs for self-actualization

This level represent the culmination of all the lower, intermediate and higher needs of human.  People who have become self-actualized are self-fulfilled and have realized all their potential.

The figure highlights the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs









Esteem Needs

Belonginess Needs

Security Needs

Physiological Needs


Challenging Job

Job Title

Friends at Work

Pension Plan

Base Salary

Frederick Herzberg: Motivation –Hygiene theory


            We have basic needs (hygiene needs) which, when not met cause us to be dissatisfied.  Meeting these needs does not make us satisfied it merely prevents us from becoming dissatisfied.  The ‘hygiene’ word is deliberately medical as it is an analogy of the need to do something that is necessary, but which does contribute towards making the patient well. (it only stops them getting sick)  These are also called maintenance needs.

            There is a separate set of needs which, when resolved, do make us satisfied.  These are called motivators.

            This theory is also called Herzberg’s two factor theory.


            Herzberg discovered that the key determinants of job satisfaction were Achievement, Recognition, Work itself, Responsibility and Advancement.

            He also found that key dis-satisfier were company policy and administration, Supervision, Salary, Interpersonal relationship and Working conditions.

            What struck him the most was that these were separate groups with separate evaluation and not a part of the same continuous.  Thus if the company resolved the dis-satisfiers they would not create satisfaction.

Hygiene factors



Working conditions

Job security

Policies & Supervision


Interpersonal Relations

Motivation Factors


Opportunity for advancement

Sense of accomplishment


Challenging work

These factors result from internal instincts in employees, yielding motivation  matter them movement.

            Both these approaches must be done simultaneously.  Treat people as best you can so they have  a minimum of dissatisfaction.  Use people so they get achievement, recognition for achievement, interest and responsibility and they can grow and advance in their work.


            I need to be paid on time each month so I can pay my bills.  If I am not paid on time, I get really unhappy.  But when I get paid on time, I hardly notice it.

            On the otherhand, when my boss gives me a part on the back,  I feel good.  I don’t expect this every day  I don’t specially miss not having praise all of the time.


            Both these theories tell the employer what they need to do and what to achieve in order to accomplish this equilibrium between them and their employees

People expect positive hygience factors in their work place, Herzberg says.  When present, these factors can prevent employees from feeling dissatisfied with their jobs, but they don’t necessarily push people to achieve greater productivity.  Motivation factors are not necessarily expected, but when they are  in place, Herzberg believes they produce feelings of satisfaction and derive employees to succeed .  Like Maslow’s needs hierarchy, Herzberg’s motivation hygiene theory suggests that a business must satisfy one set of needs –  in this case hygiene factors –before more powerful employee motivating factors take effect.

According to the theory the absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction, but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction.

Maslow classified people’s main needs and drew the hierarchy which includes Herzberg’s hygiene factors.

1.      Ego  –  (Satisfiers) factors

2.      Safety  –  Hygiene fctors.

According to Maslow:  People’s motives are highly complex and no single motive cause behavior.  Low level need must be at least partially satisfied before  a higher level need is satisfied.  Satisfied need no longer motivated, another need will take place.  The higher level can be satisfied in many more ways than the lower.

Money as a Motivator

            Initially many people would say that they only work because of the money, if you pay me more I will work harder etc. etc.  In fact, money is quite low on the list for most people that are unhappy about their jobs.

            People need to have an interest in the job that makes it worthwhile.

            Many people who change jobs do so because of better promotion prospects, more challenging and varied work or just a more exciting place of work.

            People who win large amounts of money in lotteries etc. are never truly happy just spending money useless it is used for personal fulfillment

Herzberg    Vs. Maslow

Money is a hygiene factor.

Having money creates satisfaction not motivation

Money can satisfy self esteem needs.


            While Maslow dealt with the rank and satisfaction of various human needs and how people pursue these needs,  Herzberg a psychologist proposed a theory about job factors that motivate employees.

            The combination of hygiene and motivation factors can result in four conditions for an employee.

High Hygiene/High Motivation:

            The ideal situation where employees are highly motivated and have few complaints.

High Hygiene/Low Motivation:

            Employees have few complaints but are not highly motivated.  The job is a pay check situation.

Low Hygiene/High Motivation:

            Employees are motivated but have a lot of complaints.  A situation where the job is exciting and challenging but salaries and work conditions are not up to par.

Low Hygiene/Low Motivation:

The worst situation unmotivated employees with lots of complaints.


1.                  Herzberg F. (1959),  The motivation to work.  NewYork. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

2.                  Koontz H & Weihrich H.(1998) Management, New York  Mc Graw Hill Book Co.

3.                  Vroom H.V.(1964)  Motivation and Work NewYork. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

4.                  Vitels, Morris.S. (1953) Motivation and Morale in industry, New York, W.W.Norton & Co.

5.                  Robert Owens. Thomas Valesky. (2006)  Organizational behavior in Education.

6.                  Chauhan and Chauhan,  Management & Change. Vol.5, No.2 (Winter 2001)

7.                  Shyam Bahadur Katuwal and Gurpreet Randhawa,  IJIR Vol.45, No.2 Oct,2007.

Examples of Students Essays

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Relating to Goals Essay Example

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Relating to Goals Essay

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Relating to Goals Christie Wise Instructor Melissa Davis ENG223-O15-005-ON-Communication Arts-11:2012 Assignment 1: Communication Skills Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Relating to Goals What makes us thrive to continue on forward? – Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Relating to Goals Essay introduction?? According to a well known theory of needs, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, a basic human motivation that is based on their level of needs. “In this theory there are five levels that include: physical needs, safety needs, belonging needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization needs” (Maslow, n. . ) which can be related to getting to goals. Once each level is satisfied of achieving you move up on the pyramid just like you would if you have a list of goals you want to achieve. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs can be closely related to my goals because they come hand and hand together since motivation is used through each level. The most basic level on the Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is physical, just like how “babies must alert others when they are hungry or in pain, if that need is not met then the babies will not survive” (Wood, 2010).

This is a good example on how one would motivate them to go with their goals. You just need to take one level at a time until that goal is met. My main goal that I am currently working on is to get through school with the best of grades and to get into the field that I desire, being a graphic designer. I will not be able to achieve that unless I take on different levels of motivation or the needs a person seeks.

More Essay Examples on Psychology Rubric

Not everyone can reach the top of the pyramid along the way they may have some needs that are just not satisfied to move up on the levels. I do believe I have been stuck on a specific level on the Hierarchy of Needs, self-esteem need. However, the only way to get through this kind of halt is to reach on farther. The only way of getting passed this to motivate myself that I am the best that I can be. The only way of looking at the needs a person has to have to survive is to look at the goals you set for yourself.

Motivation is contagious. When you feel that you have what you need in life to get you through, you can easily find yourself getting your goals achieved. Resources: Maslow and his theory on Motivational Needs. (n. d. ). Achieve Goal Setting Success. Retrieved October 27, 2012, from http://www. achieve-goal-setting-success. com/maslow. html Wood, J. (2010). A first look at interpersonal communication. In Interpersonal Communication (6th ed. , pp. 11-16). Boston, MA: Wadsworth.

Examples of Students Essays

Analyzing Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Essay Example

Analyzing Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Essay

Analyzing Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs


More Essay Examples on Abraham Maslow Rubric

            Many individuals have stereotyped the personality of one person based on their socio-economic status.  For example, individuals who come from a lower socio-economic status tend to be more defensive when being questioned about their whereabouts and the things that they are involved in their daily lives as compared to those who are financially better off.  Maslow’s personality theory gives the reader an understanding as to how the needs of the individual affect the personality of that same individual.  This paper will present an analytical analysis on the overall purpose behind an individual’s personality as well as the concepts that all individuals’ personalities possess and the role of society in the development of the personality of an individual.  It will also explain how despite the similar concepts that each individual’s personality possess, the personality of two individuals can be unique from each other.

Purpose of Maslow’s theory

            Unlike previous personality theories, Maslow focused his studies on psychologically healthy individuals in order to provide members of the world of psychology the brighter, better half of the human individual in order for psychologists to see the individual’s personality in its totality.  He believed that man has a psychological structure that is treated parallel to the needs and abilities of an individual that is based on his or her genetics and that the goal of an individual’s personality is to realize this by fulfilling his or her capabilities in order for the parts that are considered to be hidden and unseen but dictated by human nature.  This is because Maslow viewed the human individual as a being who is by birth essentially neutral in terms of their behavior, if not good, and not evil as how other psychologists have viewed the individual.  Rather, an individual becomes evil and anti-social because of misunderstanding (Hall, Lindzey & Campbell 1997).

Elements of Maslow’s Personality Theory

            Maslow introduced his theory of the hierarchy of needs as the motivation individuals face consciously or unconsciously which affects the individual’s personality.  The hierarchy presented by Maslow states that the lower the need of individual is located in the hierarchy, the more compelling its influence is to the individual because these needs that are located on the lowest levels of the hierarchy of Maslow are triggered by a sense of lack in the individual (Hall, Lindzey & Campbell 1997).

            There are five levels of the hierarchy of needs of Maslow.  The first is the physiological needs.  This is located in the lowest level of the hierarchy and includes the need of the individual to satisfy hunger, thirst, sex, and the like.  The second level is the safety needs.  This level is usually seen among children and includes a want for security, stability and freedom from fear.  The third is the need for belongingness and love which is satisfied through relationships between the individual and others such as friends and family.  The fourth level is the need for self-esteem.  This includes the desire for strength achievement and competence.  The highest level is self-actualization.  This is the need of the individual to become who he or she is meant to be (Hall, Lindzey & Campbell 1997).

Role of Society in Personality

            Society plays both a positive and negative effect on the personality of the individual.  On one hand, society is able to tame negative aspects of one’s personality such as possessing what society would consider as deviant behavior or anti-social behavior.  This could be done through the training and socialization experienced by the individual.  Society also provides a venue for the individual to be able to manifest himself or herself as how he or she should be.  On the other hand, society may also distort the way of thinking of an individual which would result for the individual to hold himself or herself back from manifesting their talents and abilities.  As a result, they become frustrated and would experience feelings of self-denial and violent resulting in the development of anti-social behaviors (Hall, Lindzey & Campbell 1997).

Differences between Two Individuals

            While the Maslow has clearly defined the different levels of the needs of an individual, there are instances when the levels of these needs are interchanged by the individual.  For instance, one individual would consider the need to achieve self-esteem is more important than hunger or any other physiological needs.  This would also affect the personality of the individual because while the individual is able to change the importance of each need, this is only temporary and eventually, these needs would eventually go back to the original levels presented by Maslow.  This would result to some individuals able to impede these needs in the future.  It will also cause these individuals to experience frustration resulting from early gratification (Hall, Lindzey & Campbell 1997).  This may explain as to there are some individuals who may not be extremely well off yet contented and others who are successful but living empty lives.


            Individuals have their own wants and needs.  While all individuals have the same aspirations, there are instances when two individuals in the same situation would react differently.  Some individuals would view an event as a challenge while others would view it as an opportunity.  Some individuals would be viewed as selfish and materialistic while others would be viewed as being responsible.  Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of needs explained not only why the behavior of an individual may be affected by his or her needs, but it also explained on how the outlook of an individual may be influenced by their experiences based on their needs as well as why certain individuals are able to cope with certain challenges in life and why some break down under pressure.


Hall, C – Analyzing Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Essay introduction. S., Lindzey, G. & Campbell, J. B. (1997). Theories of personality, 4th ed. New

Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.


Examples of Students Essays

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Essay Example

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Essay

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs The theory of needs by Abraham Maslow is a psychology theory that humans have a hierarchy for both physical and emotional needs in the following order: Physiological (food and water), Safety (employment, property and health), Love/belonging (friendship, family and sexual intimacy), Esteem (friendship, family and sexual intimacy) and Self- actualization (morality, creativity, problem solving and lack of prejudice).

Maslow’s psychological approach to his theory was the humanistic approach, because he ranks out all human needs from most-essential (bottom of pyramid) to least essential (top of pyramid) – Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Essay introduction. Maslow’s theory views the average human achieving perfection. If the human follows his hierarchy of needs in a bottom to top fashion which figuratively speaking is an accurate of the way of life, due to most humans start from the bottom when they are brought in to the world and then thrive to reach their maximum potential later on in life. Maslow incorporates a pyramid image of our needs, in his designed theory.

More Essay Examples on Motivation Rubric

This is an excellent representation of the human life, because certain members of society are equipped with the ability to keep on growing physically and emotionally throughout our years of life until we reach our goal, which is portrayed as the top of the pyramid. As individuals we all have our own approaches on how we satisfy our needs. But speaking in a general/personal fashion, we humans must complete all of our physiological needs and safety needs for survival in Canada, because without food, water, breathing and property one wouldn’t last a week in a Canadian winter.

The third level to Maslow’s pyramid is Love/belonging; there are various ways to satisfy these needs. Personally, I am fortunate enough to have caring individuals surround me, that help myself achieve the satisfaction in this stage by doing various action of love throughout my daily life. The fourth level to Maslow’s pyramid is Esteem which could be satisfied through achievements or confidence boosters. Personally, I become satisfied with this need by receiving compliments, getting a good mark on a test and winning games in sports.

Lastly, is the need of self-actualization which personally I feel I am still a too young to be involved in frequent situations where I can satisfy most these needs. But over the course of my life I have touched upon some subjects. Such as creativity and problem solving, personally I satisfy these needs through high school and my everyday life. Every day I am faced upon situations where I need to think clearly and critically of my actions through problem solving.

Times where I satisfy my needs of creativity are where I am asked by my schooling to create a piece of my own through either design classes or sciences. Therefore, Abraham Maslow’s theory of needs is a very accurate and well thought theory and I believe if all goes right along the way and with the right amount of motivation the average human has, he or she can achieve their maximal potential and complete this pyramid thoroughly. But unfortunately in the world we live not all do.

Examples of Students Essays

Traditional Chinese Law and Its Contribution to Understanding the Contemporary Chinese Lawintroduction Essay Example

Traditional Chinese Law and Its Contribution to Understanding the Contemporary Chinese Lawintroduction Essay

Name of the student: Course: Instructor: Date of submission: Traditional Chinese law and its contribution to understanding the contemporary Chinese lawIntroduction | | In order to develop a proper understanding on to what level the ancient or traditional law is significant to understanding and comprehending contemporary Chinese law, it is imperative to acknowledge the cultural, political, social and historical facets of the Chinese legal tradition – Traditional Chinese Law and Its Contribution to Understanding the Contemporary Chinese Lawintroduction Essay introduction || | In order to develop a proper understanding on to what level the ancient or traditional law is significant to understanding and comprehending contemporary Chinese law, it is imperative to acknowledge the cultural, political, social and historical facets of the Chinese legal tradition. Chinese present legal system reveals a number of influences including the Chinese culture and deeply rooted philosophies of classical China such as Confucianism and legalism.

Nonetheless, one concept that has attained a great level consensus is the idea of Confucianism that has contributed largely to the development and understanding of the modern China law. For instance, some historians and legal analyst explains that the advancement of traditional Chinese legal system is defined by the confucianization of law, while some argues that China has Confucian foundation legal account[1]. In fact, this concept played a significant role in developing the ancient Chinese legal system, the legal success of Tang and numerous dynasties that later contributed highly to the development of the contemporary laws.

More Essay Examples on Law Rubric

Furthermore, even though there is little explicit evidence linking China’s imperial and modern laws, the impacts of Confucian philosophy and ethos is readily obvious in the modified and transformed Chinese legal culture[2]. An Introduction to Confucianism Confucius (Kong Fuzi) who lectured at an era of pronounced social disorder during the Seventh Century B. C. , on the foundation of the traditional approaches and principles, particularly as prescribed by the ancient Zhou (Chou) rulers or as documented in their deeds (3.

14), convention li, which implies numerous effects, but specifically, denial of the eternal and operative normativity of official and sanction. Confucius essentially champions social and political order via a procedure of persuasion and instance, which can be got from the concept of Confucian Viewpoint that defines the human treatment of the emperor. For example, when it postulates that the moral strength of a gentleman is likened to wind, while that of a common man is compared to grass.

According to Confucius, human nature is kind, therefore, he prefers personal-cultivation and education as the way by which people should be directed. In essence, he underpins that people should be guided by virtue is emphasized for benefits, values and compromise so as to prevent any kind of friction and form a perfect universe of peace and harmony in which the proper coexistence of human and nature can be noted. Confucius’ approaches towards law can be easily be got from Analects as can be supported by the phrase when he says “ I could adjudge lawsuits just like any other person.

However, I would love to make lawsuits needless”. This is because, the people ought to be motivated positively by li, conduct themselves in a correct way as punishment is nothing but a source of making people shameless. Confucius similarly encourages the human relationship between the leader and the subjects and also between families. On the contrary, the legalists maintains that human beings can coexist in a society harmoniously only when the offenses are handle by prompt punishments and underpins state powers and control instead of championing morality[3].

The law which at times is called (fa), as their entity is discouragement, enforces severe penalty for failure to adhere with the responsibilities levied by the government and the moral concerns are rigorously exempted in the conduct of the state. Confucianism and legalism had co-occurred, with uneven effect and conflicts in the entire China history. After being implemented as a national ideology, the Confucians, on one side recognized the superiority of li to fa, which subsequently, as a result of being Confucianized, played a subservient role to li[4].

The spirit and at times the real necessities of the Confucian li were integrated into the legal ciphers. For instance, from the time of Han onwards, the disguising of offenses that involves between father and son, which was handled by Confucius, legally allowed and in effect, the “ten outrages” described by the Tan, illustrated the significance Confucian morality. Hence, the disciplinary codes are illustrated as a distillation of Confucian legal teaching cast into the kind of rules and regulations associated with sanctions.

On the other hand, the Confucian similarly acknowledged that based on the existent situations State laws were relevant and required. However, they were inferior to li. The laws should majorly be used as a way of enhancing order, which could assist in supplementing and instilling moral values prescribed by Confucian li. Regarding both li and fa as mechanisms of emperor to govern the dual resources of power that reinforce each other in underpinning a system, makes it more convenient to comprehend why Legalism and Confucianism coexist with tension.

In real sense, a lengthy process of knowledge amalgamates these dual strands to generate a distinct Chinese concept of legality[5]. Structures of China’s Legal Tradition Confucian principles and values were applied by Dong Zhongshu and the idea of supporting these principles was to unite the nation and to attain a cosmic harmony. During this era, the concept of Confucian was bolstered through all the legal codes and rules as the foundation spirit ancient Chinese law. There are four key features of traditional laws that had help significantly in constructing the contemporary laws.

Traditional laws explicitly acknowledge and protect the uneven status of the Chinese citizenry. Perhaps, the most noticeable impacts on imperial Chinese law are the concept of legalized imbalance[6]. Chinese law ceaselessly varied its treatment based on the individual status in the society, his or her relationship between the victim and the offender and the particular situation such as age, sex which were in this matter in accordance with the Confucianism and as part of the set natural order with respect to the world harmony.

Moreover, a stiff hierarchy within family and also within the society which always defines Confucian social thinking was similarly emphasized. For example, a father who wronged his son would be penalized much less severely compared to a son who offended his father. Furthermore, according to the penal codes, females were separately discussed from the rest of the society. Besides, social status was seemingly more significant than the legal penal codes or rules[7].

The people of China similarly engaged the commitment of those who helped other with pleadings and lawful documents for economic gain even though these people enjoyed less respectable status. In many kingdoms, the laws and penal codes allowed for the severe punishment of the persons convicted of assisting others to come up with false accusation. In real sense, less number of institutions of private laws were established for instance the Ming Dynasty. There is a gap of private law in grand China. The

private issues were handled on when they had something to do with criminal or administrative law. Li to certain degree established the foundation for all laws associated with the private matters. Complicated issues related to family such as marriage, inheritance, separation and divorce, based on the Confucian principles, the leader of the family mostly the father acted as conciliator, and incase this family figure is absent, an outsider or relative with a renowned achievement and character could serve as a conciliator to handle this issues.

Where the parties involved in the conflict were not related to each other but are from the same kin-group, or stay in the same locality, here the eldest of the king-group or the elite, or the seniors of the guild were engaged to act as a reconciliator. The Confucian-trained magistrates officials in the department of justice even though not specialize in law, often, acknowledge the verdict made by the leaders of the local communities and shunned people from the coming up with the private dispute in the court.

Generally, as the basics of Confucian morality dictates, there is no notable substantive variation in the Chinese penal codes as it preserves respect for the ancestors, shown in and strengthened by the rites. Indeed, the concept of Confucian in some perspective can be shown by its recourse from the ancient times as a way of upholding the present legal system[8]. The Influence of Confucianism on Contemporary Chinese Law

The concept of Confucianism had one time fought and suppressed particularly during the Cultural Revolution owing to its association with the anti-socialism and feudalism and because of this, apparently there is not notable link between the traditional law and the modern legal system of China. However, the influence and the impact of the ancient law, particularly the old-style legal system, on Contemporary law cannot be wished away or ignored. Ideally, one can easily and conveniently identify some Confucian influence and impacts provision and values from the contemporary Chinese law.

Confucius’s concept take on and views on courts attribute the measure of settling matters on courts as lack of proper virtue within the society. This is to be prevented by all possible means. The significant of mediation as an idea found mainly in the contemporary legal system through courts and judges can be noted as a continuation of the Confucian ideas which represent the traditional legal system. Basically, the idea of li that emphasizes on the concept of mediation to solve disputes and conflicts within the society can still be found in the present Chinese legal system.

For example, according to Article 111 of the contemporary Chinese legal system through their constitution stipulates that the residents and the committees have the mandate to mediate civil undertakings and sustain public harmony and order. Another pair of instances can be got from the “Civil Procedure Law” , one of which according to Article 16, constitute the people conciliation committees to assist parties on charitable basis to attain agreement and settle their conflicts.

Similarly, based on chapter 8, the law gives the courts the mandate to conduct conciliation between conflicting parties prior to or during the court-martial. Confession and re-education are highly essential. Traditionally and contemporarily, the grand penal codes have certain rules that, under certain situations, should accord offenders who sincerely confess their wrong and amoral activities, full or partial exclusion from chastisement. These rules and penal codes originate from the concept of Confucian punishment as a suitable for correction of the hopeless wicked.

Hence, the initial essential step in any prosecution process is the effort to get from the accused a confession, which strengthens and forms the basis of decision-making process of the court. The attitudes and the character of the lawbreakers or delinquents in any trails process neither considered unnecessary nor unrecognized for the verdicts and will similarly be supported by the contemporary Criminal Law acts under Article 72 to 80, which stipulates that a sentence or any kind of punishment may be suspended or lessen depending on the prevailing situations or circumstances.

For example, in Article 78, a criminal figure during the time of punishment , may have his or her sentence lessen if he honestly and earnestly recognize and follow to the latter prison regulations, admit reforms via education among other measures and conditions of the prison. Some practices of imbalances that exist in the modern law system in China, such as the need to search for approval from a highly classed authority prior to investigating and prosecuting high-placed official in the society may be attributed to Confucian concept which in this case, represented traditional concept of legal system.

According to some Party rules and regulations, Highly-classed party officials are mainly disciplined in person. There are some rules and regulations precisely and exclusively designed for Party officials, for instance, the aforementioned parallel investigation process autonomous upon the Criminal Procedure Law. In practice, the inquiry of criminal activity involving this clique of people is clandestinely carried out at particular place and time by separate Party members or special personnel.

Based on the investigation, if any of these officials found guilty or the situation of the Crime have spread in the public, then the highly rank CCP officials may opt to take his or her name forward and recommend the victim for prosecution through Prosecuting organs[9]. The most recent and conspicuous case of this scenario is the bribery case of Cheng Kejie, who was the former governor of Guangxi Zhuang, a minority and independent Region.

Similarly, we can also find, from the Organic Law of the Local People’s, which stipulates that “no deputy to any local people’s Congress at or above the county rank may be detained or arrested or placed in a criminal lawsuit prior to the consultation and consent of the presidium of the people’s congress or when the people’s congress in not in session, without the consent of its standing committee. ” This traditional legal concept is not established on democracy but on totalitarianism. The rulers were crowned as sons-of-heaven that cannot be affronted that is based on clause 3.

13 of the old or traditional legal constitution. It goes ahead in chapter 16. 8 where it directs that gentle men should leave in fear and hence, had the supreme authority of punishment[10]. Presently, the ideology of supremacy of law and the penal codes are still not completely accepted by the government officials. Some researchers and law analysis postulates that the Chinese legislation is applied to enhance present party policy and subject to further legal reflections. It is therefore obvious that the law has to a significant level boosted to the center stage of the society.

However, this elevation does not ensure the sovereignty of law in the society. Party policies and principles, and governmental authorities are still often rendering law a secondary power in the society. For example, even though the present China courts are institutionally autonomous and are not in any way interfered by the government of the day, they are scarcely structurally immune from the influence of the government, since most judges are also Party officials and members and so have to follow the direction of the senior officials who are normally highly-ranked government officials.

One of the most striking situations is that the sovereignty of the Party and rule of law has a tenacious impact on both officials and the common man in the society. Nonetheless, Chinese leader and officials in recent past, called for the their government to govern the country based on the rule of law, which stipulates that the Party and the government officials should be put before the law as nobody in the country is immune to the law and penal codes of the country. Legalism The second philosophy that defines one of the traditional legal systems of the people of China is the concept of legalism.

According to legalism concept, rewards and punishments were all meant to sustain order and harmony within the Chinese society. In fact, the legalist postulates that man was essentially wicked and selfish and needed a draconian collection of laws that would him convenient to control and to avoid or evade social disruption. The legalist philosophy encourages the destroying the feudal privileges, strict responsibility for any amoral actions and the standardization of the individual responsibilities in a way whereby everyone is subjected equally to the similar standard[11].

They further underpinned that the set standards are universal and everybody within the society are subjected to it, regardless of the persons’ status in the society. In fact they ensured that these standards do not favor the noble members of the society over the common or meek members. The legalist also saw the law as a way to protect institutional sustenance by way of a strict, coherent and public penal code. The legalist argues that an emperor or any ruler could not rule effectively and efficiently devoid of set of laws.

Their doctrine was inclined to law enforcement with a view of strengthening the state over the governing of family or clan. Group duties and responsibilities were directed within the family or among the simple units of the families and everybody was under a privilege to report crime of be subjected to communal penalty. The continual threat to severe punishment resulted to the Chinese distrust and negative attitudes to all forms of government[12]. With regards to the present legal structure of the republic of China, the concept of legalism has donated some of its significant concepts to the advancement of the current China legal system.

Given that legalist emboldens application of law as a means of directing and governing China Citizenry, these laws with similar intentions albeit written in chapters and articles are presently used to govern the Chinese. Breaking of these laws comes with a consequence just like the ancient legalist who postulates that every person must be accountable for his or her amoral behavior and to emphasize on this, this philosophy believed in severe punishment regardless of the criminal’s social status or rank.

This hence, helps one to comprehend the implication, the origin and the consequences of the written contemporary rules meant to govern the people of china. Unlike the Confucian view that underpins the need of conciliation between the offender and the offended, implying that instead punishing the crook in the society, there are conciliators within the societies who help to make sure that the conflict between the two parties are amicably solved[13]. Conclusion The legalism and Confucian concepts have contributed highly to advancement and transformation of the Asian countries’ contemporary legal system, particularly China.

Basing its foundation on the concept of Confucian and Legalism, modern Chinese law systems have been advancing rapidly in the last three decades. In essence Legalism and Confucianism, each has contributed significantly for the structuring and developing the China legal system up to its both classical and contemporary state[14]. Confucianism, in contrary to Legalism, upholds that the verdict class is directed by the societal virtue but not law. While on the other hand, Legalism fosters suppression of the dissent. However, both ancient legal systems sough to ensure the reuniting of then split China, although they took dissimilar approaches.

Acknowledgement of these philosophies and scholarly hypotheses provides any scholar or outsider a comprehensive understanding of how legal system of the people of China are viewed by its citizenry particularly with regards to its roles and how these postulations contributed to the current status of the contemporary system[15]. Bibliography Bellows, T. J. (2003). The Republic of China Legislative Yuan: a study of institutional evolution. Baltimore, Md. : School of Law, University of Maryland. Black, E. A. , & Bell, G. F. (2011). Law and legal institutions of Asia: traditions, adaptations and innovations.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chai, M. , & Chai, W. (2007). China A to Z: everything you need to know to understand Chinese customs and culture. New York: Plume. Dikotter, F. (2002). Crime, punishment, and the prison in modern China. New York: Columbia University Press. Ebrey, P. B. (2010). The Cambridge illustrated history of China (2nd ed. ). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Goh, B. C. (2002). Law without lawyers, justice without courts: on traditional Chinese mediation. Aldershot, Hampshire, England: Ashgate. Hoobler, T. , & Hoobler, D. (1993). Confucianism.

New York: Facts on File. Jia, M. (2011). Legal aid and the rule of law in the People’s Republic of China. Baltimore, Md. : University of Maryland School of Law. Kidane, W. (2012). China-Africa dispute settlement: the law, economics and culture of arbitration. Alphen aan den Rijn, The Netherlands: Kluwer Law International ;. Kissinger, H. , & Kissinger, H. (2011). On China. New York: Penguin Press. Krieger, S. , & Trauzettel, R. (1991). Confucianism and the modernization of China. Mainz: V. Hase & Koehler Verlag. Kuhn, D. (2009). The age of Confucian rule: the Song transformation of China.

Cambridge, Mass. : Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Liu, Y. (1998). Origins of Chinese law: penal and administrative law in its early development. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press. Peerenboom, R. P. (2002). China’s long march toward rule of law. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Poon, K. (2008). The political future of Hong Kong: democracy within communist China. London: Routledge. Pierre L. & Roderick M. , 2003. Comparative Legal Studies: Traditions and Transitions, CambridgeUniversity Press Spence, J. D. (1990). The search for modern China. New York: Norton.

Tay, A. E. , Mach, G. , & Ziegert, K. A. (2004). Law and legal culture in comparative perspective. Stuttgart [Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag. Weber, M. (1951). The religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism. Glencoe, Ill. : Free Press Woo, M. Y. , & Gallagher, M. E. (2011). Chinese justice: civil dispute resolution in contemporary China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press ———————– [1] Bellows, T. J. (2003). The Republic of China Legislative Yuan: a study of institutional evolution. Baltimore, Md. : School of Law, University of Maryland. [2] Kuhn, D. (2009).

The age of Confucian rule: the Song transformation of China. Cambridge, Mass. : Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. [3] Weber, M. (1951). The religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism. Glencoe, Ill. : Free Press [4] Tay, A. E. , Mach, G. , & Ziegert, K. A. (2004). Law and legal culture in comparative perspective. Stuttgart [Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag. [5] Little, S. , & Eichman, S. (2000). Taoism and the arts of China. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago Slavicek, L. C. (2002). Confucianism. San Diego, Calif. : Lucent Books. [6] Tay, A. E. , Mach, G. , & Ziegert, K. A.

(2004). Law and legal culture in comparative perspective. Stuttgart [Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag. [7] Peerenboom, R. P. (2002). China’s long march toward rule of law. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. [8] Spence, J. D. (1990). The search for modern China. New York: Norton. [9] Kissinger, H. , & Kissinger, H. (2011). On China. New York: Penguin Press. [10] Goh, B. C. (2002). Law without lawyers, justice without courts: on traditional Chinese mediation. Aldershot, Hampshire, England: Ashgate. [11] Ebrey, P. B. (2010). The Cambridge illustrated history of China (2nd ed. ).

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [12] Jia, M. (2011). Legal aid and the rule of law in the People’s Republic of China. Baltimore, Md. : University of Maryland School of Law. [13] Goh, B. C. (2002). Law without lawyers, justice without courts: on traditional Chinese mediation. Aldershot, Hampshire, England: Ashgate. [14] Poon, K. (2008). The political future of Hong Kong: democracy within communist China. London: Routledge. [15] Bellows, T. J. (2003). The Republic of China Legislative Yuan: a study of institutional evolution. Baltimore, Md. : School of Law, University of Maryland.

Examples of Students Essays

Management and Employee Motivation Essay Example

Management and Employee Motivation Essay


Management and Employee Motivation

More Essay Examples on Management Rubric

Management comprises directing and controlling a specific group of people that has a certain mission and vision for the betterment of the company – Management and Employee Motivation Essay introduction. It is crucial for a company to be managed objectively using “Management By Objectives” or MBO. It is for the purpose of coordinating and harmonizing them towards accomplishing a goal. Management often encompasses the logistic deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources. Management can  refer to the person or people who perform the acts of management as well (Richard Barrett,Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People, 2003). Management has to do with power by position, whereas leadership involves power through influence. For-profit work, management has as its primary function the satisfaction of a range of stockholders. This usually involves making a profit (for the shareholders), creating valued products at a reasonable cost (for customers), and providing rewarding employment opportunities (for employees) (Richard Barrett,Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People, 2003) . In non-profit management, add the importance of keeping the faith of donors. In most models of management/governance, shareholders vote for the board of directors, and the board then hires senior management. Some organizations have experimented with other methods (such as employee-voting models) of selecting or reviewing managers; but this occurs only very rarely. In the public sector of countries constituted as representative democracies, voters elect politicians to public office. Such politicians hire many managers and administrators, and in some countries like the United States political appointees lose their jobs on the election of a new president/governor/mayor. Some 2500 people serve at the pleasure of the United States Chief Executive, including all of the top US government executives (Richard Barrett,Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People, 2003) .Public, private, and voluntary sectors place different demands on managers, but all must retain the faith of those who select them (if they wish to retain their jobs), retain the faith of those people that fund the organization, and retain the faith of those who work for the organization. Whenever they fail to entice or compel employees of the advantages of staying rather than leaving, they may tip the organization into a downward spiral of hiring, training, firing, and recruiting. Management also has the task of innovating and of improving the functioning of organizations. Headhunters for other companies are on the hunt for competent employees as well. Headhunting is one of the villains in MBO (Management By Objectives) The basic of elements of management plays a crucial part for the company to achieve its goals. Each element is essential for management integration. Planning is deciding what needs to happen in the future (today, next week, next month, next year, over the next five years, etc.) and generating plans for action. Organizing is making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful carrying out of plans. Leading/Motivating is exhibiting skills in these areas for getting others to play an effective part in achieving plans. Controlling is monitoring and checking progress against plans, which may need modification based on feedback (Richard Barrett,Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People, 2003). The formation of various business policies is a must as well. Each company has its own standards whenever it comes to their rules and regulations, as well as their standard ordered procedures. The mission of the business is its most adamant and sole purpose.. The objective of the business refers to the ends or activity at which a certain task is aimed.  The business’s policy is a guide that stipulates rules, regulations and objectives, and may be used in the managers’ decision-making. It must be flexible and easily interpreted and understood by all employees. The business’s strategy refers to the plan of action that it is going to perform, as well as the resources that it will be utilized in order to achieve its mission and objectives. It is a guideline to managers, stipulating how they ought to use best the factors of production to the business’s advantage and for the betterment of the company as well. Initially, it could help the managers decide on what type of business they want to form. There are various levels of management as well. Top-level management are top-level managers require an extensive knowledge of management roles and skills. They have to be very aware of external factors such as markets. Their decisions are generally of a long-term nature. They are responsible for strategic decisions. They must come up with the plan and see that plan may be effective in future. Middle management are mid-level managers have a specialized understanding of specific managerial tasks. They are held for and carrying out the decisions made by top-level management. They are the ones responsible for tactical decisions. Lower management ensures that the decisions and plans taken by the other two are carried out. They are like quality assurance mangers. Lower-level managers’ decisions are generally short-term ones (Richard Barrett,Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People, 2003).  These level managers are complemented by the company policies for them to perform tasks in an objective manner. It serves as a guideline for managers which they can benefit and learn from. They give mid-level and lower-level managers a good idea of the future plans for each department. An apt framework is created wherein plans and decisions are made. Mid- level and lower-level management may add their own plans to the business’s strategic ones. Senior management is generally a team of individuals at the highest level of organizational management who have the day-to-day responsibilities of managing a corporation. There are most often higher levels of responsibility, such as a board of directors and those who own the company (shareholders), but they focus on managing the senior management instead of the day-to-day activities of the business. They are sometimes referred to, within corporations, as top management, upper management, or simply seniors. Middle management is a layer of management in an organization whose primary job responsibility is to monitor activities of subordinates and to generate reports for upper management. In pre-computer times, middle management would collect information from junior management and reassemble it for senior management. With the dawn of inexpensive PCs this function has been taken over by e-business systems. During the 1980s and 1990s thousands of middle managers were made redundant  for this reason. Lower management  A Supervisor is responsible for the productivity and actions of a small group of employees (Richard Barrett,Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People, 2003). The Lower-level manager or supervisor has several managerial functions like roles, responsibilities, and powers. Two of the key differences between a supervisor and a manager are: first, the supervisor does not typically have “hire and fire” authority. Second, the supervisor does not have budget authority. Towards the end of the 20th century, business management came to consist of six separate division. Each has a specific function which is integrated for the company to reached its goals in an efficient way. These divisions are: Human resource management , Operations management, Production management, Strategic management,Marketing management, Financial management, Information technology management responsible for management information systems (MIS).

Employee Motivation

Management matters doesn’t only concern external matters that the company encounters everyday. The company ensures that its employees are motivated for their job. Arguably, an employee’s behavior is commensurate to his job, this means it an employee’s behavior is reflected on how he is contented with his job and its benefits he gets from it. With this in mind, each company has its own standard incentive program. Incentive programs are focused on employees for them to stay with the company and for them to feel secured with their jobs. This motivates them to perform their jobs more than the satisfactory level that a manager expects from a subordinate. All the factors that affect behavior must be recognized, including: motivation, skills, recognition, an understanding of the goals, and the ability to measure progress (Richard Barrett,Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People, 2003).




Many companies mistakenly assume that what works for one organization will work well for all organizations. Companies often attempt to create incentive programs without thinking in detail about how each program feature will best suit their targeted audience. Providing pie and ice-cream when employees desire flexible work hours, paid time off, training, or the ability to work from home is an example of a negative incentive. To facilitate the creation of a profitable program, every feature must be tailored to the participants’ interests.

A successful incentive program requires clearly defined rules, suitable rewards, efficient communication strategies, and measurable success metrics. By adapting each element of the program to fit the target audience, companies are better able to engage program participants and enhance the overall program effectiveness. An incentive program represents a substantial investment to most organizations. Receiving a sufficient return on that investment requires the full participation of the program participants. Incentive programs are based upon the concept that effort increases as people perceive themselves progressing towards their goal. In “The Art of Motivation: An Incentive Industry Primer,” the Incentive Marketing Association ties incentive programs to the psychological equation: Ability x Motivation = Performance (The Art of Motivation: An Incentive Industry Primer). In order to properly motivate, programs must be designed to offer a variation of products and services to program participants based on their unique interests and diverse needs. Successful programs need to carefully develop their reward methods to keep participants eager to approach a new goal once they have achieved a reward. In order to create an effective program, organizations must keep the overall objective in mind when considering program design and implementation.

Objectives should be formed based on the organizations overall goals and should be straightforward and specific so participants clearly understand the expectations. Program objectives can vary depending on the needs of each individual organization. They should be challenging, yet achievable. If objectives are viewed as unattainable, the program will be destined for failure. Objectives may include motivating employees, recognizing performance, persuading customers to make a purchase, or even reinforcing a marketing message.

Once the program goals have been determined, every aspect of the program must be measured against this goal in order to ensure the programs success in goal achievement. Whenever successful, objectives should provide measurable outputs allowing the organization to monitor performance and measure the overall success of the program. There are specific types of incentive programs like: points program, employee, consumer, dealer, and sales. For employees to be motivated such incentives like cash incentives, non-cash incentives, and non-monetary rewards as well. Managers need to understand how company employees see them in order to manage the impression they make, not just their intentions. Whenever a business wants its people to make a lot of money for them, then it should set high standards and give employees something they can be excited about and making them secured with their jobs as well.  The average workplace is about midway between the extremes of high threat and high opportunity. Motivation by threat is a dead-end strategy, and naturally staff are more attracted to the opportunity side of the motivation curve than the threat side. At lower levels of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, such as Physiological needs, money is a motivator, however it tends to have a motivating effect on staff that lasts only for a short period (in accordance with Herzberg’s two-factor model of motivation). At higher levels of the hierarchy, praise, respect, recognition, empowerment and a sense of belonging are far more powerful motivators than money, as both Abraham Maslow’s theory of motivation and Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and theory Y (pertaining to the theory of leadership) demonstrate (Geen, R.G, Human motivation: A social psychological approach, 1995) . Reality checked,  motivated employees always look for better alternatives to perform their jobs. Motivated employees are more quality oriented and prolific because the company gives them additional motivation though incentives that augments their performance. The business is empowered by this mutual relationship of employee and the company. These are based on reality and psychological facts as well. All of these facts are practically based on Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.




Barker, S.  Psychology (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.(2004).

Deci, E. L.  Intrinsic Motivation. New York: Plenum Press. (1975).

Geen, R. G. , Human motivation: A social psychological approach. Belmont, CA: Cole.


Ormond, Jeanne Ellis.  “Educational Psychology: Developing Learners” Fourth Edition.

Merrill Prentice Hall. (2003).

Spevak, P. A., Ph.D. & Karinch. . “Empowering Underachievers” First Edition. New

Horizon Press.(2000)

Bernard, L. C., Mills, M. E., Swenson, L., & Walsh, R. P. . An evolutionary theory of human motivation. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 131, 129-184. Full text, (2005)

Geary, D. C. . The motivation to control and the origin of mind: Exploring the life-mind joint point in the tree of knowledge. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61, 21-46. Full text.(2005)

David McClelland . Human Motivation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Contemporary Educational Psychology/Chapter 6: Student Motivation (motivation in classroom contexts),(1985)

Geen, R., Human Motivation-A Psychological Approach. Wadsworth Publishing. 1994.

Richard Barrett, Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People  Business & Economics,(2003)
















































































































































































































































































Examples of Students Essays

China: Land of Dragons and Emperors Essay Example

China: Land of Dragons and Emperors Essay

Respond to the questions below either as a direct post or by linking a Google Doc or Word Doc – China: Land of Dragons and Emperors Essay introduction. If it’s a Google Doc, make sure it’s in your Humanities folder so that I can see it. 1. The book will talk about six families who rules China for two millennia. How long is two millennia? Two millennia is equal to 2,000 years. 2. Using the Table of Contents, list the six dynasties. Han Dynasty, Tang Dynasty, Song Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty, Ming Dynasty, and Qing Dynasty. 3.

According to Chinese legend, how is the fish related to the dragon? The fist dragon was a fish that swam up to the top of a mountain along the way the fish encountered many difficulties including a locked gate at the top but was successful. After the fish reached the top, it transformed into a dragon. 4. List three reasons that the number nine is important in Chinese culture. Number nine is associated with dragon (the emperor) and the word jiu sounds like the Chinese word for long life. 5.

More Essay Examples on China Rubric

According to the Chinese Zodiac, 2012 is the year of the dragon. What is the animal for 2013 (You may have to look this up online. )? Snake is the Zodiac Sign for 2013. 6. If you had a phone in China, why would you not want the number 1414-4444? The number “four” in Chinese sounds like the word for death and therefore considered to be a bad omen to use this number. 7. List three reasons that the color red is important in China. In China, the color red symbolizes success, happiness, and good luck. 8.

List three reasons that the color yellow is important in China. In China, the color yellow symbolizes the center. Yellow was also the color that was reserved for the emperor and members of the imperial family. 9. Find two pieces of evidences on pages 12–13 that silk was extremely valuable to China over a thousand years ago. Silk was an extremely valuable item because it was very complicated to make. Silk was even used as money and most important and rich people around the world wore clothing made from Chinese silk.

Examples of Students Essays

Compare and Contrast Clayton Paul Alderfer’s Erg Theory of Motivation and Abraham Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Essay Example

Compare and Contrast Clayton Paul Alderfer’s Erg Theory of Motivation and Abraham Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Essay

Needs-based motivation theories are based on the understanding that motivation stems from an individual’s desire to fulfill or achieve a need – Compare and Contrast Clayton Paul Alderfer’s Erg Theory of Motivation and Abraham Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Essay introduction. Human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs, and certain lower needs must be satisfied before higher needs can be satisfied. In general terms, motivation can be defined as the desire to achieve a goal, combined with the energy, determination and opportunity to achieve it. This Wiki explores Abraham H. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory, Clayton P. Alderfer’s Existence Related Growth (ERG) Theory, and the expansion of David McClelland’s Need Theory by Henry A.

Murray. Abraham Maslow Abraham Maslow was born April 1, 1908, the first of seven born to his poorly educated Jewish immigrant parents. Encouraged by his parents to seek academic success, he began studying law at the City College of New York. After transferring briefly to Cornell, Maslow returned to New York before marrying and moving to the University of Wisconsin. While attending UOW he began his work in psychology, studying the behaviors of rhesus monkeys with Harry Harlow. Though the objective was to study attachment behaviors, Maslow noticed the monkeys’ behavior was driven by different sets of needs.

More Essay Examples on Compare Rubric

This was the underlining basis for the beginning of his interest in personal need and motivation. (Boeree, 2006) After earning his Bachelor’s, Master’s, and Ph. D. in psychology, Maslow returned to New York where he began teaching at Brooklyn College. Additionally, he served as the chair of the psychology department at Brandeis University from 1951 to 1969, during which time he became involved with Kurt Goldstein and his theory of self-actualization, which ultimately led to the development of Maslow’s own Hierarchy of Needs theory. (Boeree, C. George, 1998, 2006) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

In 1943, Abraham Maslow developed one of the earliest theories of human motivation, commonly referred to as Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. In his classic article “A Theory of Human Motivation. ” Maslow utilized the term “prepotent” to express the theory that “in the human being who is missing everything in life in an extreme fashion, it is most likely that the major motivation would be the physiological needs rather than any others. ” (Maslow, 1943, p. 5) Whittington and Evans (2005), referring to that same article, stated that Maslow presented a “prepotent hierarchy in which at least five sets of needs compose the framework. (p. 114) The five sets of needs were divided into two categories: basic needs and higher-order needs.

The most basic human needs, represented by food, water, shelter, and safety, are considered essential for human existence. Higher-order needs are those associated with social activities, esteem building, and self-actualization or constant self-improvement. Elaborating further on this theory, Whittington and Evans (2005) stated that “each of these needs operates at all times, although one deficient set dominates the individual at any one time and circumstance. (p. 114) The motivation experienced by humans to fulfill these needs is either derived from internal or external factors. People who experience internal motivation are influenced by factors that cause a sense of accomplishment and pleasure, while externally motivated people are commonly influenced by factors controlled by others, such as money and praise. (Deci & Ryan, 1985) Maslow’s hierarchy is commonly displayed in a pyramid fashion, with the basic needs at the bottom and the higher needs at the top.

The needs were depicted in this way to show the significance of each need on the others, with the most important and broadest category being the physiological needs at the base. (Redmond, 2010) Basic-Order Needs: 1. Physiological Needs are basic needs that are physiologically necessary for one’s survival, such as oxygen, food, shelter, and sleep. These needs must be met before moving to satisfy needs higher in the order. 2. Safety Needs include the desire to feel safe and secure and to ensure that basic physiological needs will remain met.

Examples of this need include shelter or housing, physical ability to defend one’s self, the need to have limits or law (or a conscience), and a regular routine that an individual is comfortable with. Once one’s physiological needs have been met, s/he will move on to the safety needs. Higher-Order Needs: 3. Social Needs include friendship and companionship. One must know that he/she is not alone in the world and be able to communicate feelings and needs with other individuals. 4. Esteem Needs – An individual eventually needs to feel that he/she has a social status.

This goes beyond just having social relationships; the individual must feel that in work or at home he/she is making a contribution. This also includes recognition of achievement from others. 5. Self-actualization Needs – This is the final and highest level of needs. Meeting this need is characterized by continuously focusing on personal growth, problem solving, life appreciation, and peak experiences for oneself. (Huitt, 2004) Maslow’s concept of self-actualization (SA) represents “everything that one is capable of becoming. ” (Value Based Management. et, 2009) And he felt that the capacity for this concept was innate to all human beings. It was not learned through conditioning or earned through rewards. (Hall, 2007) When observing SA, it is important to note that the category does not complete Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Many researchers thought that Maslow believed achieving the SA category would result in the completion of the progression. Researchers found this unattainable because SA is elastic; as one nears their SA, their abilities develop and grow which makes their true potential even greater.

However, O’Connor and Yballe (2007) indicate that Maslow intended his theory to be “an ongoing process that involves dozens of little growth choices that entail risk and require courage. ” (p. 742) Maslow believed that in order for the higher-order needs to be successfully met and not affect basic needs, an individual must first acquire the basic-order needs, referred to as fulfillment progression. (Redmond, 2010) Clayton P. Alderfer Clayton P. Alderfer, born September 1, 1940, earned his B. S. degree in 1962 at Yale University and his Ph. D. in 1966.

Alderfer has contributed greatly to Applied & Professional Psychology though his instruction at Cornell University, Yale University, and Rutgers University. Early in his career, while studying needs in organizations, he formulated the Existence, Relatedness, and Growth (ERG) Theory, for which he is best known. He went on to serve a fourteen-year term as editor of the Journal of Applied & Behavioral Science, and his contributions to the field of organization psychology have been recognized though various awards; namely, the Harry Levinson Award for Excellence and the Janet Helms Award. Rutgers, 2010) Today, Clayton P. Alderfer continues to contribute to organizational psychology through his self-established consulting firm, Alderfer & Associates. (Alderfer, 2010) Alderfer’s ERG Theory Clayton P. Alderfer first presented the ERG Theory of Motivation in 1969 in his article, “An Empirical Test of a New Theory of Human Need. ” The ERG theory attempted to improve upon Maslow’s needs hierarchy by allowing more flexibility of movement between needs.

Alderfer decreased the number of levels and allowed the order of the needs to vary by the individual; he also allowed for different needs to be pursued simultaneously. Needs were separated into three separate categories: 1. Existence Needs: Physiological and safety needs, the most concrete of needs, such as food, shelter, and water. 2. Relatedness Needs: Social relationships and external esteem (e. g. involvement with family, friends, co-workers) 3. Growth Needs: Internal esteem and self-actualization, the most abstract of needs as they do not involve physical aspects. e. g. desire to be creative or productive) While Maslow’s theory was interpreted as portraying that satisfied needs are no longer a motivation (O’Connor & Yballe, 2007), Alderfer’s ERG theory clearly states that all categories of needs can become more important as they are satisfied. Additionally, individuals may place greater emphasis on any single category as opposed to the rigid hierarchy of moving from one need to the next (Alderfer, 1969). The main difference between Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy and Alderfer’s ERG Theory is the order in which needs are met.

Alderfer believed that needs are met simultaneously and in no specific order, while Maslow’s theory states that needs are met one by one and in a specific order (Alleydog, 1998). An example of Alderfer’s ERG Theory is a “starving artist,” who may place greater emphasis on creating art (growth) than on existence needs like food or shelter. (Redmond, 2010) An employee who seeks a promotion or increased responsibilities may be attempting to satisfy all needs by increasing pay (existence), developing a larger social network (relatedness), and increasing self-esteem (growth).

The following illustration depicts Alderfer’s ERG theory. Notice as one progresses from existence needs through relatedness needs to growth needs, s/he experiences satisfaction. However, regression through the needs levels results in frustration. The idea of frustration-regression is explained as reverting to a lower level need when a higher level need is not met. (Redmond, 2010) Along the same lines, Borkowski (2009) theorized that a person “regresses” to lower needs to once again achieve satisfaction. (Redmond 2010, p. ) There are, however, exceptions to frustration-regression. According to Brian Redmond, from the Pennsylvania State University, there are two exceptions to frustration-regression. The first exception is “failure to fulfill existence needs leads to greater existence needs” (Redmond, 2010). An example of the first exception is if one needs to sleep and is unable, s/he will develop a larger, more powerful need for sleep.

The second exception to frustration-regression is “fulfillment of growth needs leads to greater growth needs. (Redmond, 2010) For instance, if one achieves successful completion of an undergraduate degree program, one may then feel the need to attend graduate school in order to obtain more education and expertise. Maslow did realize that not everyone followed his pyramid of needs. While there are many types of people and personalities, introversion and extroversion are common distinctions. Huitt (2004), created the following chart to represent the collaboration of both Maslow’s and Alderfer’s theories, with levels of introversion and extroversion.