Learning a language can
sometimes go by unexpectedly, thus not the way you’re expecting it to. You
don’t always have to devour grammar manuals in order to excel in a language.
Timothy Allen has experienced this himself when he was able to improve his Vietnamese
language by translating a popular Vietnamese literary creation.
After traveling to Ho Chi Minh
city back in 1999, the writer was able to find a Vietnamese classic work that
would teach him a lot about the culture and language of the country. As such,
he translated it and ended up getting better at his own Vietnamese skills. It’s
a story with a nice conclusion, so here’s how Tim Allen had the ability to
learn a language through translation.
Is Timothy Allen?
Tim Allen is a poet and
translator who became known especially for translating “Kieu: A New Lament for
a Broken Heart”, a Vietnamese verse-novel. Born in Liverpool in 1960, Tim has
worked in many parts of the world, including Albania, Uganda, Liberia,
Mozambique, as well as Vietnam and many others. Not to mention, he has
translated works for multiple languages, such as Spanish, Vietnamese and many
In 2008, he was awarded a prize
thanks to his translation of the opening lines of the popular Vietnamese novel,
as well as a Hawthornden Fellowship later on. The latter allowed him to
continue and, ultimately, complete translating and reworking the poem.
He Learned Vietnamese through Translation
Timothy arrived in Vietnam in
late November 1999, being his first time visiting the country. He was there to
look for some projects, for which he had funds from the NGO. After being picked
up from the airport by his Vietnamese counterparts, he started telling them
about how he’s interested in learning more about their culture and language.
When asking about literature,
one of the counterparts told him about a book that Timothy would definitely
love, and which would be a life-changing experience for him. Of course, upon
hearing the name “Truyen Kieu, the Tale of Kieu”, it didn’t mean much to him,
so he couldn’t know how much of an impact it would have on his life. The tale
was written by Nguyen Du, a diplomat-poet, and published in 1920.
During his time in Vietnam,
Timothy Allen spent enough time analyzing the life of Vietnamese people and was
impressed. They had a special sense of family and solidarity.
One evening at the restaurant,
Timothy engaged in conversation with one of his new colleagues and asked her to
tell him about the “Truyen Kieu” book.
It was revealed that the story
takes place in China and is about a Chinese girl who falls in love with a boy.
However, the boy has to move away due to a family business, after which she is
somehow tricked into working in a brothel. She doesn’t stay there forever – she
manages to escape and has plenty of adventures. But one thing is sure – she
never forgets her first love.
The story is known by all
Vietnamese people, and some even use it as a fortune teller – you open the book
and put the finger on a verse, and that’s what future has in store. So, Tim Allen
traveled the country and asked locals about the story. Many were eager to share
their knowledge about it, and he was even lucky enough to find a bilingual
version of it. Therefore, he started deciphering it.
He was impressed by the message
of the story. The story told you to keep going despite the difficulties life is
throwing at you, and stay true to yourself. It also tells you that bad people
will fade away too.
At the end of the trip, when
Timothy had to leave Vietnam, he brought the book with him, together with a
dictionary. He only wanted to maintain his knowledge of the language, not make
a proper translation. But little did he know that reworking the book will
develop his own Vietnamese skills.
Apparently, what Allen was
aiming for was capturing the essence of the story and being able to deliver the
same magic as Nguyen Du was able to. He wanted to maintain the lyricism, as
well as the characters and the flow of the story while translating it properly.
Now that he translated it, he wishes that many people will be in awe stumbling
upon the wonderful story of Kieu.
A language can be learned
through other methods, rather than simply reading grammar books and
dictionaries. As the story of Timothy Allen has proven, you can start translating
something out of pure fascination, and before realizing it, your skills have
If you’ve been impressed by
this story and now you’re curious about Vietnamese literature, yet you don’t
find translated one, don’t hesitate to seek Vietnamese
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HEALTH AND SAFETY IN CLINICAL LABORITORIES Health and safety at work act (1974) show that it is a duty of every employer to ensure as far as reasonably practice to health safety and welfare at work of all of its employees – Health and Safety in a Clinical Laboratory Essay introduction. Risks assessments must be carried out when more than 5 people are employed and implement changes as necessary. Risk assessment is a carefully recorded examination of what might cause harm and accidents to people in work places e. g. staff, visitors, patients, clients and contractors. Many activities are undertaken in clinical laboratories therefore anyone entering is at risk at pathological specimen.
Staff must observe important precautions to protect both themselves and others. The degree of risk will depend upon the sort of work they do and how well they observe the safety rules. Infection control is very important in laboratories because infections may be acquired by breathing in airborne droplets or dust containing infectious micro-organisms and others may be through abrasions wounds or liquid splashing onto mucous membranes into eyes. Any form of cuts or dermatitis should be covered by waterproof dressing before start of work. The cover must be enough to prevent contamination and if in doubt ask the line manager.
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Personal protection equipment [PPE] is very important from reducing the spread of infections. In laboratories always wear a protective gown or coat to protect own clothing from acting as transmitter for infection. Gowns should be changed at least twice per week and neither should personal things such as pencils, combs, brushes taken into the laboratory. Essential items are always provided. Gloves should be worn when handling specimen. If gloves become perforated you should stop work immediately and dispose of into appropriate bin. Wash hands thoroughly and put new gloves.
When gowns are contaminated they should be changed and placed in appropriate container and hands should be washed and put new clean coat. Food, drink, cigarettes are not allowed into the laboratory. Eating, chewing, smoking and applying cosmetics in laboratory are forbidden. All that may bring hands into contact with face and mucosae [eyes, nose and mouth] must be avoided as this spread infections. Hands should be washed thoroughly when leaving the laboratory. Reporting Of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulation 1995 [RIDDOR] was introduced to report any injuries or disease within the workplace
In clinical laboratories if any cuts occur the wound should be encouraged to bleed by washing with running water. This should not be scrubbed as this may encourage infection. Proper treatment dressing is very important and no matter how small the cut is this should be reported to the line manager. If u become ill this should be reported and the doctor should be told where you work by showing medical contact card in case of further information if required. Do not take unnecessary risks always follow the rule. Handling of specimen in the laboratory is the main focus of the job.
Always observe all the requirements and regulations. Gloves should be used to handle specimen which include saliva, blood and urine . Always wear disposable gloves if u are to get in contact with blood or body fluids. The use of protective clothing and equipment [gloves, aprons, full-face visors] will minimise the risk of infection Any spillage which would be infectious should be reported and make sure that the spillage is properly cleaned to prevent accidents which can cause injuries or death if someone slips [shattered lives]. Broken equipment should be placed in containers provided to avoid cuts.
Used materials should be placed in appropriate marked bins and dispose of manner accordingly. Control of Substance Hazardous to Health 2002[COSSH] this was amended to control exposure to chemicals and protect workers. In laboratories activities such as autoclaving and cleaning must only be performed according to instructions and must be followed at all times unless in circumstances to meet special needs. Avoid practices of splashing or releasing of droplets into atmosphere as this causes infections. Pathological material should be carried in a microbiological safety cabinet e. . transport screen . Always protect yourself by putting on full-face visor, gloves and disposable plastic apron over your gown or coat. Mouth pipetting is forbidden always use provided pipetting devices. Protective clothing should be removed on completing the job and place various items in the designated places for disinfection, autoclaving or disposal . Always wash hands at the end of each job. Minimise the use of sharp objects as these can cause cuts, when using them use with extreme condition or whenever possible use plastic. Clear spillages and clutter.
Use racks or trays to contain specimen. Items must be disinfected properly and disposed safely. Labels should be correctly done and never to be licked Do not enter any room which has` Danger of Infection` sign on the door unless you are told it’s safe to do so by your manager. Clinical waste should be properly bagged or safely contained according to local rules. Fire awareness is very important in any form of employment. Employees should be trained and be familiar with surroundings in case of fire. In laboratory the causes of fire could be electrical faults or chemical reaction.
In case of fire staff needs not to panic but to move away from affected area but on the same floor [horizontal evacuation]. This reduce evacuation time by moving to a short distance helps in not moving outside unless absolutely necessary . Regular training is advised [triangle of fire] When collapses it is an individual responsibility to risk assess to the rescuer during resuscitation Firstly u have to approach safely and don’t panic them. Check for response and shout for help. Open airway to make sure it is clear there is no vomit or dentures.
Apply 30 chest compressions and keep checking for normal breathing by looking and feeling . This is very important for every employee to be trained [Basic life support]. When faced with aggressive behaviour one should remain calm, communication, posture, should be considered. We need to use common sense in all what we do. REFERENCES ? HSE. Health Services Advisory Committee. (2003), Safety in Health service Laboratories, HSE Books, UK. ? HSE, (2006), Essentials of Health Safety at work, ? www. hse. gov. uk/biosafety/information. htm
The technical part is having eight training knowledge and tools so the business can be productive and effective in making sure the customers are happy and return consistently – Managers employees and organizational cultures introduction. Social technical systems theory was started being used by Japanese companies which integrated technical systems and management to achieve high performance. Large U. S. Automakers like Ford and Chrysler also started to look this way. They wanted to understand how the Japanese were applying these tactics to make their business and their products achieves. The second approach is called quantitative management.
This approach helps analysis the decisions and problems of the manager. This helps them to develop formal mathematical models of whatever the problem is. This is the use of science. This started during the World War II around sass. Private companies started to use this theory to get a grip of more complex issues they were having. They use computers to develop certain quantitative methods. This would include techniques such as queuing theory, inventory modeling and simulation. The companies would use these techniques in areas like marketing, planning and human resources.
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Many managers aren’t trained in this area and do not apply this as their primary approach. They might use this approach as a tool in the process off decision. Many managers will use the result that are up to their judgment and beliefs. Overall manager decisions are unpredictable and cannot be expressed in a mathematical form. Organizational behavior is a contemporary approach in which researches and understands management in which will make employees effective by focusing on the hard nature that a certain group utilizes and works together successfully.
Organizational behavior focuses mainly on the behavior of employees which analysis the psychology and the sociology. This approach The fourth approach is called the systems theory. This is the classic approach where everyone involved is criticized as a whole. This theory depended on what the outside world had to say such as human resources and raw materials. Instead of focusing on the external they would use the input as a whole to make OUtpUt needs meet the desires of consumers for what services and goods they needed as the external part.
This then caused people to talk which then caused others to make the next process of the company better. Which then turned into cause and effect. This cause was great for the company who was following through with this because it did wonders for them, who were spreading greatness all around for those who asked and then received. Every association or organizations rely on the input from their consumers to make their goods and services what they demand so they can be the best they can. This is an open system and how they work.
Regarding environments there are a few tepees to consider in an organization. For instance there are macro environment, internal and competitive. Macro environment is about the elements the external business includes that can influence them on strategic decisions they can make. As a whole the technology, demographics, economy and social values all include these regulations and laws are considered. Second environment is called internal. This is where the inside of a certain firm refers to any resources they have and uses them such as manager’s employees and organizational cultures.
The third environment is called competitive. This is extremely important because they need and keep track of other competitors in their line of company and other companies that may cause harm to them. I believe all the approaches go hand and hand with the environments. I believe they all individually have their purpose but each is much needed in the environments. I believe if you use all of the approaches with the environments in the proper times, any business or organization would be extremely successful.
Unit Assignment Essay
Windows Vista was the removable media policies – Unit Assignment Essay introduction. It allowed for the use of USB drives, flash memory cards, external USB hard drives, and CD/DVD writers. These however posed a huge security problem for companies because it allowed the users to easily copy data from their systems, or even place unwanted viruses or mallard onto their neuron. This lead to a lot of companies removing or just destroying these devices so that they wouldn’t work on their workstations. Vista also addressed the power management settings that weren’t available by default in Windows operation systems beforehand.
There were third party software that was used before this release, but companies would prefer if it were built into Windows to reduce costs. Power management policies allowed the companies to save money on electricity, and run at lower temperatures. Hard disk settings were added which allowed the hard drive to be set to turn on or off at specific times. For example when the computer is on battery power, then the hard drive would power down. The other policy that was added for this is for when the computer is plugged in. These allowed for set time values to be set after inactivity or other events happen which would rower down the hard drives.
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Some casinos like Golden Lion offer homehealthintl.com pokies bonuses to attract a higher number of players to sign up. Some pokies are exclusive and are rare while others are common and offer the same jackpots as the normal sized pokers.
There were also settings for the displays which worked the same way as the hard drives. A very useful policy that is called “Require a password when a computer wakes” was added. This made it easier for companies to keep their networks secure. Everyone knows that not all employees and other users log off or lock their computers before walking away to go on break or something. With this setting, after the computer went into a sleep state then when it wakes, the user will have to input their credentials again to verify that they are who they say they are.
If you care for children of mixed age range you may need to section of certain areas or have activities – Risk Assessment and Young People Essay introduction. This would prevent, for example, a child who is crawling from getting access to a climbing frame or unsupervised water-play. Special needs Some children and young people have special needs related to a physical condition, disability, sensory impairment or a learning difficulty. Keeping these children safe while providing them with equal opportunities to play, explore and be active is an additional challenge that requires careful thought.
You may need to adapt play equipment or find suitable enabling or protective aids. Consider also how to make sure children understand safety instructions and can follow them sufficiently Specific risks There may be particular risks to bear in mind. For example, if you are working with colleague who is pregnant, or individuals with a sensory impairment, you will to make allowances. There may also be specific risks associated with particular activities, so you have to make sure to use the relevant safety equipment and give appropriate safety instructions in preparation.
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For example, if you are starting a baking session, don’t begin without making sure that aprons and oven gloves are available, that children know how who may use matches and how to use them safely, that only open the oven when an adult is present, and understand the importance of personal hygiene while cooking 1. 2 Explain how health and safety is monitored and maintained and how people in your work setting are aware of risk and hazards and encouraged to work safely All care settings must have systems in place so that each aspect of health and safety concerning the workplace and practice re checked regularly.
These should be itemized as part of a health and safety policy and include details about how often the checks should take place, who should make the checks and how information must be recorded and reported. Every member of staff has a right to have their health and safety protected and holds an equal responsibility to protect the health and safety of others. This includes the children and young people in your care, their families, your colleagues, visiting practitioners and Other visitors.
For example, a draftsperson such as an electrician might need to do repair or maintenance work during day of a playgroup. During the electrician’s visit children need to be kept safe from dangers such as tools and exposure to electricity, and the electrician must be kept safe from accidents and incidents, such as falling over a dropped toy or slipping in split juice. 1. 3. Identify sources of current guidance for planning healthy and safe environments and services. There are a number of different sources of information available to you.
Your place of work and your local library are good starting points, and a great deal of information can be found on the internet. People leagues – some of your colleagues may have specialist knowledge or wealth of experience from which you can benefit from visiting practitioners people who practice in other professions but come to your workplace as part of the service provision may be able to give you different insights Documents legislation documents explain ways in which health and safety relates to your work and your work role Policies describe under-running principles for safe working.
There will be specific health and safety policy, as well as other related policies, such as safeguarding and moving and handling procedures et detailed instructions about what must happen in particular circumstances, such as a fire alarm sounding, or if a building is to be evacuated, or in a event of a child or young person going missing other professions such as police, social services or healthcare can be contacted by letter to request specific relevant information Public information Health and Safety Executive (HOSE) is a national independent watchdog for work-related health, safety and illness.
Its role is enforce legislation, provide information and advice and run an advocacy service that supports individuals ho have been injured at work to go through a complaints procedure British Safety Council (BBS) is a UK charity offering information and guidance on health, safety and environmental Health Protection Agency (HAP) is an independent UK organization set up protect up to protect the public from infectious disease and environmental hazards. It others advice and information. 1. Explain how current health and safety legislation, policies and procedures are implemented in own work setting or service. Within my work setting we follow The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974. It is the employer’s duty to put leslies and procedures into place to ensure that the setting is meeting the standards of The Health and Safety at Work Act and the employee’s duty to make sure these are followed. We follow this act by making sure that the building and environment is well maintained, clean and safe.
Equipment is stored properly and is regularly checked to ensure it is safe. Hazardous materials and equipment is locked away and we follow the COACH act. We have systems in place to ensure the safety Of children at all times I. E. Fire procedure, accident and illness procedure. We provide adequate facilities to tit the needs and abilities of all children and young people and all members of staff are qualified, CRY checked and given regular training.
Gloves and aprons are worn at all times when dealing with bodily fluids to prevent cross- infection. All accidents and incidents are recorded are reported to the correct person. Practitioners are first aid qualified and are able to deal with minor injuries within the setting. First aid boxes and fire extinguishers are in every room along with a fire whistle to alert other rooms of a fire. We have a health and safety officer who oversees the running of the setting and ensures that sis assessments are regularly carried out and updated.
Staff members are given guidance on how to protect themselves throughout day to day activities and also regarding manual handling. Risk assessments also have to be signed by each practitioner otherwise they are void because the practitioner can say that they haven’t read them, maybe attend courses on health and safety, food hygiene, manual handling etc. Staff meetings to update health and safety requirements. Display the health and safety poster and make sure it is up to date (recently new updated version in our area). 2. Undertake a health and safety assessment in own work setting or service illustrating how its implantation will reduce risk A health and safety risk assessment is a careful examination of any hazards or situations that could cause harm to people or damage to buildings or equipment. In carrying risk assessments you have the opportunity to recognize potential risk before harm occurs and to take measures to avoid or minimize the impact. You can carry out informal risk assessments many times, often without thinking such every time you cross the road or drive a car.
A formal risk assessment process uses structure to identify and assess the risk and find ways to avoid or reduce it to an acceptable level. The five steps of risk assessment that undertake are, l:  1. Identify the hazards 2. Decide who might be harmed and how 3. Evaluate the risks and decide on precaution 4. Record my findings and implement them 5. Review my assessment and update if necessary 2. 4 Explain how health and safety risk assessments are monitored and reviewed Risk assessment is an ongoing process that needs continuous review until the risk is over.
The law does not expect you to eliminate all risk, UT you are required to protect people as far is reasonably practicable and this means monitoring risk and keeping them under review When you work with children and young people the workplace does not usually stay the same from day to day. Different people are around at different times and each individual will have different needs on different occasions. Also over the weeks, new equipment and new activities will be probably be introduced. This means once for all risk assessment.
Regular monitoring and reviewing keeps up with changes, allowing risk assessments to be adjusted and adapted as necessary. When considering how risk assessment might need to changed, I usually think about: The children and young people taking part The staff members who are going to be involved Other people who are around, such as family members, visitors or strangers The weather conditions Time of day The previous activity and how it may impact on this one Any potential hazard that have arisen will also ask the opinion and advice of others, who may spot things that I may have overlook, or have a different viewpoint.
I will also check what has worked well on other occasions and always learn from previous mistakes. . 1 Explain why it is important to take a balanced approach to risk management As practitioners, our main concern is to keep children safe from harm. Doing this can be very hard, as at the same time we need to encourage them to experience risk and challenges. If we try to remove all risks from children’s lives we could be risking restricting their learning experiences. It is very important that We teach children skills that will help those managing dangers and risk for themselves.
Giving children the opportunity to experience a certain level of risky experiences will help them o develop confidence and competence to make their own balance approach is taken in risk taking, so children are not over protected. Children are allowed to play and explore in safe environment and make right decision about risk with the help of adult. Children need to learn how to control risk themselves; by learning what is a safe boundary are with the help of adult, and showing the children how to recognize the risk and dangers in the safest way possible.
When you do any new activity it does create dilemma and conflict at some point between the duty and care and children rights. The activities we do with children, make they are right age for them, and extra care of children during the activity, because if is any things goes wrong then we have to make balance decision between the risk and child right. 32 Explain the dilemma between the rights and choices of children and people and health and safety requirements: Children learn by trying out new experiences and making choices.
But they do not have the skills and judgment always to make safe choices. Careers have the responsibility to identify potential hazards in any situation and to judge hen it is safe to allow a child to undertake an activity or make a choice. Some children need this freedom to explore risk even more than others. For example a disabled child may be restricted in play at home because of parental concern that the child could hurt themselves. In a well-controlled setting the child can be encouraged to explore and try out new skills. Children are usually very good at deciding what is safe or not.
Using large play equipment is a good example of how children assess and manage risk. In the Outdoor area in Foundation Stage there is a climbing wall where I believe that he children should use with caution but also given the chance to decide whether they can get over without hurting themselves or not, thus they are assessing and managing their own risk. This is a choice that they should make themselves, if they are not happy they will get down. However parents and cares who are being over cautious about children may stop a child trying new things out. 3. Give examples from own practice of supporting children or young people to assess and manage risk All children and people are different, but many do exercise a natural caution when trying a new experience or challenge. This can be seen as a self-protective instinct. Risky behavior often comes about when a child has been over protected and not exposed to any risk, so has not learnt how to asses risk Learning how about risk assessment and risk management is a gradual process in which there should be an increasing number of min-steps along the route to independence.
If a child is allowed to get it wrong sometimes, as long as it within a controlled environment where they cannot come too much harm, they will learn from their mistakes. There are a number of ways that I can help to support a child or young person to asses and manage risks safely Be present to physically support a young child physically as they try out new skills, for example, standing behind a very child to give confidence as they negotiate stairs and to be there if they fall Be positive role model, for example holding a safety rail/wearing a bike helmet/ using safety belts and explaining why these precautions re necessary.
Be encouraging by praising effort and highlighting competence and achievement Create opportunities to practice decision-making such as when crossing a road, suggested a child tells when they think it is safe to do so Talk over the recess of accessing ask as you carrying out task, for example, I’ll use an oven glove so don’t burn myself on the cooker Allow enough time for process of risk assessment to take properly Support parents to let go as they allow children to more independent choices Increase opportunities for independent decision making for children and young people as they get older 4. Explain the policies and procedures of the settings or service in response to accidents, incidents, emergencies and illness In my setting there several policies and procedures that I adhere to which include first aid, fire and accident and emergency. I refer to them at all times. 4. Identify the correct procedures or recording and reporting accidents, incidents emergencies and illness As an early years setting we have policies and procedures in place for how we respond to accidents, incidents, emergencies and illness and procedures for reporting and recording Sickness and illness: The settings policy for the exclusion of children with sick or infectious children is displayed in our waiting room; these include the period of time we require a child to stay home following a bout of sickness or diarrhea or other infectious illness such a chicken pox.
When infectious illness is discovered, such as head lice, parents are notified by signs being put up. If a child, following consultation with a qualified medical professional has an infectious disease which is on the modifiable diseases list then Offset are informed. If a child becomes ill whilst at the setting there parent/career are called, if they are not available we have a list of authorized emergency contacts who can come and collect the child, until such time the child is cared for in an appropriate area of the setting.
If a child becomes unwell and is a cause for serious once then an ambulance would be called. Certain illnesses as Meningitis need rapid action, there are posters in our waiting room to advice people on what to do should meningitis be suspected, age specific symptom lists and aids to diagnose such as the glass test. We have procedures and specific cleaning kit for use on spilled bodily fluids. Accident/First Aid: We have a qualified first eider in the setting or on an outing at any one time.
The first eiders are listed on a notice for everyone to see should they require help. If a child has an accident at the setting and requires first aid then the elevate qualified person will use the settings first aid kit which is easily accessible and regularly checked. When an accident occurs we fill out or accident book which details; where, when, how and what treatment was administered. The parents/career is then informed and asked to sign it at the end of the session.
If the injury is more severe and requires further medical attention then the parent/career or authorized is contacted and informed or following signed consent on the settings registration form the child can be taken to the nearest Accident and Emergency unit. We have a duty to inform Offset and the Health and Safety Executive of any injury that requires treatment by a medical professional or in the event of the death. Reviewing the accident book half termed allows us to identify any potential or actual hazards.
We have an Evacuation Bag which is taken out with us whenever we go outside of the premises or on off site visits/trips the contents of our evacuation bag include: First Aid Kit, Cold Compress, Accident Book, Fire Alarm Whistle, Individual child’s medication in own container, tissues, anti-bacterial hand gel, mobile phones, daily signing in/out sheets, contact details of parents/careers and emergency contacts. Incidents: When an incident occurs at the setting we record it in our Incident book which is kept in the office filing cabinet.
An incident could be a break in or theft, vandalism, dangerous occurrence, injury or fatality. In the incident book we record the date and time of the incident, nature of the event, who was affected, what was done about it – or if it was reported to the police, and if so a crime number. Any follow up, or insurance claim made, should also be recorded. We comply with current HOSE Regulations and report to the Health ND Safety executive.
Risk Assessment and Young People Essay
Support Children and Young People’s Health and Safety – Risk Assessment and Young People Essay introduction. 1 Understand how to plan and provide environments and services that support children and young people’s health and safety. 1. 3 Identify sources of current guidance for planning healthy and safe environments and services. The Health & safety executive: HSE is the national independent watchdog for work-related health, safety and illness. They are an independent regulator and act in the public interest to reduce work-related death and serious injury across Great Britain’s workplaces
Child accident prevention trust: They are committed to reducing the number of children and young people killed, disabled or seriously injured in accidents. Department for schools and families The Department for Education is committed to creating a world-class state education system. They will work to improve the opportunities and experiences available to children and the education workforce by focusing on the following priorities: Giving greater autonomy to schools Improving parental choice Offering more support for the poorest Whole system improvement
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Great quality provision for children A Workplace’s policies and procedures: Risk Assessment: Risk Assessments are a legal requirement mainly under the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999, although most health and safety legislation requires a risk assessment approach. 1. 4 Explain how current health and safety legislation, policies and procedures are implemented in own work setting or service. We have folders with all the policies and procedures for the whole school in them so if we aren’t sure about something we can go to the folder and find out.
Also when we get new staff they are given a hand book with all the policies and procedures in it which they have to read through before they start. Also we as a team make sure we are following policies and procedures on a day to day basis by reminding each other and supporting each other. For example we have two different policies for personal care in the school in my class the policy is one person to attend to a child’s personal care with the door open, whereas in all the other classes they have to have two people with a child but can close the door.
You will also have to take part in the interview and perform the post-interview activities – Unit Assignment Brief Essay introduction. As this is your first interview the HER manager has asked you to analyses and evaluate your experience so that you can improve in future. Tasks You have to produce the interview pack for the interview panel to use. This must include: Shortlist Tasks and test for the interview Interview questions (ensuring they are within the legislation and ethical constraints) Procedure for interview decisions Job offer to the successful candidates
Informing unsuccessful candidates Using your interview pack you must take part in the selection process both as an interviewer and an interviewee You have been asked to write a report to analyses your contribution to the process, and evaluate your experience of planning and participating both as an interviewer and an interviewee. Evidence you must produce for this task Interview pack Report Criteria covered by this task: To achieve the criteria you must show that you are able to: Unit Criterion reference
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Plan to take part in a selection interview 13 L 04. Up Take part in a selection interview ALL. UP Analyses your contribution to the selection process in a given situation 13 ALL. MM Evaluate your experience of planning and participation in the recruitment and selection process 13 ALL. DO Sources of information www. Biked. AC. UK Educational website www. Hallucinogens. AC. UK corporate website vim. Tutor. Co. UK Educational website.
Joanne had worked in a house for over three old ages in the Research Department – How to deal with an abusive boss Essay introduction. She was a hard-worker, turning in every assignment on the due day of the month and being a more than obedient employee. After the terminal of the first twelvemonth, her wellness started deteriorating. She felt ill frequently, describing megrims and easy, her productiveness went down-hill. One twenty-four hours after work, she was seen running out of the office, crying.She hasn’t slept for months, she is ever distressed and unnerved and when asked why, she nods her caput in soundless dismissal.
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Meanwhile, her co-workers point out that their supervisor, Mr.Frederick ever seems to indicate out and take a cleft at her work, and is ever dissing her in forepart of them, when Joanne seems to be making nil incorrect. What is even worse, they say is that although everyone is entitled to be nominated for an employee award, she hasn’t even been listed one time.
Is this form relatable? An American Survey suggests that about every employee might hold faced atleast one case which they may hold to be “abusive” , from their direct supervisor or foreman. An of import thing to clear up here is to decode the exact significance of maltreatment, and its stature in the position quo.
After all, the nature of the remedy can be understood by its possible amendss and features.
Workplace Abuse: Is it Legal? Illegal?
The ambiguity of workplace maltreatment, in all its battalions is the lending factor as to why it has been misunderstood by many, and therefore, it is frequently over-looked by employees and employers likewise.
Remember the clip when your instructor might hold screamed at you in forepart of the full category, for no ground? Or the clip when you felt that the same instructor was pointedly picking on you for no ground?
How is this related to workplace maltreatment, you may inquire, but psychologists province that intimidation and being picked on by instructors are the most fundamental signifiers of maltreatment, and this analogy is cardinal in understanding the way of maltreatment.
Many a times we might’ve been heart-broken and profoundly affected by the reaction and general un-appreciation of the instructor, but is it illegal for the instructor to indicate to you, every clip? And while we are on the topic, is it improper for foremans to maintain seting you down?
Outstanding psychologist, Dr.Lynn Johnson says that workplace maltreatment is clearly different from gender favoritism, racial favoritism and sexual torment. While these are all types of workplace maltreatment, these are the 1s that can be taken into tribunal and can be convicted.
Harmonizing to the Workplace Bullying Institute, we can understand the exact definition of workplace maltreatment and what can be deduced is that anyindicant of changeless bullying,menaces, anyefforts of undermining work chancesandverbal maltreatmentall come under the cover of work-place maltreatment.
Atrocious, right? However, none of these actions have been ruled as “illegal” by states, and therefore is the ground its rampant rise in today’s society.
Signs of workplace intimidation:
Harmonizing to Divergent.com, this sort of maltreatment isn’t specifically set to one gender, and what is more dismaying is that the most common typeset of maltreatment is propagated by adult females higher-ups towards adult females, lending to 60 % of workplace maltreatment. The male on male cases of work-place maltreatment make up 12 % of the pie-chart, 30 % are the cases of maltreatment by a male superior towards female employees.
So, now that we can set up that it can be perpetrated by both genders, across a big spectrum of actions, what are some tell-tale marks of workplace maltreatment?
There are a few words associated with workplace maltreatment, and maintaining in head these words while associating them to the incident where you may probably believe you are a victim.
Isolation:The most important mark of workplace maltreatment is when your superior singles you out and you are the lone mark for his changeless disapprovals, abuses or choler. When a superior behaves this manner to all of his employees, it isn’t so much maltreatment, since it could be a major personality defect. Isolation creates an unstable vacuity of ideas in the heads of the victim, while it may be emancipating to the culprit.
REPETITIVE:When your foreman cries at you one time, he could be holding a bad twenty-four hours. Twice, take it with a pinch of salt. If you find him singling you out and average petroleum and harsh all the clip, you can be certain it is one signifier of work-place maltreatment. Abuse and strong-arming are insistent in nature, since it is an intricate merger of one’s personality towards another, merely perpetrated by manner of their occupations.
Once the maltreatment has been identified, it’s of import to cognize how to face it and cover with it. Here are a few ways:
There are NO fringe benefits of being a wall-flower:
One of the psychological thrusts being workplace intimidation or maltreatment is the esthesis of laterality. And laterality is frequently directed towards the more soundless, lame and obedient. By exerting any of the marks of workplace intimidation, what the culprit Bankss on, is the silence of their victim. By standing up for oneself, this barbarous nexus can be dissipated. When you confront the supervisor, you stand up for your rights and what you are as a individual.
And what you are is strong. Establishing this firmly throws a bully napping and even builds some regard from their side. When you can sternly province that you are guiltless and it is doing you hurt, the scoundrel might merely endorse off.
Bing a door-mat isn’t traveling to work out the job.
Vantage point for the state of affairs:
Workplace intimidation can be hard to descry, and what is most important at this point, is to take a measure back and objectively measure the state of affairs.
Ask yourself some of these inquiries:
-Is my foreman this manner merely to me or in general to all my co-workers?
-Is he invariably mortifying me in forepart of my equals or was it merely my work that was non upto the grade?
-Have I lost out on chances and advantages because of his alleged “dislike” towards me?
Opportunities are that if your foreman shows evident displeasure is unpleasant, you might non be the lone one to detect it. If this is the instance, so it is easier to rectify as you have like-minded equals would desire to work out the issue every bit much as you. One manner to get the better of intimidation is to halt allowing it affect you.That is what the tough wants. Once you are unagitated, patient and strong-minded, you can be certain that their bad attitude will non upset you.
When the traveling gets tough, name in the military personnels:
If you find that your supervisor’s Acts of the Apostless have a toll on your wellness and productiveness and you feel hard-pressed, rattled and insulted due to state of affairss from work, the bounds might merely be crossed off.
Work-place maltreatment may travel unnoticed, but they are similar weeds in a garden of roses.
When one finds that they are merely unable to stand up for themselves, they can describe to the Human Resources Department. Although these patterns may look “tattle-tale”-like, it is of import that you involve people who are designed to work out state of affairss of this sort.
After all, most toughs are unlogical and irrational, so there may be no usage in sitting and seeking to screen it out. They might be able to acquire you a transportation in place or section, and possibly even to throw out the supervisor.
They say that the one thing every employee wants is a safe environment. Workplace intimidation is damaging to the mind of an employee, and it is seen that 60 % of offices have reported atleast one case of work-place intimidation. Eliminating it is every bit of import as eschewing off strong-arming in educational establishments.
After all, looking after your morale is inviolable for your wellness and development, and if the state of affairs isn’t solved, take your endowment and bent elsewhere.
1 – Standard 7 Person Centred Support Essay introduction. Promote person centred values in everyday work 1. 1Understand how to put person centred values into practice in your day to day work By protecting the rights and promote the interest of the individuals, strive to establish and maintained the trust of the each individuals, promote individual’s independence while protecting them from harm and danger, respect the right of the individuals while making sure that they don’t harm others. 1. Understand why it is important to work in a way that promotes these values when providing support to the individuals The aspects of health and social care work is important because the care value base able the care settings to meet the need of all the clients. if they did not exist in a care settings then the client/ individual would not reach their full potential. 1. 3Understand how to promote dignity in your day to day work with the individual you support
The care value base sets out rules and guidance for every carer to follow in order to provide service to an individual by: promoting anti-discriminatory practice, maintaining confidentiality of information, promoting and supporting individual right to dignity, independence, choice and safety, acknowledge of people personal beliefs and identities, protecting individuals from abuse, by providing effective communications and relationship, providing individualised care Working in a person centred way 2. 1Recognize the features of working in a person centred way Person-centred approaches are about the individual being the centre of their care and support plan enabling them to have control over their lives. Person-centred approaches are about enabling individuals to live their own lives and not just providing a service. It is about focusing on the individual person’s needs.
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Service user has a right to plan their own lives and be at the centre of any planning that is done for them, a right to be part of their community, and a right to live their lives as they want, and if they need support to do this for this support to be provided in a way in which they want it. 2. 2Understand why is it important to find out the history, preference, wishes and needs of the individuals you are supporting The more you know about the individual the more I will be able to assist them in their needs, wishes and preferences.
Person Centred Care is a major skills acquired by a healthcare providers.Which main target is individual traits of character in doing health care provision – Person Centred Care Essay introduction. Treat every person as a unique human being disregard his/her age, culture, sex and race.Acknowledge, respect, and take into considerations the choice that every service is entitled to. Set some standards for practice but not so precise to deny the specific application demands of each individual uniqueness. Guidelines might be essential for the care providers to include complex concerns that help the nurses but sometimes leads to apart a patients’ rights.
According to Professor Draper ,getting to know the person behind the illness is the key principle of person centred nursing care.We as the care providers needs to listen diligently to our patients conditions, treat as a unique human being.
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Psychologist Carl Rogers, founder of person care centred define as ” structure result from distributing pont of view and assertion of oneself “. It is a positive persuasion belief of our senses, ideas, and valuing of a person capabilities of what he/she can do. It is having assurance to see her actions as interactions made with confidence. Roger use these therapy in treating individual as a person to improve his quality of life. Carl establish supporting evidence that individual inductive knowledge as the fundamental healthful effect. He also states that the therapeutic process is substantial achievement made by the patient. He strongly believed that his structured analysis should be practice rather than the other way round. His persuasion for the improvement of care is based on sincerely felt or expressed in a genuine emotion in helping patient grief.
Some Psychologist criticised Rogers method for insufficient structure and by Psychoanalyst in providing care relationship , which in some studies, proves to be effective and approved therapy. Carl Rogers optimistic and warmer approach stated that Individuals self concept and understanding modify behavior way and means of letting facilitative attitudes.
The Royal College of Nursing adapted Rogers analysis by using person care centred in all aspect of holistic care system given to patients, colleague, and relatives. It was recommended at all levels of health care organisations from government policy-making to a group of health care providers that they operate. Contributing to the overall idea of excellence care delivered in nursing practice.
By delivering PCC in our practice we combine Rogers method of care a genuinely following the concepts of person centred care by:
Highly consider everyone and by showing them that they are worthy of esteem. Respect and consider their opinions with regards to the whole course of treatment.Listen to their interest, dislikes and honor their views if they refuse to be treated. Respect individual judgment consider it as a challenge for improvement. As a healthcare provider everyone expected to have a different desire and wishes. We hold and accept those attention and disposition into considerations.
Be an open minded with their distinction, dissimilarity, and characteristics quality could adhere corresponds to their needs. Asking for their preference needs could mean a lot in delivering care and building a good therapeutic relationships between them.
According to (Chambo and Amned, 2000), effective communication is versed as a device part of excellence care. Linguistic communication involves knowledge substitute of refining moral and intellectual of a person and cognitive content of individuals.(Gillam and Levenson, 1999).
Continuity and trustworthiness is of great significance vision of nursing care.
(Patmore,2001; Raynos et al., 2001 5WRDU,2007; Francis and Nelten ,2006). It is particularly noted the importance of effective communication towards the whole aspect of care.
Patient security is established in NMC code ( Nursing and Midwifery Council 2008), and the RCN Principles of Nursing Practice (RCN 2010a) as a substantial area of risk of danger every patient in the practice.(RCN 2010b, Principles). Provides updated information about patient safety.
Valuable Things of a Person Centred Care in Practice:
The objective of these study is to transform our knowledge and experience into an excellence accomplishment in in of PCC in our clinical skills. Staff of all levels are expected to use the person centred care as a standard important basis in determinants of the quality care and significantly the client experience of that care. Our contribution as a humane quality of better understanding the sufferings of others and wanting to do something about it. Rogers concept theory was widely used healthcare settings area because it was focus on the humanistic therapies. Better knowledge of ones consciousness rather than external observation.
Person centred care was implemented in nursing practice by taking into considerations client unconditional positive regard.Accept their own personality and characteristics as they really are. To hold and consider their worth and being value regardless of their status in the society. Estimate the true nature of a person is one of the structure model discuss in person centred care. We carefully maintained our positive attitude towards client.
Being empathetic to clients feelings and always participate good communication skills. Understanding truly their feelings. Rogers describe empathic understanding, as an experience of each client, how life was viewed and interpret, but Rogers emphasised that
If you put yourself into their world and truly deeply understand feels to be in their world , without being judgmental you will precisely undesirable believe to be an effective role well in delivering excellence care.
Work as a team by getting assurance, trust, and hope to the people we rendered care. Able to listen and hear what they want and connect to us how we value them. Our positive words with them fully assured with professional confidence. Having the power of positive direction influence our care with our client . Person centred care strengthen our movement in focusing care with them.
Being a role model and implementing person centred care in nursing practice, gives others a chance to follow your acts and play in the same pattern in accordance to NMC code of nursing practice. Inspire and increase everyone confidence to help forward the quality of care in nursing practice. Good motivation and challenges others requires full use of resources in performing most challenging task in delivering care ideality.
To partnerships with families, colleagues and other social care people gives you satisfactory outgrow. Positive relationship and building their trust means a lot to you as a person who gives care with their family. You meet their needs and expectation is already a great contribution in nursing practice.
The Impact of Person Centred Care in all Healthcare Providers:
They are worthy of special considerations, respected by others.
Your contribution using PCC in clinical skills played a positive results. The act of feeling proud in sharing advance role model in your place of work.
The conscientious activity that you intended do in nursing practice gives you accomplishment something.
It is a gift something that is acquired without any receiving compensation.
Exercise your skills with independence and confidence.
Freedom to control and influence of another or others.
Harmonious relationships which established in person centred care.
Your truthfulness would give you space to reflect and develop with each other and to our client.
A positive connections between client feelings supported and wanting to go
extra mile to support others.
Functioning competently. Practicing you skills sufficiently and to be a qualified nurse in future.
Reflecting, listening to each others, a good pathway communication between you and and your colleagues.
Recognition and appraisal in your own orientational team.
Effective communication demonstrated highly authority in your responsibility.
Trust relationship was build up in practicing PCC.
Practicing your skills without any risk of danger to your client or patient.
Positive feedback being rewarded in using person centred care in your clinical areas.
Working in a safe environment.
Patients/ clients receiving excellent level of quality care.
Support your enthusiasm especially among general public, groups, and the organisation.
Excellent planning, knowledge base, update information, good resources and training.
Interact with your colleagues,client as a unique individual.
Being motivated and be ready for any task that are waiting to be done. By using PCC in nursing practice with decreased complai
Describe Rogers’ theory with attention to the following four areas: * General theory/philosophy * Theory of personality * Acquisition of dysfunction * “Treatment” of dysfunction This essay will begin by introducing Carl Rogers, with a brief description of his upbringing and career background and will go on to discuss the main areas of his theory – Carl Rogers – Person-Centred Therapy Essay introduction. The humanistic philosophy will be explained briefly and will lead on to Carl Rogers’ own humanistic beliefs and the birth of client-centred therapy.
Carl Rogers’ theory of the human personality will be explored, mainly Rogers’ idea of self and the self-concept and a person’s natural actualising tendency. This will lead on to his beliefs around the acquisition of human dysfunction, primarily being the imposed conditions of worth present from birth and a person’s internal locus of evaluation becoming external. This will then be brought to Rogers’ main theories of the “treatments” for these dysfunctions, concentrating on his six necessary and sufficient conditions within a therapeutic relationship and the positive effects these have on the client.
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The essay will then be brought to a conclusion, drawing together the main points and ideas from the essay. Carl Ransom Rogers was born on January 8th 1902 in Chicago, USA. He was one of six children who grew up in a fundamentalist Christian family. While he once felt he was called to become a Christian minister he eventually went on to embark on a career as a clinical psychologist. Rogers found it increasingly difficult to adapt to the ideas of behaviourism and psychoanalysis so he began to formulate his own ideas from his personal experience with clients and thus created client-centred therapy (Thorne, 2003).
The person-centred approach is a part of the group of approaches referred to as ‘humanistic psychology. ’ Humanistic psychology takes a phenomenological approach to the person. It is concerned with the human as an organic being and values human nature above the more scientific theories. It focuses on how the person experiences and perceives themselves and the world around them, whilst also believing the person to be continually in a process of growth.
It also takes an existential view of life, valuing the person’s autonomy and personal responsibility (Merry, 2002). According to Richard Gross, humanistic theories are concerned with characteristics that are distinctly and uniquely human. He describes how we have first-hand experience of ourselves as people and therefore are the experts on understanding our own behaviour. He also explains that Rogers himself saw human nature in a very optimistic light and believed that people are generally good and healthy (Gross, 2010).
A main humanistic belief is that of the actualizing tendency. Rogers himself believed this was a natural part of every human and that it was the single motivation present in every human being to maintain itself, grow, improve and move towards their full potential (Mearns and Thorne, 2007). He also described it as “…the tendency of the organism to maintain itself – to assimilate food, to behave defensively in the face of threat, to achieve the goal of self-maintenance even when the usual pathway to that goal is blocked.
We are speaking of the tendency of the organism to move in the direction of maturation, as maturation is defined for each species” (Rogers, 1951 cited in Mearns and Thorne, 2007). It is clear that he believed it was the fundamental force that drives the person towards fulfilment and development. Rogers’ also had many beliefs around the human personality. Lawrence A. Pervin explains that the main concept in Rogers’ theory of personality is that of the self and the self-concept.
Rogers believed that the individual perceives experiences and objects in the world around them and attaches meaning and value to them. The complete system of these perceptions is known as the person’s phenomenal field. Pervin then goes on to explain “Those parts of the phenomenal field seen by the individual as ‘self,’ ‘me,’ or ‘I,’ make up the self” (Pervin, 1993:174). The self-concept describes how a person views him or herself and is developed over time. It is dependent on the attitudes of the significant people around them, how they relate to the world and their own perceptions of themselves.
The person may trust other people’s ideas of reality and incorporate them in to their self-concept as though they were their own. (Thorne, no date, online) Another main concept within Rogers’ personality theory, as discussed earlier is that of the actualizing tendency. A person’s self-actualization, in an ideal world where it would not be hindered in any way would naturally lead the person towards reaching their full potential and becoming a fully functioning person (Mearns and Thorne, 2007). Rogers’ himself describes this as a process and a direction rather than a fixed destination (Rogers, 1961).
While a person moves naturally towards self-actualization this can be seriously hindered by what Rogers described as conditions of worth. In simple terms this can be described as the shaping of a child’s self-concept dependant on what is deemed acceptable behaviour to the child’s parents. This concept will be explored fully later in this essay. In an ideal world where parents were unconditional in their love for their child, the child would not have to adapt to suit their parents, therefore self-actualizing and growing in to a fully functioning person without any conditions of worth (Merry, 2002).
John Mcleod (2009) explains that from a very early age a child has a strong need to be loved and valued, usually by the significant people in their life, particularly their parents. However the love or approval from parents is not always unconditional and the child may find it difficult to grow with an acceptance of themselves and will begin to mould themselves, their behaviours and feelings in the way that is acceptable and approved of by their parents. Rogers described these as conditions of worth. He describes the self-concept of the child being shaped by their parent’s influences.
Tony Merry explains that babies begin to learn that some things are acceptable and some are not. Behaviour that their parents find acceptable will be rewarded and anything they do not believe is acceptable will be less rewarded or looked upon with negativity. Because of this the child will grow up wanting certain types of experiences, generally those that create positive reactions in people (Merry 2002). Richard Nelson-Jones describes this as a learned need for positive regard from others that will remain throughout childhood and continue in to adulthood.
This can become confusing then, if for instance the child is conditioned to believe that his/her natural behaviour is unacceptable. For example if a child is rewarded for apparent ‘tough’ behaviour and not rewarded, or even disapproved of for a soft nature, the child will begin to value themselves based on others perceptions and ideas rather that their own organismic valuing process. The child’s self-worth will become dependent on the positive regard shown to them by others by behaving in ways that others believe is worthy of respect and love.
The child’s self-concept would become distorted and as they grow in to adulthood they would believe fully that these behaviours are a part of their natural, true self (Nelson-Jones, 2010). Merry describes that someone who has acquired many conditions of worth and whose self-concept is distorted would become incongruent, this means that their conditioned self and their natural, organismic self would not match up. They would search for positive regard from others and have little faith in their own judgments and opinions; they would trust others evaluations and ideas above their own.
Rogers describes this as having an external locus of evaluation rather than an internal locus of evaluation. The person looks for confirmation from outside sources rather than themselves. This would ultimately cause very low self-esteem and self-confidence. Furthermore, if the persons conditioned self and organismic self are un-matching this may cause increasing confusion, tension, anxiety and depression in adult life. Rogers believed that the necessary treatment for these dysfunctions was for the person to experience the correct conditions within a therapeutic relationship.
The person would then be able to dissolve these conditions of worth and gradually their organismic and conditioned selves would merge. The self and self-concept would become one and they would be in a state of congruence. The person would be able to over-come issues such as anxiety and depression and live a more contented life. They would possess an internal locus of evaluation, trusting in their own judgements rather than depending on the opinions of others and would truly accept and understand themselves as individuals (Merry, 2002).
Carl Rogers describes six conditions that he believed to be necessary for therapeutic change. He stated that “No other conditions are necessary. If these six conditions exist and continue over a period of time, this is sufficient. The process of constructive personality change will follow. ” (Rogers, 1957a, cited in Merry, 2002:49). Although most attention were later given to three of the six conditions of which have become known as the core conditions, six were originally described by Rogers as necessary and sufficient for therapeutic change.
The three core conditions are all employed by the counsellor and are attitudinal qualities and values that are more about the counsellor’s beliefs than counselling techniques (Casemore, 2011). The first of the six necessary and sufficient conditions states a need for the client and therapist to be in psychological contact. Rogers believed that significant change in the client could not occur unless they are in relationship. He stated that all that is intended for the first condition is that the two people are in contact and that “each makes some erceived difference in the experiential field of the other. ” (Rogers, 1957 cited in Kirschenbaum 1990:221). The second of the six conditions states that the client should be in a state of incongruence, being vulnerable or anxious. This incongruence, as described earlier in this essay is an un-matching of the person’s self-concept and organismic self. When a person is unaware of the incongruence in them, they can become vulnerable to such things as anxiety and depression (Rogers, 1957 cited in Kirschenbaum 1990). The third condition as Brian Thorne explains states that the therapist should be congruent.
This means that the therapist would be completely themselves, completely transparent and not hiding behind a professional facade. It is the matching of what the therapist feels on the inside with what is portrayed on the outside. This however is dependent on the therapist maintaining a high level of self-awareness in order for them to be constantly in touch with their own feelings so that they are available to communicate this with the client when it is appropriate. Rogers came to believe that congruence was the most fundamental of the attitudinal qualities of the therapist that promotes growth in the client.
The fourth condition requires the therapist to experience unconditional positive regard for the client. This is an unconditional acceptance and caring of the person without any judgement or evaluation. Rogers liked to use the term ‘prizing. ’ Thorne goes on to explain the fifth condition which is that of the therapist experiencing an empathic understanding of the client’s internal frame of reference. Rogers described an ‘as if’ quality that stated the importance of the therapist entering the world of the client, thinking and feeling as if they were the client, without losing the ‘as if’ quality.
It is also of fundamental importance here to communicate this empathic understanding with the client in order for the client to experience this empathy (Thorne, 2003) The importance Rogers placed on the communication of empathy with the client is reflected in the last of the six conditions which states that the client perceives, to a minimal degree the therapist’s empathic understanding and unconditional acceptance for them. Rogers believed that if these conditions were not perceived by the client then they did not exist in the relationship and the therapeutic process would be hindered (Rogers, 1957 cited in Kirschenbaum 1990).
Although Rogers specified that these six conditions together were necessary and sufficient, most attention has been paid to the conditions of congruence, unconditional positive regard and empathy. These became known in the late 1960’s as ‘the core conditions. ’ These three conditions describe attitudes or qualities present in the counsellor and do not describe a technique used by the therapist but are a part of the therapist’s person (Merry, 2002).
Rogers’ (1964) states “If I can create the proper climate, the proper relationship, the proper conditions a process of therapeutic movement will almost inevitably occur in my client. ” Rogers’ then goes on to describe this therapeutic change in more detail, stating that if these conditions were present, a variety of things are likely to happen. He explains that the client may begin to explore their feelings more deeply and begin to discover hidden aspects of themselves that were not previously known.
If a client is prized by him they may begin to prize themselves and if they sense realness from him they may begin to be more real with themselves. Furthermore, if the client feels a deep understanding and acceptance from him, they may be more willing to listen to their own feelings and move towards an acceptance of themselves. Finally, he believes the client would move from having an external locus of evaluation to an internal locus of evaluation, trusting in their own judgments and opinions.
On reflection, this essay introduced Carl Rogers with a brief over-view of his upbringing and career background and lead on to describe and explore his theory of person-centred therapy, paying close attention to four main areas; general person-centred theory, Rogers’ theory of personality, his ideas about the acquisition of human dysfunction and what he believed to be the necessary “treatment” of these dysfunctions. While explaining the general theory of person-centred therapy, humanistic psychology, of which person-centred theory is a part, was explored paying attention to how it views the person.
Generally speaking humanistic theory values the human being and believes the person to be an organic, continually growing being while focusing on how the person experiences and perceives themselves and the world around them. Carl Rogers’ himself was optimistic in his view of the person and believed that humans are generally good and healthy. This then lead on to Rogers’ theory of the actualizing tendency that he believes is present in every human being giving a natural need to grow and develop and become a fully functioning person.
The essay then moved on to describing Rogers’ theory of personality where the self and the self-concept were described. Rogers believed that the individual perceives experiences and objects in the world around them and attaches meaning and value to them. He also believed that a person can unknowingly take on board another’s views and opinions and this can become a part of their self-concept, however distorted. The acquisition of human dysfunction was then described, looking at Rogers’ theory of conditions of worth. Rogers’ believed that a child is conditioned by their parents depending on what they find acceptable.
This can then cause the child’s self-concept to become distorted and for them in later life to possess an external locus of evaluation. The “treatment” of dysfunction was explained in detail looking at Rogers’ six original therapeutic conditions of which he believed were necessary and sufficient for therapeutic change in the client, whilst pointing out the three conditions; congruence, unconditional positive regard and empathy that later became known as the ‘core conditions. ’ The essay then explained finally the positive affects these conditions have on the client within a therapeutic relationship.
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