Sprinkler systems

Describe the four basic pipe materials used in sprinkler systems.

Polyvinyl chloride pipe(PVC) plastic – this is commonly used in warm winter climates; they all have uniform external diameters. The only disadvantage of the PVC materials is that they degrade in the presence of time despite the fact that companies have indicated that they are resistant.

Ferrous metal – the sprinkler systems can also be made of ferrous material although the nozzle itself can be made from brass, hard plastic or other materials.

Copper -the use of copper materials has been replaced over time due to its high cost and also changes in technology of the home owners.

Galvanized steel – The use of galvanized steel has been considered to uneconomic and majority has turned to use of plastic materials.

Explain three characteristics of a sprinkler

Localized irrigation – water is usually applied at very low rates via small holes which have plastic tubing or for emitters to ensure only some section of the field is irrigated.

Pressurized water – in sprinkler irrigation water under very high or low pressure depending on the rating flows through pipes to outlets and sprays the water over the field.

Surface irrigation- sprinkler systems involves the high end whereas its allowed to run slowly to the low end.

Discuss the types of valves you might find within a sprinkler system.

Below ground inline valves – they are of two types that is globe and angle valves, which are usually, installed underground with a protection valve box. They require different backflow preventer.

Globe valves – the valves ensure water flows with changing direction

Angle valves – they are named after their angular design which directs the water flow at 90%

Above ground ant siphon valves – they are used mostly in situations where pressure vacuum breaker is not required or double check valve.

What constitutes a suitable water supply in an automatic sprinkler system?

Automatic lawn sprinklers can actually save water and hence suitable sprinkler system must constitute a controller, valves, soil moisture sensors and drip irrigation zones. All automatic sprinkler systems must constitute standard design which complies with standards provided, efficient discharge patterns, appropriate density and water flow characteristics with complete coverage in workplace.

The role of Philosophy in Life

Philosophy refers to the study that attempts to connect the real life and the mysteries. It can also be regarded as an ideal way of living. People always attempt to live ideally but in the reality, there are impossibilities to live an ideal life. As such, philosophers have always been trying to search for knowledge that and connect the nature and humanity. Philosophy has also been used to show the relationship between the society and an individual. In most of the time, society values differ with individual principles due to personal philosophies and the take for life. Philosophy is always arise from curiosity of an individual as he or she try to analyze, interpret, criticize, or speculate a certain thing, occurrence or phenomena. In a mere definition, philosophy is complex and controversial and therefore has no precise definition.

In the discussion of the philosophy definition, it can be established that philosophy is an important aspect of human life. Some issues in a normal human existence that appears as puzzles require special interpretation and approach of finding a solution. For instance, I have been puzzled to determine the meaning of life, the existence of life after death, and if a person exists before birth. Further, I always feel puzzled by the willingness of people to commit deliberate sins such as robbery, murder, and other major crimes. These always keep me in a curious mode and require a special interpretation concerning the possible differences between humanity.

The philosophy creates good and bad things in the society. Philosophy also tries to prove the distinction between moral and immorality in the same society. It attempts to elaborate on the reasons that lead to one leading a miserable life and ways through which one can deviate from such ways of life. As such, philosophy is a way of generating theoretical solutions to problems affecting people in life by looking at issues from different perspective. Philosophy is also the fundamental basis of principles that are guidance to personal life. As such, I consider philosophy as important in my life.

Philosophies allow people to prove their beliefs. Philosophy also stimulates people to think about the ultimate questions regarding their lives. One can study the discipline with an objective of gaining knowledge of his or her thoughts and the value of the thoughts. Philosophy has also been used in deriving the importance of language used. In most cases, there exists a difference in language to use from one scene to the other. This difference has been identified through application of philosophy.

Societies and institutions have been built based on philosophical ideas that have tried to bring out the important aspects of the society or institution. The law, religion, family, business, or education is all aspects of philosophy. Most of the problems that exist in the current society are because of differences in philosophy. For instance, it has been known that philosophers can insight mass against an action by a government through looking at government actions in a philosophical perspective and trying to bring out another view of the actions. However, the solutions to these problems are also philosophically based as it attempts to create theoretical solutions.

There are philosophical theories that always guide our lives. For instance, the distinction between the good and bad has been outlined through philosophy. The religion theory is also a philosophical idea that human ought to be associated with a certain religion. The differences in these religions like the existence of Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism among others are just mere differences in philosophies among the followers and their leaders as well as the difference in their interpretation.

According to my interpretation of the real meaning of life, I believe I live the best form of life. I am a Christian and believes in the teachings of Christ, the belief of the creation, and life after death are among the philosophies that guide my life. These teachings have elaborated clearly the requirements as a human to lead life. These philosophical principles of a Christian life have established the limits of sins and have recognized the non-believers as part of the God’s community. In this aspect, there exist a respect for humanity as part of God’s community as opposed to some communities who do not recognize people outside their religion sect as part of God’s creation while other do not believe in the existence of supreme being. In my life, I recognize the importance of family while its existence is still a philosophical idea. As such, I strongly believe that if people live the kind of life I live, the world would be a good place to live since it would eliminate most of bad things that happen. For instance, the value of life, existence of moral and immoral actions, and love for every human being are some of my undisputable principle. However, some religions do not emphasize on the importance of human life as well as good and bad actions. In such religions, killing might not be considered as a serious offence but according to my principles, this is the worst crime a human being can commit. Therefore, philosophy interpreted in my perspective would be resourceful in our lives.

Bargaining, tipping, and gifting in Saudi Arabia

When bargaining or doing a business negotiation in Saudi Arabia, it is always important to remain relatively respectful (Donaldson, 2002). Dignity and respect are core values in their business culture to avoid discomfort and embarrassment. In this regard, one should not put pressure on the people they are dealing with since it may be deemed disrespectful. Therefore, silence can be used in the process of bargaining as a show of politeness. Besides, use of friendly body language and appealing facial cues encourages Saudi Arabians to be more interested in a negotiation.

Tipping in Saudi Arabia can be a tricky experience. In some restaurants, tipping is considered and included in the cost of the bill. However, an extra tip can be accepted if the customer is willing. Taxi fees are usually negotiated and, therefore, it might be inappropriate to offer tips after the provision of the service. At a beauty salon, tips can be expected by the beauticians. Additionally, after spending a night in a hotel, one can leave a tip on the bedside table or on the bed before leaving (Rice, 2004). Tour guides and those provide personalized services including car cleaning will always expect tips.

Saudi Arabians are a little bit strict with gifting because gifts should be given to the most intimate friends. An employee may be sacked for bringing his boss a gift from home. It is impolite to express admiration for another’s property for he may feel obliged to gift it. If giving a gift, it should be the most affordable. Traditional perfume is always most appreciated as a gift since it is a gesture of respect to open and examine the gift in the presence of the one giving including the others who might be present. Saudi Arabia is deeply rooted in Islam culture and, hence, men should never be given gold jewelry or silk garments as gifts because they are deemed effeminate in Islam (Rice, 2004).


Donaldson, T. (2002).Ethics away from home. Applied Ethics: Critical Concepts in Philosophy, 203.

Rice, G. (2004). Doing business in Saudi Arabia. Thunderbird International Business Review, 46(1), 59-84.

Importance of College Education to Me

Importance of College Education to Me

Ever since I have always believed education is the key that can open opportunities for personal development and growth in future. College education is critical for various reasons for both old and young as current world require individuals with experience, knowledge, and skills. These are fundamental tools that can be acquired from attending college. For me, college education is critical because it will help me attain my goals, aspiration, and dream of becoming and healthcare provider.

In this regard, I perceive college education as important for me because it will help me attain my life priorities. Robert Hutchins, an educational philosopher, says “the object of education is to prepare the young to educate themselves throughout their lives” (Pascarella & Terenzini, 2005). Therefore, I see college education as a tool to will adequately prepare me for attaining aspiration of becoming a healthcare professional. This is intertwined with the goal of having a career in life. I believe education will play an incredibly valuable part as I will be able to acquire the needed skills, knowledge and experience to provide the much-needed care in my community.

When I entered high school, I had the aspiration of becoming a healthcare provider and looking back now I realize I need to achieve much more to realize this dream. Also, I have come to acknowledge this dream was not only my own but also my family’s.  My parent often talked about me becoming a doctor, and their enthusiasm continued throughout my childhood. This serves as my motivation to attending college as I have to make my family’s dream come true. I feel that if I do not do this, I will be failing my parents. This gives me the willingness and drives to attend college. I have started to realize I have to practices, acquire knowledge and skills that will make me a care provider my family wanted me to be in life. I realize I cannot set my dreams, aspirations, and goals on the basis of other alternatives except join a college to further my knowledge and education base.

Further, I have a plan of positively contributing towards alleviating the challenge facing the healthcare sector. According to the recent research studies, the country faces a considerable crisis due to lack of healthcare professionals. Helping the people in need is rewarding self-satisfaction I can feel and excellent opportunity to give back to the society and country at large. I cannot achieve this without acquiring college education. The only person who can do this is one who has learned and attained advanced education. College education will not only help me achieve my goals and dream in life but also become maximally competitive especially consider the world job competition is owing to the incredible increase in demand for specialist and qualified professionals (Statistics on College Graduates, 2007). As such, there is no other alternative for me to attain skills needed except to attend college.

Indeed, attending college education is the only chance I have to accomplish my aspirations, goals, and dreams in life. It is the only way I can acquire the needed skills, knowledge and experience to become a healthcare provider. I have always had wanted to make a career working in healthcare sector. This has not only been my dream but also my family’s as my parents always talked about me becoming a doctor. Further, I have a drive and willingness to help reduced problems facing the healthcare in the country, particularly, people in my community. Therefore, attending college is the only opportunity I have to attain these objectives.


Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. T. (2005). How college affects students (Vol. 2). K. A. Feldman (Ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Statistics on College Graduates. (2007). Statistics on College Graduates – Will getting a college education really make you money?. (2017). Importanceofcollege.com. Retrieved 3 February 2017, from http://www.importanceofcollege.com/statistics.html

Adoption, Custody, and Parentage


If you already have the citation of a statute and want to read only the statute-Applicable laws: International Child Abduction Remedies Act, Fugitive Felon Act

Legislative actions: Arrest, punishment


If you want to focus on the language of the statute itself and have sufficient grounding in the area-Applicable laws: Federal Constitution Law,

Legislative actions: Institution care

If you need to research the statute more deeply-Applicable laws: Statute laws,

Legislative actions: Exclusive jurisdiction,

If the situation does not point in a different direction-Applicable laws: Family laws,

Legislative actions: Guardianship,

To update and expand your research once you have found a pertinent statute-Applicable laws: Federal Statutory Law,

Legislative actions: Foster care,

To research the language of the law as it passed the legislature-Applicable laws: Children in Need of Aid (CINA), delinquency laws

Legislative actions: Foster care,



Quintero, Steven J. 2009. Child welfare issues and perspectives. New York: Nova Science Publishers. http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=3022411.

LEXIS Law Publishing, and LexisNexis (Firm). 1999. Federal adoption laws. Charlottesville, VA: LexisNexis.

Washington (State). 2010. Washington State building code: chapter 51-50 WAC, International building code 2009 edition. [Olympia, Wash.]: [Washington State Building Code Council]. https://law.resource.org/pub/us/code/states/wa_building.2009.pdf.



Marketing Strategy for Hotel Hilton

Marketing strategy is a term used to describe the process of evaluating every facet of a business to establish its position in the market (Hill 2013, p. 3). Through marketing strategy, organizations can focus and make the best use of their available resources to increase sales and outpace their rivals. Effective marketing strategy commences with the determination of the goals by which businesses project their target (Fifield 2012, p. 105). This calls for the involvement of all departments in an organization to make it easy for the achievement of efficiency.

Ferrell and Hartline (2014, p. 1) state that organizations should have effective marketing strategies and plan to survive in the currently competitive economy. The effective marketing strategies enable businesses to enhance their products to meet the needs of their customers better. Hence, business managements must ensure their marketing strategies are customer-oriented and align with their organizational internal and external environments. This is because the main aim of companies in developing a marketing strategy is linking with customers (Paley 2007, p. 18).

Moreover, marketing strategy defines the approaches through which business firms intend to satisfy the needs and demands of their clients (Rosenbloom 2013, p. 26). It also establishes and upholds connection with other stakeholders, like partners in the supply chain, shareholders, and employees. According to West, Ford, and Ibrahim (2015, p. 8), marketing strategy details the organizational plan in utilizing its strengths and capabilities to match the market needs and requirements. Therefore, an organization must develop the bigger picture of its position in the market to remain viable and have a practical competitive advantage.

Stasch (2010, p. 16) elucidates that effective marketing strategy is a foundation for developing a definite action plan for the expansion of sales volume and revenue flow into a business. The action plans should have clear objectives and outline approaches of executing them. Examples of marketing strategies could include enhancement of the business customer loyalty, introducing new offers to loyal and existing customers, reaching out to new clients, and business innovation (McLeish 2011, p. 14). These strategies enable a company to gain a greater penetration into the market and for increased profits.

Hotel Hilton is a global chain of hotels comprising of numerous luxurious hotels, resorts and choice service hotels (Hombach 2010, p. 26). The hotels offer a broad range of services to customers from different market segments and pride themselves on a long history of operation since the founding in 1919 by Conrad Hilton (Groucutt, Foryth, and Leadley 2004, p. 416). Over the years, the Hiltons have been a leading and widely recognized brand of hotels around the globe. Their emphasis on marketing its business and travel offers has made them become a preferred destination for travelers hence gaining a top spot globally (Hombach 2010, p. 27).

Similarly, Hotel Hilton operates with numerous branches in the main cities all over the world. Their continued development has also seen them embrace partnerships with relevant market players such as airlines, car rental business organizations and other hospitality companies (Hombach 2010, p. 27). It is worth noting that the hotels operate with a customer-driven focus to get a cutting edge in the global market. Hence, it is imperative that they develop an effective marketing strategy to enable them maintain top global position and stay ahead of their rivals.

Research aim

The goal of this proposal is to develop effective marketing strategies for the Hiltons so as to gain greater penetration in the global hotel industry. This will ensure their continued survival and operation without which they will lose their grip in the global hotel business.


Companies work with goals to guide their everyday operational activities and quantify and establish their impacts to the surrounding as they progress towards their projected target (Saha 2009, p. 20). Also, objectives are the platforms for evaluating performance and attainment of the organizational goals hence the specific objectives of the proposal are:

  1. To establish the effectiveness of the marketing strategies currently in use by the Hiltons.
  2. To develop a strategy for the Hilton Hotels, that aligns them with the internal and external environments and ensures a better link with customers.

iii.    To come up with a policy recommendation on how to improve their services for full customer satisfaction and differentiate them from other internationally established hotels like the Marriot and Starwood Hotels.

  1. To develop an effective marketing plan of action which the Hiltons can adopt to help them outpace their competitors in the global hotel and hospitality industry.
  2. To come up with a better pricing method that augers well with the price and product strategy in the United Kingdom and other places while ensuring more sales increment.
  3. To re-invent a marketing strategy for the Hilton Hotels through which they can reach out and maintain new customers.


The justification for marketing strategies is indisputable as it helps establish continued links between businesses and clients (Ferrell and Hartline 2014, p. 10). With strategic marketing, the Hiltons can maintain their reputation and position in the global hotel industry. Therefore, the rationale of this research proposal includes but not limited to the following. First, the proposal spells the approaches through which the Hilton Hotels can build enduring relationships with clients and guarantee their continued existence since customers are the life-blood of any business (Business Case Studies 2017, p. 1).

For companies to achieve customer loyalty, they must ensure customer satisfaction to make them feel better. Shen and Huang (2011, p. 435) assert that consumers can reject business products and services if it cannot adequately meet their needs and opt to try other alternative sources of which may the perceived competitors. Hence, the proposal will enable the Hiltons to formulate a broad range of survey methods to determine and cater to the specific needs of customers in various age groups to ensure the Hotels do not lose esteemed clients to rivals.

Moreover, the proposal will enable the Hilton Hotels to collect accurate data on the market conditions and analyze them accordingly so as to better their future operations. This will make it easier to deeply infiltrate every segment of the hotel industry and widen their market share. Deep infiltration into the market can involve establishing a system which tracks every activity and progress in the market and gathers sufficient information concerning the market. The analysis of such data is likely to lead to making appropriate recommendations for improving customer satisfaction hence more sales (Shen and Huang 2011, p. 436).

The proposal will also make it easy to investigate and establish the exact nature of the demand and supply in the market. The hotel industry is closely related to the travel and tourism sector in which the knowledge of the market needs and supply is very fundamental to the role of strategic marketing (Morgan and Ranchhod 2010, p. 12). Therefore, the proposal will guide the management of the Hilton Hotels in their decision-making process concerning what to offer to their esteemed clients and how to price them. However, caution must be taken as miscalculated approaches may result in hugely losing customers to competitors.

Most importantly, the proposal lays out a good strategy for targeting visitors who arrive in the United Kingdom. This offers the advantage of increasing the generated revenues from the services available to such visitors. Getting the right target rests on how the Hilton Hotels package their services for their customers. Hence the proposal is likely to provide a guide through which they can develop products and services that will offer customers an excellent experience. It is worth noting that here that a positive feeling of clients dramatically influences their buying behavior and cause them spend more which is even a plus for the Hiltons (Murray 2013, p. 72).

Theoretical Underpinning

Theoretical basis involves analyzing the basic concepts relating to marketing strategies. Hence, the section presents the 4Ps of marketing (marketing mix) and their effectiveness as marketing strategies for the Hilton Hotels. The 4Ps include price, product, promotion and place and they define means of introducing a new product or service in the market (Kirkland 2009, p. 1). This section will also present SWOT and PESTEL analyses for the Hilton Hotels.

Analysis of the 4Ps of Marketing

The 4Ps of marketing, commonly known as marketing mix is the entirety of what Hilton Hotels can provide for the satisfaction of their trusted customers and any other potential client. Marketing mix, therefore, refers to the defined variables that businesses utilize in pursuing their anticipated level of sales in a particular market (Kumar 2010, p. 46). It brings together available business tools for achieving the response that a company desires from the target market about its operational objectives. It blends all marketing efforts and summarizes them into four key ingredients i.e. price, product, promotion, and place (Kirkland 2009, p. 1).



Product: Product Development, Brand Effect   

The product is the most fundamental aspect of developing an effective marketing strategy the Hiltons as it entails what they can offer to meet the needs of their customers. As Kumar (2010, p. 47) states, the manner in which Hilton Hotels develop and package their products ought to create an effect that will keep their customers coming. The result does not necessarily mean the array of the product feature but how their benefits suffice the needs of their clients. One strategy of inducing the feeling into customers is delivering high-quality standards and going further to communicate it to the clients (Rawaswamy and Namakumari 2013, p. 145).

Price: Pricing Strategy, Price Adjustments   

The value that the Hiltons attach to their services must match with the perception of customers who need to feel that they receive what is worth their money (Kumar 2010, p. 47). As the Hilton Hotels look to retain their repo with the highest class and top quality services, their marketing researchers and strategists should formulate policies for best pricing to widen their market share. In other words, the pricing strategy of the Hiltons should be accompanied with necessary adjustments to ensure mutual exclusivity between them and their customers i.e. as their customers benefit, the Hotels also gain.

Promotion: AD Publicity, Sales Promotion

Promotion is a communication tool that informs the target audience of the business products and services (Kumar 2010, p. 47). Promotional strategies include advertising and publicity, giving coupons, and constantly reminding through phones and emails to customers with the aim of making the Hiltons outstanding in the crowd. Also, technology provides an integrated marketing communication (IMC) which the Hiltons can consider as a promotion tool. The IMC makes it easy to combine all marketing communication equipment and ensure they transmit robust and convincing messages which will market Hilton hotels to the target customers (Dogra and Ghuman 2010, p. 83).

Place and Distribution: Distributor, Cost Apportionments, Benefit Distribution

Place depicts the point where customers get the services and products a business offers whereas distribution is the means of spreading the services in the market for customers to buy (Dogra and Ghuman 2010, p. 83). Hilton Hotels offer globally luxurious services to the delight, experience and destination of the travelers. Hence their market researchers should demonstrate in their marketing strategies how they want the services of Hilton to manifest in the hotel industry and institute a cost-effective exchange with the clients. The Hotel’s strategic location is also carefully selected to raise the customer’s experience, and this increases their chances of getting as many customers as possible in the UK.

SWOT Analysis

A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis is an appropriate marketing tool for the Hiltons going by the constant changes in the hotel business. The changes result from increasing travel uncertainties, high hotel chain operational costs and copious shifts in travel booking as the current web tools significantly outpace the old-style travel agencies (Ivanova, Ivanov, and Magnini 2016, p. 61). A look at the SWOT analysis of Hilton Hotels reveals the following:


Hilton Hotels enjoy a vast experience and coverage of the hotel business due to its long history of services and numerous worldwide branches operating under sturdy and management of CEO and President Nassetta Christophe (Dudovskiy 2016, p. 1). The hotels have well-established customer and employee retention schedules, highly recognized brands and real technological integration hence an improved service customization levels making the Hiltons a pioneer for other hotel chains in embracing technology.


Despite the milestone strengths, the Hiltons rely heavily on the American markets and have poor flexibility due to their vast size leading to management problems. Also, various government policies across the globe are a hindrance to the hotels. The Hiltons have highly recognized brands, yet their share of the global market is very limited (Dudovskiy 2016, p. 1).


Moreover, the Hiltons can focus on further research and development to better their performance and services in the global markets. Also, they still have more potential in the globally emerging markets for hotel businesses. Furthermore, enhanced the use of technology and digitalization as well as innovating their customer services can go a long way pushing them to higher operational standards (Ivanova, Ivanov, and Magnini 2016, p. 62).


The threats facing the Hiltons include acts of terrorism, political turbulences in some countries and stiff competition from other well-established hotels like the Marriott. Also, loss of core competencies and workforce coupled with unfavorable economic shifts are a threat to the growth of the Hiltons (Ivanova, Ivanov, and Magnini 2016, p. 62).

PESTEL Analysis

PESTEL are the external political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal factors which impact businesses.



Political factors

The success of any industry depends on political stability. Political factors directly impact on the Hilton Hotels as they have to align with the current global political developments (O’Fallon and Rutherford 2011, p. 462). Also, political issues leverage the number of business travelers and tourists who are the most potential customers for the hotel business. For instance, the currently unstable political situations in Northern Ireland negatively impact on the number of visitors to the country for fear of losing lives. Equally, the presence of consumer protection and UK employment laws, hostile political environments due to strict competitive regulation directly affect how the Hiltons perform (Dudovskiy 2016, p. 1).

Economic Factors   

Global macroeconomic factors and conditions coupled with some events like the 2012 Olympic Games in the UK are key forces impacting business operations of the Hiltons (Dudovskiy 2016, p. 1). Taxation policies, fluctuating weather conditions, and the UK economic growth are the factors that market researchers and strategists of the Hilton Hotels should watch out for to ensure they maintain an upward growth trend their top spot in the global hotel business.

Social Factors

The Hiltons are internationally known with the UK being a favorite stop for shoppers, tourists, and business travelers; however social factors such as newly up-coming trends in a lifestyle of customers, consumer behaviors, and spending nature of customers affect the operations of the Hiltons (Dudovskiy 2016, p. 1).



Technological Factors

The rapid technological advancements have a direct impact on the hotel business. As such, the Hiltons have to integrate technology with their operations and phase out manual and traditional systems (Dudovskiy 2016, p. 1). This is because customers can view the prices of the products and services of the Hotels before making their booking online.

Environmental Factors

These factors include climatic and weather changes, waste management programs, pollution and recycling and making use of eco-friendly products and services (Professional Academy n.d., p. 1). Environmental factors directly affect the development of effective marketing strategies as there are growing demands by customers to have products from ethical and sustainable sources hence market researchers of the Hiltons must take note of such.

Legal Factors

Legal factors have to do with customer health and safety, security and labeling of products, laws and rights of consumers, and standards of advertising. Being that Hilton operates globally, it faces a tricky challenge as it was difficult to get everything right bearing in mind that every country has their established rules and regulations (Professional Academy n.d., p. 1)

Research Design

The research design to use in developing effective marketing strategies for the Hiltons is exploratory research design (Mooi and Sarstedt 2011, p. 13). This is the design helps in gaining insights and ideas concerning a problem. Hair et al. (2011, p. 147) assert that exploratory research is useful where a researcher has little information either on a problem or an opportunity. It can, therefore, be helpful in establishing new links, ideologies, and patterns especially in an innovative market. The design will help Hotel Hilton to gather adequate data on developing effective marketing strategies for it remain competitive in the hotel industry.

Moreover, there are two primary methods the Hiltons can use for collecting data with this research design. These are administering questionnaires and use of the internet to browse data on the web and conduct internet surveys (Beall 2010, p. 20). Administering surveys involves giving a set of questions on the hotel services and the market nature to respondents (Bechhofer and Paterson 2012, p. 72). The questionnaires can be open-ended or closed, but for the case of the Hilton Hotels, they will be open to aid in gathering more data and help achieve easier statistical analysis.

Also, the questionnaires will be administered electronically to eliminate spending too much time costs in traveling as well as reach a larger audience within the shortest time possible. However, electronic administration of the questionnaires might be disadvantageous as some of the respondents may take advantage of the physical absence of the researcher to give wrong or misleading information (Mitchell and Jolley 2010, p. 263).

Accordingly, use of the internet surveys is very fast and covers an extensive range of participants. Hence, the market researchers of the Hilton Hotels can gauge the perception of customers towards their services and also their satisfaction level within a short time (Lamb, Hair, and McDaniel 2016, p. 151). Making use of the internet research allows for deep penetration into the global hotel industry. In fact, data collection through the Internet guarantees higher potential for growth of the Hilton Hotels as their market researchers can learn from the experience of other marketing strategists online (Lamb 2012, p. 219).



Developing effective marketing strategies is good for the Hilton Hotels which operate with luxurious hotels, resorts and choice service hotels all over the world. This is because the Hotels aim to remain the preferred destination for travelers and maintain the top international spot. The marketing strategies can outline how the Hotels partner with other relevant market players like airlines, car rental business organizations, and hospitality companies. They must, therefore, maintain their customer-driven focus and remain competitive in the global hotel business.




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The State Secrets Privilege, the USA Patriot Act and War on Terrorism

The State Secrets Privilege, the USA Patriot Act and War on Terrorism

The state secrets privilege (SSP) is a judiciary’s construct derived from common law that allows the US government not to disclose information ordered by the court in civil litigation, especially if such disclosure can harm the US national security. After the 9/11 incident, the Bush administration expanded the use of this privilege by dismissing cases and withholding evidence in a court hearing that challenges the government (Abramson & Godoy, 2006). However, this act threatens the legal challenges and judicial oversight of the branch of the executive by disregarding human rights in the name of fighting terrorism.

In the case of Mohamed versus Jeppesen Dataplan Inc., the Ninth Circuit dismissed complaints of five men who claimed to have been victims of the extraordinary rendition program of the US government. The program involved international torturing and kidnapping of people in remote facilities (Laureate Education, Inc., 2011). Instead of accepting the allegations as per the required procedure, the court dismissed the complaint based on the privilege of the state secret as it is a patriotic act (Abramson & Godoy, 2006). The essay opposes that courts should not dismiss charges based on the state secrets privilege, especially in cases such as the Jeppesen Dataplan where plaintiffs did not need discovery to make a clear case that alleges torts by contractors or the government.

There are a lot written regarding the state secrets privilege since the incident of 9/11; however, the Totten doctrine plays the role of changing the state secrets privilege to a principle that gives the government some immunity. The SSP wrongly decides cases as it overprotects the state secrecy and dismisses suits with prejudice, which should be refilled using relevant declassified secrets. The basis for dismissing lawsuits is unclear; for instance, the engagement condition implies that the doctrine should be employed by the government during times of war and in matters that affect the foreign relations or embarrass and compromise the government during public duties. Protecting the government from embarrassment is not a legitimate goal of hiding state secret that can affect the national security.

Additionally, the SSP doctrine is overbroad; thus, cannot have any role in dealing with cases like that of Jeppesen Dataplan, which plaintiffs had no contract with the US government. The case shows the tendency of the executive branch in overprotecting the government’s secrets and the willingness of the judiciary to concede to the discretion of the executive without any inquiry or a little skepticism (Telman, 2012). In litigation associated with the national security, courts are too willing to put the constitutional duty aside to favor the executive action. The en banc panel of the Ninth Circuit found ample precedent that supported the decision to dismiss Jeppesen’s claims, yet there was clear evidence of torture by the government. Therefore, the erroneous decision led to wrong turns that intensify the unilateral executive powers and diminishing the judiciary authority to check the exercise of such power.

The doctrine of state secret privilege is also used to permit courts to resolve claims that are against the government and their contractors. The courts fail to recognize that the state secrets privilege should not be employed to tort claims the same way as contracts claims. In the hearing of Mohamed v. Jeppesen Dataplan, the Ninth Circuit panel treated the real claims of the plaintiff as if the government and the program contractors were responsible for the extraordinary torture and rendition of the plaintiff (Laureate Education, Inc., 2011). The victim was not the contractor, yet the majority of the panel dismissed the suit based on the state secrets privilege.

The decision of the Ninth Circuit in Jeppesen Dataplan should show the US the absurdities and barbarity of the Totten doctrine and the state secrets privilege. After hearing the true allegations of the plaintiff that a government contractor kidnapped plaintiffs and delivered them for rendition and torture, the court still dismissed the claims without allowing the defendant to respond to the complaint, even when the plaintiff had attached ample evidence supporting the claims. Dismissal should not be used to defend torturous acts of patriotism; therefore, I disagree with the dismissal of such alleges that violate human rights by exposing people to torture.



Abramson, L., & Godoy, M. (2006, February 14). The Patriot Act: Key controversies. Retrieved

from: http://www.npr.org/news/specials/patriotact/patriotactprovisions.html

Laureate Education, Inc. (2011). Interactive Supreme Court case timeline: Mohamed v. Jeppesen

DataPlan, Inc. [Flash presentation]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Telman, J. D. A. (2012). Intolerable Abuses: Rendition for Torture and the State Secrets

Privilege. Ala. L. Rev.63, 429. Retrieved from http://scholar.valpo.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1136&context=alaw_fac_pubs