Examples of Students Essays

Battle of Castillon – Abstract


The battle of Castillon
— battle on 17 July 1453
between English and French
troops near the town of Castillon-de-Bataille
in Gascony. The battle was the last battle
The hundred years war, and ended in complete
the defeat of the English troops. Along with
this battle was one of the first battles
in European history, in which
artillery played a decisive role.

The background

After the liberation
the French Bordeaux in 1451 Centennial
the war went on the decline. Anyway,
the inhabitants of Bordeaux after almost three hundred years
the dominion of the British considered themselves
English subjects by sending in
The London delegation to king Henry VI
requests to release them from the French.
These actions Gascons also
encouraged by the fact that
the reconquest of Gascony by the French, who had
long-standing economic ties with England,
hurt trade Gascon
merchants. Losing to the requirements of the delegation
the English king sent to France
the three detachment of soldiers under the leadership
renowned military commander John Talbot.
At the approach of the English to Bordeaux citizens
dislodged French garrison out of the city
and opened the gates to the English troops.
Meanwhile, during the winter the French
king Charles VII assembled troops to
the upcoming campaign against the British.
With the onset of spring, the king led
army took to Bordeaux.

The battle

Talbot, meanwhile,
received three thousand reinforcements,
however, his effort was not enough to
the reflection of thousands of French
troops advancing three teams to
Gascogne. When the French advanced
the army laid siege to Castillon, Talbot was
forced to change their plans and act
to help the besieged. French
the commander, Jean Bureau ordered his
troops (7-10 000) to strengthen the camp
surrounding it with a ditch and palisade. The French
had the artillery of 300 guns
which was used actively in the protection of
fortified camp. 17 Jul 1453
the vanguard of the British (1,300 people) in
led by Talbot reached the French
the camp, breaking the path in the forest big
the unit of French Fusiliers-militia.

A few hours
after the first collision Talbot was
informed that the French army began
retreat. However, the citizen notifying
Talbot about the retreat of the French,
misunderstood the value of committed
in the French camp maneuvers: the French
wasn’t planning retreat, and
the camp was left only the civil
persons who were ordered to leave
his view of the upcoming battle.

Hastily reordering
your hand, Talbot led his troops
moved to French camp. To his
surprise, the fortifications were defended thousands
archers and crossbowmen supported
numerous artillery. However,
Talbot dared to storm the camp
turned out to be suicidal. Sam Talbot
do not take a direct part in
the battle: in the past, he being in
French captivity, upon release
gave an undertaking not to fight against

The British, attacking
camp and covered the ditch were met
a hail of arrows and a brutal artillery
the fire of the enemy. Soon English
troops were replenished with soldiers podtyanuvshy
for the battlefield of the reinforcements, however, these
forces was not enough for mastering
camp. An hour after the start of the battle
arrived to the battle squad
Breton cavalry attacked the right
the flank of the British. The British turned
in flight. During the flight under the Talbot
was killed by a horse, and the commander,
crushed by the weight of a dead animal,
had lain on the battlefield for as long as
one of the French militias are not
identified him and not hacked to death.

The French won
a complete victory. Three months later, the French
retook Bordeaux. This event marked the
the end of the hundred years war.


  • Oriflamme, French
    medieval history page — the Battle of Castillon


Battle at Castillon (17
July 1453)


Examples of Students Essays

Battle of Carillon – Abstract

Battle of Carillon
one of the largest battles of the Franco-Indian
held 6-8 July 1758 and
culminating in a decisive victory
French troops under the leadership of
Louis-Joseph de Montcalm.

The background

The government
The UK, concerned about the success
French troops on North American
the continent in 1757 decided
about three large-scale military
operations in Canada. One of these operations
the Champlain valley was led by General
James Abercrombie, a man nevedusia
and deprived of military talents, but
possessing significant relationships in
UK. The aim of the operation was
the capture of the French Fort Carillon
(later called Ticonderoga),
built by the French in 1755
as a base for the siege English
Fort William Henry captured
French troops under the leadership
Montcalm in the same year.

In 1758 the situation
French troops in North America
it was deplorable. Montcalm was convinced
that Britain would send a sufficient
the number of troops in Canada at that time
as France was simply unable
to transport a considerable force on
the continent across the Atlantic ocean,
almost completely controlled
a British fleet.

French military
troops in North America were
about 5,000 regular troops, 6,000 militia
and a number of soldiers from the Union
Indian tribes. British troops
numbered up to 50,000 soldiers. For the operation
against Fort Carillon, the British gathered
big power: under the ruins of the Fort
William-Henry were collected shestnadcatiletnie
army under the leadership of General James
Abercrombie. In addition to the regular parts
approximately 6 thousand people, consisting of
which was a famous Scottish
Hilendarski battalion, army included
also the militia of
Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York,
New Jersey (10 thousand people). In
Montcalm, who arrived in
The Carillon June 30, was 3,500 soldiers,
including militias and soldiers
allied Indian tribes. Stocks
food in the Fort was only on
9 days.

The battle

Plan of the battle of
The Carillon

On 5 July 1758 the British
the army began the crossing of the lake
George on the North shore. Montcalm in
this time he sent the 3rd battalion to occupy
river crossing six miles from the Fort,
he himself, with two battalions took
strategically important height near Fort
and entrenched there, and ordered to build
wooden fortifications. The reserve was
located in Fort, part of the reserve
located in the vicinity of the Fort
behind the fortifications.

British troops
landed on the Northern coast on 6 July.
The advance of the British to the Fort was accompanied by
major battles with the French troops.
At the military Council it was decided
to attack the Fort on July 8, without waiting
approach three thousand French
the detachment of General levy. The battle began
July 8, with minor clashes between the advancing
the British forces remaining in
the vicinity of the Fort the French
groups. British troops under
order glavnokomaduyuschemu lined
in 3 lines and went to a frontal attack on
fortified heights occupied by the French

At 12:30 and were given the signal
to attack. While the British
planned a simultaneous attack on
the whole front of the advancing right column
pulled forward, breaking
the usual order of battle. The French
had undoubted advantages over
British troops, as they could
to bombard the British from an advantageous position
protected by high wooden fortifications.
Those few of the British soldiers who
managed to climb the shaft, was killed
under the blows of the French bayonets. English
the troops were literally mown French
fire. The carnage lasted to the
the evening before the defeat of the British did not
obvious. Abercrombie ordered troops
back to the crossings. Already on 9 July
the remains of the broken English army
reached camp near the ruins of the Fort
William Henry.


Examples of Students Essays

The battle of Issus mosaic – Abstract


Alexandrov mosaic
the most famous ancient mosaic
the image of Alexander the great
in a battle with Persian king Darius III.
Mosaic is composed of about one and a half
million pieces gathered in a picture
according to the technique known as “opus vermiculatum”,
that is, the pieces were going one-to-one
on winding lines.

Detection and safety

The mosaic was discovered
24 Oct 1831, during excavations of
ancient Pompeii in Italy on the floor of one
from the premises of the house of the Faun and moved to
1843, at the national archaeological
Museum of Naples, where it is stored at present
time. First, mosaic was posted
on the floor, both in its original form;
about 1913 the mosaic placed on the wall for
a better overview. On the floor of the house of the Faun in
2005 posted a copy of the mosaic. Dimensions
grandiose paintings are
313×582 cm, but some of the fragments not

Depicted on a mosaic
Royal armor of Alexander the reconstructed
in the Oliver stone movie “Alexander”.
The armor is adorned on the chest with a gorgoneion,
the image of the head of the Gorgon Medusa.
Part of the mosaic, which depicts bodyguards
Alexander of hetairos, not preserved,
and only batisky helmet with hetaira
gilded wreath transmits the external
view of famous ancient riders.
Also damaged the piece with the image
standard Persian troops.


Mosaic depicts
Alexander the great, attacking
the Persian king Darius III at the battle of
ISSE. Alexander without a helmet, in a luxurious
linen armour, on horseback spearing
bodyguard of Darius. Darius himself with
confused face, unarmed, trying
to deploy his chariot. It frozen
the gesture expresses helplessness and despair.
Evidence that on the mosaic
depicts the story of the battle of Issus, not
discovered (in addition to similar descriptions of the battle
from Arrian and Curtius). Perhaps symbolic
the fight is not tied to any specific
battle, but is intended to glorify the exploits of
Alexander’s Asian campaign. Face
Alexander on the mosaic is visible
the resemblance to his famous busts.

The prototype

In terms of iconography
the similarity to mosaic is a relief to
Royal Sidon sarcophagus (IV century
BC), which also depicts
the battle of Alexander with the Persians; probably
both monuments date back to General
the source. Pompeian artwork
a copy of the masters of Alexandria
schools with a picturesque mosaic of ancient Greek
the paintings, executed in a different technique.
The Greek original, apparently, is mentioned
the Roman writer Pliny the Elder
(“Natural history”, 35.110) as work
by order of the Macedonian king Cassander,
made Philoxenos from Eretria,
Greek painter of the late IV century BC
The temporal reference of painting,
made of literature data,
confirmed by the manner of execution
restricted set is used
colors and way of painting, typical
for early time.


  • Kleiner,
    Fred S.
    Gardner”s Art Through the Ages: A Global History. —
    Cengage Learning, 2008. — P. 142. — ISBN 0495115495

  • Bernard
    Andreae: Das Alexandermosaik. Reclam, Stuttgart 1967.

  • Michael
    Pfrommer: Untersuchungen zur Chronologie und Komposition des
    Alexandermosaiks auf Grundlage antiquarischer
    . von Zabern, Mainz
    1998 (Aegyptiaca Treverensia. Trierer Studien zum
    griechisch-römischen Ägypten 8), ISBN 3-8053-2028-0.

  • Klaus
    Stähler: Das Alexandermosaik. Über Machterringung und
    . Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main
    1999, ISBN 3-596-13149-9.

  • Paolo Moreno, La Bataille
    , Skira/Seuil, Paris, 2001.


Examples of Students Essays

The battle of gerberoy is – Abstract


The battle of gerberoy is
(FR. Bataille de Gerberoy, eng. Battle of
) — one of the final battles
stage of the hundred years war, the victory of the French
army over the British, won may 9
1435 in of gerberoy is, Picardie.

The background

By the spring of 1435 Centennial
war broke out with new force.
The English army, still retained
strong position in the North of France,
and in Aquitaine, continued to control
the whole of Normandy and Paris. However, the British
every year all became more difficult
to hold the territory they
owned under the Treaty of Troyes (1420
g). Despite the capture and execution
Joan of Arc in 1431, the advantage in the war
inclined towards the French.

During 1434 the king
Charles VII of France regained control of
a number of important towns to the North of Paris:
Soissons, Senlis, Beauvais. Given the current
the position, strategic value
castle of gerberoy is was the fact that
this Outpost, deep in advanced
enemy territory, could imagine
a certain threat for the British in
Normandy and, besides, covered recently
conquered Beauvais. The French occupied
Of gerberoy is back in 1432, but was not
willing to consolidate it and destroyed
all fortifications to the castle are unable
take advantage of British. However
two years later, the balance of power
changed, and Charles VII appeared the new
plans of gerberoy is: spring
1435 he was ordered to retake the castle and
to rebuild the fortifications.

This mission was entrusted to
unit, the exact number of soldiers in
which is not known. However, according to the
the narrative of the Canon of Jean Pillet (Jean
Pillet), historiographer of gerberoy is, it
the number was somewhere between 600 and 1800
people. Commanded a detachment of the old
colleagues of Joan of Arc – captains Etienne
de Vignoles (La hire) and drown it de Central,
who came from Beauvais and immediately
upon arrival, the night began to recover
the destroyed building.

At this time in the city
Gournay (now Gournay-EN-Bray, Department
Seine-Maritime), a dozen kilometres
southwest of gerberoy is, in full combat
readiness was the British squad
under the command of the Earl of Arundel Mall. This
the squad was kitted out for an expedition in
town Ryu (now Department of Somme),
also recently captured by the French.
However, the fortress of gerberoy is was potentially
much more important and the expulsion from there
the French made a priority
task. The rumors about the strengthening of the old
castle quickly reached Gournay.

Underestimating the number
French forces and trying to capture
town before he will be fine
fortified, Arundel immediately, the night of
8 on may 9, 1435, hastened to gerberoy is. It
the army consisted of, obviously, about
3000 people (not only British, but also
the local Norman nobles) and much
the French were superior in numbers.
Arundel mistake was that he believed
the French will either defend
or recede. The British did not expect
that they themselves can be attacked.


Early on the morning of may 9
Arundel went to gerberoy is headed
a small avant-garde. Deciding to wait
approach of their main force, the British
began to dig in the nearby ravine
(later named Arundel,
FR. le Val d Arondel).

Thanks to the ruling
the castle’s location on the ground, the French
quickly realized that before them only
weak numerically small vanguard. Knowing
that to defend the unfortified castle
pointless, they decided to fight in
open field and caught the British
by surprise.

Cavalry La Gira
out of the city and beating a squad of Arundel,
attacked the main forces of the British
the road Gournay-gerberoy is. Last
was absolutely not ready for combat and
went Hiking March, because were sure,
that Arundel has blocked the exits
castle. Despite the considerable numerical
advantage, the British failed
to provide organized resistance
and was put to flight. The French
chased them to the outskirts of Gournay.

At the same time, the balance
garrison of gerberoy is headed by Centrale
fought with a detachment of Arundel. Isolated
and have not received reinforcements the British
fiercely defended (using
fence and stakes). The Earl of Arundel was
seriously wounded in the leg by a shot from

When the riders of La güira
returned from his victorious
RAID, the position of the British was not
hopeless. Arundel was captured, where
soon died of his wounds. English
the losses were considerable (several
hundreds of people killed and captured, though
exact figures are unknown). The French
lost only about twenty men.

The consequences

The troops of Charles VII kept
control of gerberoy is, but in Picardy
still was restless. The city once again
was conquered by the British in October 1437
G. and finally returned to France
only in 1449, Only after the battle of
Formigny in 1450 when the English were
forever banished from Normandy, the terrain
ceased to be a border zone.

The battle of gerberoy is,
without being, of course, one of the decisive
clashes of the hundred years war, the
less clearly reflects the trends in its
the final stage. It was the first
significant event after the victories of Joan
d’arc and is a continuation
French success 1429-1430 years.
There is no doubt that the victory at of gerberoy is
improved the status of French and
contributed to the capture of Paris in
next, 1436.

Primary sources

  • The chronicles of Enguerrand de
    Monstrelet. Chapter CLXXII: La Hire, Poton, Philip de la Tour, and
    the Lord de Fontaines defeat the earl of Arundel before the castle
    of Gerberoy. P. 637-638


Examples of Students Essays

The battle of Dubrynichi – Abstract


The battle of Dubrynichi
the battle that took place on 21 January 1605
years between the army of false Dmitri I and Tsar
troops under the command of Prince
F. I. Mstislavsky near the village of Dubrynichi.
The battle resulted in complete defeat
False Dmitriy I, who lost in the battle
a significant part of his army.

The background

Within the developing
civil war troops of the pretender
Falsdmitry steadily moved to
Moscow, without a fight, occupying towns and villages.
The troops of the false Dmitry continued to grow. 18
Dec the army of the pretender had won
precedence over the Royal forces of Prince F. I.
Mstislav in the battle of
Novgorod-Seversky. False Dmitriy left
part mercenaries, dissatisfied with the delay
salary. The mercenaries mutinied and
looted wagons. The humiliation of the pretender,
before the knights fell to his knees and
begging not to leave the army, did not give
no result. However,
the Jesuits persuaded the soldiers to stay
with the False Dmitri. Departing from Novgorod-Seversk,
False Dmitry led an army to Sevsk. In Sevsk
he joined the army of the people and reserves
food. The pretender, in addition to
Polish units had 4000 Zaporizhia
Cossacks and a few hundred don
Cossacks. Towards the impostor made
the government troops under
the command of Prince I. F. Mstislavsky.
To help Mstislavsky the king sent
boyar Prince Vasily Shuisky. Moscow
troops expected the enemy at the village

The preceding events. Cooking
the battle

On the morning of 10 January, the squad
Moscow riders numbering 4000
people left the camp in search of
forage and ambushed Polish
cavalry. The swiftness of the attack
the poles led the Russian riders
confusion, and the party soon turned
to flight, losing about 500 people.
Thanks to this event the Russian
command learned about the close location
pretender’s forces. Meanwhile
returning from Putivl false Dmitry
decided to give battle to the Royal troops. Troops
the impostor began three miles from the Russian
the camp at Dobrinic. While the Polish
commanders persuaded false
to enter into negotiations with Mstislavsky,
Cossack chieftains insisted on an immediate

The tide of battle

The Army Of False Dmitri
moved on the night of 21 January, which was
a surprise for the king’s troops, well
knowledgeable about the plans of the enemy.
Local farmers carried the army
the pretender to Dobrynin. Russian troops
began to prepare for defense. The battle
took place on 21 January. Using the experience
received in the battle of Novgorod-Seversky,
the poles decided to deliver the main blow of the whole
a mass of cavalry on the right flank of the Russians.
Polish cavalry, divided into groups
for 2000 people each hit on
the vanguard of the Russian troops, aiming to reach
the flanks of Russian and enter them in the rear. After
these three units joined the fight
many small groups of the Polish
cavalry. The vanguard, led
Ivan Ivanovich Godunov was crushed.
The regiment of the right hand, led
Shuysky, retreated. Polish cavalry
turned to the village where the center of the Russian
positions were infantry.

Located in
center archers (about 6000 people) built
the trenches of the sledge and lay down in built
the fortifications. The archers lined up in 4
line. When approaching the enemy
numerous field artillery
archers (300 guns) fired a volley, and then
opened fire the first two ranks.
Took over in their place, fired a volley for two
the back of the line. The poles were scattered
volley fire archers and turned
in flight, despite the fact that the fire
infantry caused the attacker is minimal
loss. To help wavering poles
rushed the Cossacks, however, the situation
for falsdmitry was critical.
An impostor, who had personally led the cavalry,
among others was forced to flee.
Russian troops counterattacked.
Polish cavalry abandoned the infantry,
which were soon surrounded and defeated.
The whole army of the pretender appealed to
disorderly flight. False Dmitry Himself
barely escaped death. Isaac Massa reports
about 8000 dead on the Polish side and about
6000 — with the Russian. Because of the indecision
the commander of the Russian troops were unable
to build on this success and to prosecute
the broken troops of the false Dmitry. After the flight
the remnants of the army of the Tsar false Dmitry
magistrates were subjected to left by the impostor
region defeat. Captured by
troops of the Royal knights, archers
and the Cossacks were hanged. Together with them
were killed many innocent
women and children.

The battle was
it is noteworthy that Russian troops
first used in this line combat


  • N.
    Chefs “Battle of Russia” — Military history
    library. M., 2002

  • Isaac
    Mass “a Brief news of Muscovy”

  • Skrynnikov R. G.
    “Boris Godunov” — M., publishing house
    “AST”, 2003 ISBN 5-17-010892-3


Examples of Students Essays

The battle of Golymin – Abstract


when Golymin. The situation at 2pm

The battle of Golymin.
The situation at 5 p.m.

The situation before the battle

A detachment of the Prince
Golitsyn (3 regiments and 18 guns), under orders
chief of the Russian army in
Poland, field Marshal Kamensky was
sent to G. Clubowe as the reserve corps
L. L. Bennigsen. There the squad joined
3 regiment. At the same time, Golitsyn
found that coming to the city
the advancing French troops, and
at the same time on both sides. He did not
was left with no other choice but to retreat.
The sudden thaw and rain
turned the road into a swamp. Because of this
in the end the Russian had to quit
part of his artillery. By the morning of December 14
they arrived in Golymin where they were expected
General Dokhturov with 2 shelves..[2]

At this time, the city
moved three corps of the Grand Army
under the command of augereau, Davout and Soult
and the cavalry of Murat. Napoleon planned
to capture the city and then to strike at
the rear of the main forces of the Russian army. Dirt
slowed the advance of the French, so
in battle they take turns.
First the city came out of augereau.

The balance of power

In order Golitsyn
there were 15 infantry battalions and 20 squadrons
cavalry. Dokhturov had 3 infantry
battalions and 1 cavalry regiment. During
fight a Russian came up 2 cavalry
regiment and a small detachment of infantry . Just
16 000 – 18 000 people. The French had a much
more. Cavalry – 5600 cavalry. Case
Davout and augereau – 30 600 infantry and 2000 cavalry.
A total of 38 200 people.[3]

The tide of battle

First, a fight broke out
in the forest where the French are coming
faced with the Kostroma infantry
the regiment, which was timely vidyut
there commander. In a bitter fight
the enemy failed to dislodge
Russian forests. Later, augereau part
forces bypassed the forest and, caught in the open
space, was subjected to merciless
fire of the Russian artillery. The French
tried a brave attack of cavalry
to grab the gun,but the counter-attack one
cuirassier and one Dragoon regiment
was successfully discarded.

Augereau, required
any cost to capture artillery
Russian, as it is for its strong fire
did not allow his body
to turn on the plain for a decisive
strike. Went on the attack the 1st infantry division.
At the same time the French came case
Davout. Squad Golitsyn threatened to bypass
the flanks and the environment. The purpose of the commander
in the current situation began to wait
darkness to quietly retreat
before the superior forces of the enemy.

15-00 suddenly
the Russian approached reinforcements –
units of count Pahlen and Chaplits. Immediately
throwing them into battle, Golitsyn was able to restrain
the onslaught of the French until nightfall.
By this time on the battlefield has arrived
Napoleon with the corps of Soult. The French,
now under the command of the Emperor,
the Russians attacked on 3 sides, ill
melee broke out on the streets
Golymin. But, despite all efforts
to prevent a successful retreat of the Golitsyn
the enemy never succeeded.


  1. Loraine
    Petre “Napoleon’s compaing’in Poland 1806-1807”, 1901,
    p. 79. Laurent Peter defines the loss
    Russian 553 people killed and wounded
    and 203 prisoners

  2. Mikhailovsky-Danilevsky
    “History of the second war Alexander 1
    with Napoleon”, 1846, p. 113-118

  3. Loraine Petre, 1901, p.


  1. Mikhailovsky-Danilevsky
    Description of the second war of the Emperor
    Alexander 1 and Napoleon. Saint Petersburg.,
    1846, p. 116-122.

  2. Loraine Petre, Napoleon’s
    Campaign In Poland 1806-1807, 1901, p. 105-113


Examples of Students Essays

Analyzing World Cultures

The media plays a significant role in educating people about their own culture and other diverse cultural elements that exist in the world today. This is mainly exhibited through entertainment including music and movies. Such entertainment makes it easier to highlight key differences that exist between one’s culture and other cultures.

In attempting to understand a world culture I was not familiar with, I watched two Indian films to shed more light about the Indian culture. These are Slumdog Millionaire and the 3 Idiots which enabled me to learn a lot about the Indian culture.

Slumdog Millionaire is the story of an Indian boy who makes it to the finals of a contest titled’ who wants to be a Millionaire’. Jamal Malik who was raised by his mother as a Muslim is able to answer the questions in the contest through experiences he was able to acquire from his childhood. Having being raised in a slum, Jamal and his brother Salim were hardened by the life in the slum to the extent of witnessing the death of their mother during riots in Bombay against Muslims. The movie draws out one’s emotions particularly witnessing the life that the brothers led after the death of their mother. They became street smart and carried out diverse trading activities to make a living for themselves (Boyle, 2008).

The one element that stood out about the Indian culture from the movie is the fact that women were viewed as inferiors in their society. The movie depicts the role of a woman as either a nurturer of the home or as one used to satisfy the needs of the man as evidenced by the role played by Latika in the movie. Men were given superior roles showing domination over the woman with the woman having to satisfy the man’s desires and requests so as to achieve a better life.

The second film that I watched was 3 Idiots which mainly describes the life of three friends as they move through college to a successful life. The three friends maintain their friendship amidst opposition even from their parents with the belief that they were not good company for one another. The movie brings out the competitive nature amidst old school mates who later on go on different paths to pursue their dreams. Two of the friends, Raju and Farhan, strive to find Rancho with the main aim of reuniting him to his true love Pia. The movie which is filled with humor ends with the unification of the three friends with Rancho finally being reunited with Pia who eventually get married Irani, Joshi, Kapoor, Khan & Madhavan, 2009).

The one cultural element that stood out from this film is the family life in the Indian culture. Significant value is placed on extended families seen by their usual stay together (Surbhi, 2016). Additionally, the concept of planned marriages is evidenced by the fact that Pia was to be wedded off to a man that she did not actually want. When Rancho and his friends attempt to discredit Pia’s future husband, they face a lot of opposition from Professor Viru, Pia’s father, who would not want to risk the embarrassment of having an unsuccessful wedding arrangement.

From both films, the main similarities shared between the Indian culture and the Italian culture is the value placed on both religion and family life. Indians however have diverse religions including Islam, Buddhism and Hinduism. Both movies depict people who have a deep respect for a supreme being be it Islam as the main religion shown in Slumdog Millionaire or Hinduism as shown in 3 Idiots. The value on family life is also seen from both movies through wedding ceremonies and funerals where by the extended family support the concerned party. These are values shared by the Italian culture as well. This can also be exemplified by the fact that in both cultures, family businesses are quite common (Rao, 2016).

Some of the key differences between the Indian culture and the Indian culture include the fact that Indian girls are exposed to planned marriages. This is not the case in the Italian culture where by one is allowed to love and marry the person they choose. Another difference between the two cultures is the fact that Italians allow the women to have a role in developing the economy. Women are allowed to seek career opportunities and even contribute to the financial growth in the family level. This is different amongst the Indian culture where the women are mainly charged with taking care of the family (Rao, 2016). Most of the people following the Indian culture view cattle as being sacred and so they do not venture into using animal products such as leather. Italians on the other hand do not place such high value on cattle and use leather to make most of their designer products including shoes and bags.

Having seen the ways and mannerisms of this culture, I would like to visit and live in this culture. I would experience culture shock when immersed in this culture since there is quite a lot to learn from the different ways of living led by Indians who are made up of Muslims, Buddhists and Hindus.



Boyle, D. (Director). (2008). Slumdog Millionaire [Video file]. India. Retrieved February 27, 2017.

Irani, B., Joshi, S., Kapoor, K., Khan, A., & Madhavan, R. (Writers). (2009). San ge sha gua = 3 idiots [Video file].

Rao, S. (2016, June 06). Top 12 Major Differences between Indian and Western Culture. Retrieved February 27, 2017, from https://listsurge.com/top-12-major-differences-indian-western-culture/

Surbhi, S. (2016, July 15). Difference Between Indian Culture and Western Culture (with Comparison Chart). Retrieved February 27, 2017, from http://keydifferences.com/difference-between-indian-culture-and-western-culture.htm

Examples of Students Essays

The battle of Golovchin – Abstract


The battle of Golovchin —
a battle between Russian and Swedish
troops on 2 (14) July 1708
year[1] during the Northern war.

On the eve of the battle

After signing
agreement with the Commonwealth, Charles XII
was going to smash the main enemy
on the war — Russia. The best route to
Central Russia was through continental
dividing range from Grodno to Minsk
and Smolensk. From here it was possible to achieve
Moscow without crossing major rivers.
Carl chose a more difficult route
the path on the straight line along the Berezina and Drut. Army
was moved from its winter camp in
Radoshkovichi in June 1708; movement
was complicated by poor road and weather
conditions. This unexpected path selection
Charles XII made the Russians seriously
think about the intentions of the Swedes. In addition
in the Russian camp without the knowledge of Peter
Great was the intense rivalry
between field Marshal Sheremetev and
his serene Highness Prince Menshikov. After
the military Council decided to extend
defensive line the Russians on the Dnieper. In
June-beginning of July of 1708 the army was
strapped to Babich, marshy tributary
the river Drut. Main forces located
around the village of Vasilki, East
Golovchino. Bridges across Babich was
fortified and well defended by artillery.
South based army General
Repnin, unfolded in 3 kilometers
to the South-East. Between the two fortifications
Russian was located in a marshy place,
that it was impossible to defend. Starting
since June 30, the Swedish army began to take
positions to the West of Golovchino, lying
a bivouac. The Swedes watched all
the movements of the Russian. Carl and his
advisors noticed that between the camps
Russian space developed
a plan of attack. It became clear that the movement
on unfortified and non-securable marsh
terrain impossible to see and Russian
will not suspect that the Swedes will go on
swamp. However, the Swedes had planned
split the Russians into two camps and
to destroy alone. To ensure
the success of the attack it was decided to start the night.

The battle

In the night from 3 to 4 July
the Swedes in the rain and fog began promoting
on the pontoons through the swamp toward the camp
Russian. After passing the swamp, the Swedish regiments,
to the complete surprise of the Russian troops,
attacked a detachment of General Repnin. Repnin
tried to organize the defense, but his
soldiers, first shot all the ammo
began to retreat in panic to the woods, and then
altogether ceased to obey the commands
General. Soon his army retreated
completely, leaving the cannon. As the battle
was in a swampy place, the Swedes are not rushed
pursue fleeing the swamp much
hampered movement.

Soon, the battle joined
the cavalry of Karl XII headed. Against her
made regiment of General Goltz.[1]
Despite the zeal of the soldiers of the Charr, it
the unit soon began to retreat. In
the battle almost killed Karl XII: his horse
stuck in a swamp, and the Swedes hardly pulled out
the sinking of the king. Russian soldiers
despite the flight of their companions,
continued to fight against the superior
their number of soldiers of the enemy army.
However, soon the Swedes made
even the most zealous Russian retreat,
leaving the battlefield.

The consequences of the battle

The Swedes won, yet
not knowing what Golovkin will be their last
a major victory in this war. Division
Russian octupole to the Dnieper, and soon to the river
came the Swedes. July 7, Charles XII took Mogilev.
A Council of war, held in the city
Shklov decided to take
Russian army to the city of Gorki. Soon
Russian troops arrived the king personally
Peter I, understanding the causes of
the defeat at Golovchino, demoted
General Repnin’s soldiers “for dishonest
care of the enemy” (restored
the rank of General after the Battle of Lesnaya.
Russian soldiers wounded in the back, accused
in the escape and executed. However, the failure
Golovkina allowed the Russian command
to study all the weaknesses of the Russian army
and prepared for new victories.

Swedish historian
Lundblad wrote about the battle of Golovchino:
Here the last time up the star
Charles XII


  1. The battle of


Examples of Students Essays

Battle of Garigliano – Abstract

The battle of Garigliano
took place on December 29, 1503 between
the Spanish army under the command of
Gonzalo fernández de córdoba and
the French army under the command of
Ludovico II, Marquis Saluzzo.


In mid-November 1503
year army of French and Spaniards approached
at the river Garigliano, different from her
side, approximately 60km to the North
from Naples. Both armies broke camp
in a swampy and unhealthy area.
The Spaniards tried several times to cross
the river and to impose on the battle, but to no avail.
The French stationed a camp at the mouth
river, near Traetto, used
all the benefits of the proximity to
it port of Gaeta, supplied the French
the army with provisions and other necessary

The Spanish commander
was not completely sure of the victory and
was wondering whether to retreat or to go to
the offensive, however, came to the rescue in time
reinforcements from Naples, led
the condottieri Bartolomeo d Alviano and
Orsini, dispelled his fears. Cordoba
decided to go for tactical ploy: he
ordered part of his troops to move
towards the Volturno river, with
the intention to convince Louis II that he
retreats. Having lulled the vigilance of the enemy,
the Spanish commander, meanwhile, secretly
began to prepare for the crossing using
for this purpose, the bridges that he makes
of boats and barrels, brought in advance
the fortress of Mondragone, 12 kilometers to the South
from the Spanish camp.


In the night from 27 to 28 December
the Spaniards moved the necessary materials
in a place invisible from the standpoint of the French,
close to the fortress, Suyo, approx
6 km. to the North of the camp of the enemy.
Bartolomeo d Alviano, commanded
the vanguard of the Spaniards at dawn
started to build bridges. In 10 hours
in the morning about four thousand Spanish
corps successfully crossed

Three hundred Norman
crossbowmen who defended the walls, Suyo,
did not notice the movements of the Spaniards, and
Gonzalo de córdoba took the decision himself
to cross the river with two
thousands of Marines and a detachment of light
cavalry two hundred people under the command of
Prospero Column. Then Cordoba gave
the order to start the offensive. Vanguard
d Alviano of four thousand people
approached, Cujo, and French troops,
much inferior to the Spaniards in number,
fled to Castelforte. But even there, the French
did not have time to organize the defense and retreated
to Traetto, leaving behind Castelforte
by the Spaniards. Gonzalo de Cordova gave the rest
the soldiers remained in the city zahvachena
for the night.

Meanwhile, in Traetto
the French captain, Allegri appeared to be
in a difficult situation in the camp remained
few healthy soldiers and reinforcements
the French had nowhere to take. Allegri
announcing the General retreat to
Gaeta, destroys the bridge, leaving
Traetto all the sick and wounded soldiers
and nine guns.

On hearing this, Gonzalo
de Cordova decided to continue the offensive.
Not far from Gaeta’s light cavalry
the Spaniards imposed on the French the battle, but
the last rearguard, under the command of
Bernardo Adorno gave a decent attacker
back, allowing the rest of
French troops to successfully retreat.
After a series of minor clashes, the French
managed to establish control over one
from key bridge, throwing the Spaniards
ago and buried the hopes of Prospero
Columns to surround the enemy. But securely
to consolidate its position French
and failed after some time
arrived the rest of Spanish
troops, and the Marquis Lodovico Saluzzi
II again gave the order to retreat.

Now sandwiched in Game
the French military, with no
chances to win after a few days
siege, quickly weakened and surrendered. Spain
got full domination over
The Kingdom of Naples and the rules
here for several centuries.


  • Montgomery, Bernard
    Lo. A History of Warfare. New York: World Publishing
    Company, 1968. ISBN 0-688-01645-6.


Examples of Students Essays

The battle of bunker hill – Abstract

The battle of bunker hill
— a major battle between the English
and American troops played
in the hills of bunker hill and breed’s hill
the suburbs of Boston June 17, 1775, in
the War for US independence.

The background

After the battle
Lexington and Concord April 19, 1775
year American troops surrounded and
laid siege to Boston, which housed
British troops. Due to the fact that
the Americans took the only isthmus
linking the city with the mainland,
the British were cut off from the continent
and supported only by British forces
fleet. 12 June British command
developed a plan to relieve the siege of the city.
British troops under the leadership of
William Howe and Henry Clinton had planned
to strike at the positions of the Americans
in the hills of bunker hill and breed’s hill
located on a vast plateau in
the Boston area.

On 15 June the Americans
learned about the impending strike. On the night
16 June, American forces numbering
1200 people, led by Colonel
William Prescott occupied the hills and started
the construction of defensive fortifications.
Soon the position of the Americans was protected
high wooden walls and earthen
shafts. The Americans also built
fortifications on the coast for protection from
the flank attack of British troops.
Most American troops were
concentrated on a hill breed’s hill,
on the outskirts of which soon
turned decisive battle.

The course

17 Jun to 2 hours a day
British troops were ready to

Attack British troops
began at 3 o’clock in the afternoon. British forces
(5th, 38th, 43rd, 47th, and 52nd regiments, troops in the marine
infantry) was about 3,000.
The commander of British forces
General Howe led the charge of the light
infantry and grenadiers on the left flank
American positions.

British troops
lined up in 4 lines and attacked
strengthen Americans. Commander
American troops William Prescott
gave his men the famous command:
“Don’t shoot until you see the whites of their

As soon as English
the troops approached the enemy positions,
American soldier John Simpson the first
shot in English, than provoked
a return volley from the English
soldiers. Both sides tied hot
a gunfight. While the British
fired ineffective indirect fire
volleys, American soldiers aiming
gun fire literally mowed down
the ranks of the British. Dressed in bright red
uniforms of the British soldiers was perfect
a target for American gunners. HOU
lost many soldiers and retreated,
forced to regroup their

The second attack of the British
troops were conducted along the entire front and also
was unsuccessful. During the attack on bunker hill
on breed’s hill were moved many
people in support of the defenders of the hill. In
the third and final attack by the British
use of the reserves and broke through the defense
Americans. On breed’s hill ensued
hot melee. Bravely
fought, but poorly armed
the Americans were soon forced
to retreat under the onslaught of English
troops. In the course of this retreat was killed
one of the commanders of the American
the troops of Joseph Warren. The departure of the Americans
were provided with the skilful actions of the troops
Colonel John stark, who managed
to prevent the encirclement of the retreating
American forces.

Despite the fact that
troops the colonists were defeated,
they lost significantly fewer people
than the British, so the British victory
troops turned out to be Pyrrhic. At that time
the Americans lost 450 men,
the loss of the British army amounted to 1054
soldier. In addition, the battle raised
the morale of the Americans, which subsequently
directly influenced the course of
military action.

and sources

  • Description
    battle (English).

  • The battle of
    Bunker hill in the encyclopedia Britannica