Examples of Students Essays

Person-centred and Systems Theory approach case study based Essay Example

Person-centred and Systems Theory approach case study based Essay

Case Study :

Ramesh is 45 year old Sri Lankan man who works as a telephone call centre agent – Person-centred and Systems Theory approach case study based Essay introduction. He was close to and lived with his mother, who died 18 months ago. Ramesh was recently hospitalised after a suicide attempt. He had been taking anti-depressants for several months before he took an overdose. According to his sister, he had become depressed and was drinking and smoking a lot, and hardly ever eating. He had been taking time off work, and was at risk of losing his job with BT. His sister says that Ramesh went downhill after the death of their mother, but that she was surprised at this as he always complained about all the things he had to do for her when she was alive. The sister has a family of her own, but says that she has tried to involve Ramesh in her family, but he had mostly refused. He had some friends who he used to play cricket with, but he has stopped seeing them. He had been saying that there’s nothing to live for, and he wanted to be left alone. Ramesh is due to be released from hospital in two weeks’ time.

Introduction

The purpose of this essay is to critically analyse the Task-centred and client-centred approaches to Social Work Intervention. I will initially explain their main principles, advantages and disadvantages and apply them to the assessment, planning and intervention of the above case study. Particular attention will be paid to how these perspectives inform the application of anti-oppressive practice (AOP). The word ‘perspective’ describes a partial ‘view of the world’ (Payne 1997:290) and is often used to attempt to order and make sense of experiences and events from a particular and partial viewpoint. The reason for choosing these two theories is because they can be used simultaneously. One of the major attributes of the Person Centred approach is the emphasis on relationship building between the Social Worker and the service user, which therefore makes it easier to set out the tasks that need to be carried out because lines of communication have been opened up

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Task- centred Approach

The task-centred model is a short-term, problem-solving approach to social work practice. It is a major approach in clinical social work perhaps because unlike other several practice models, it was developed for and within Social Work (Stepney and Ford, 2000). My reasoning behind adopting this approach is because it is essentially a clear and practical model that can be adapted for use in a wide range of situations. It is designed to help in the resolution of difficulties that people experience in interacting with their social situations, where internal feelings of discomfort are associated with events in the external world. One of the many benefits of planned short-term work is that both the Social Worker and Client put immediate energy into the work because the time is limited. The dangers of the effectiveness of the intervention being reliant on the Social Worker/Client relationship, which may or may not work out, are minimised in the short-term. The model consists of five phases.

Phase one

This is the problem exploration phase and is characterised by mutual clarity. Problems are defined as an unmet or unsatisfied wants perceived by the client (Reid, 1978). The client should be as clear as the social worker about the processes that will be followed in order to fully participate fully in the work. Involving the service user right from the initial phase has the advantage that they feel empowered and is a good example of anti-oppressive practice. Less commonly the worker may take the lead in identifying the problems but however must be careful not to detract from the clients’ unique expertise in the understanding of their own individual situation. This phase normally takes from one to two interviews although some cases may require more. It ends with setting up of initial tasks. In Ramesh’s case the Social Worker will be using the following sequential Steps.

Identifying with Ramesh the reasons for the intervention in the first place. Explain to Ramesh how long the process will take (roughly between 4- 6 weeks). The social worker has to assess Ramesh’s ability to understand his problems and their extent especially taking into consideration that he has issues with alcohol and dependent on anti-depressant drugs. Establish whether Ramesh acknowledges he has a problem and is willing to do something about it. The process of problem exploration will entail the answering of a series of questions: How did his problems begin?

What happens typically when Ramesh drinks a lot of alcohol?

How often this happening iand what quantities of alcohol is he going through per day/week? What efforts (if any) he himself has put into resolving his problems?

Phase two

This is when the selecting and prioritising of the problems occur. This has to be what both the Social Worker and Ramesh acknowledge as the ‘Target problem’ and explicitly agree will become the focus of their work together. Commonly there will be a series of problems identified and will be ranked in order of their importance (Stepney and Ford, 2000). There are basically three routes for problem identification. The most common is through client initiation. Clients express complaints which are then explored. A second route is interactive. Problems emerge through a dialogue between the practitioner and client in which neither is a clear initiator. In the third route to problem identification the practitioner is clearly the initiator. So for example, using the information in case study, the problems could be listed as: Dependence on alcohol

Excessive smoking

Isolation

Phase three

Following the identification and ranking of target problems stage, the first problem to be identified will need to be framed within a ‘problem statement’. The client’s acceptance of the final problem statement leads to a contract that will guide subsequent work. Both practitioner and client agree to work toward solution of the problem(s) as formulated. The way the problems are framed and defined are crucial in motivating both the Social Worker and the service user. The ultimate goal is to avoid the service user from feeling over-whelmed or that the goals set are unachievable. Therefore they have to be set in a realistic manner which also reflect the concerns and wishes of the service user, again this re-enforces anti-oppressive practice issues. They should be clear and unambiguous and which lend themselves, as far as possible, to some sort of measurement so that the Social Worker and service user can tell what progress is being made. So for instance if it is agreed that Ramesh’s dependence on alcohol is the priority, the Social Worker can suggest and also help him join an Alcohol support group. Agree on the number of meetings he’ll attend. Not only will the support group help him tackle the alcohol issues but will also give him the opportunity to be around other people and interact with them. Gradually this should help eliminate the isolation issues which are major facilitator of depression. Evidence shows that the more support and services the person has, the more stable their environment. The more stable their environment, the better the chances of dealing with their substance problems (Azrin 1976, Costello 1980, Dobkin et al 2002, Powell et al 1998). An important secondary purpose of the model is to bring about contextual change as a means of preventing recurrence of problems and of strengthening the functioning of the client system. One of the issues Ramesh is dealing with is depression which according to his sister was triggered by his mother’s death. With his approval, it might be useful for Ramesh to be referred for bereavement counselling in order to come to terms with losing his mother. Other important things that need to be considered during this phase are ways of establishing incentives and motivation for task performance. The task may not itself satisfy Ramesh’s ‘wants’ but at least he must see it as a step in that direction. Phase four

This is the stage where implementation of tasks between sessions occurs. There is not a great deal to say about this self-evident phase, however, that is not to say it is not an important phase. Its success will depend on all the groundwork undertaken in the previous phases of the process. Task implementation addresses the methods for achieving the task(s), which should be negotiated with the service user, and according to Ford and Postle, (2000:55) should be; ‘’designed to enhance the problem solving skills of participants…it is important that tasks undertaken by clients involve elements of decision making and self-direction…if the work goes well then they will progressively exercise more control over the implementation of tasks, ultimately enhancing their ability to resolve problems independently”. According to Doel (2002:195) tasks should be “carefully negotiated steps from the present problem to the future goal.” Once tasks are set, it is important to review the problems as the intervention progresses in order to reassess that the tasks are still relevant to achieving the goals. Cree and Myers (2008:95) suggest that as circumstances can change, situations may be superseded by new problems. The workers role should be primarily to support the user in order to achieve their tasks and goals which may include providing information and resources, education and role-playing in order to handle difficult situations. In this case Ramesh will go ahead and continue attending his alcohol cessation support group and the Social Worker can work on arranging bereavement counselling for him and liaise with him about when he feels ready to start. Phase five- Termination Session

Termination in the task-centred model begins in the first session, when client and practitioner set time limits for the intervention. Throughout the treatment process the practitioners regularly reminds the client of the time limits and the number of sessions left additional progress. If an extension is made, practitioner and client contract on a small number of additional sessions, usually no more than four interviews. It should also be noted that such extensions occur in less than one fifth of the cases in most settings. Any accomplishments made by the client are particularly stressed in the termination session. This emphasizing of the client’s accomplishment serves as a reinforcer. In another final termination session activity, the practitioner assists the clients in identifying the problem-solving skills they have acquired during the treatment process, review what has not been done and why not. An effort is made to help clients generalize these problem-solving skills, so they can apply them to future problems they may encounter. Person Centred Approach

The key emerging principles of the person centred approaches are that individuals must rely on themselves and liable for their own actions (Howe D, 2009). The Person-Centred Approach developed from the work of the psychologist Dr Carl Rogers (1902 – 1987). He advanced an approach to psychotherapy and counselling that, at the time (1940s – 1960s), was considered extremely radical if not revolutionary (BAPCA). In order for people to realise their full potential they must learn to define themselves rather than allowing others to do it for them. the An important part of this theory is that in a particular psychological environment, the fulfilment of personal potentials includes sociability, the need to be with other human beings and a desire to know and be known by other people. It also includes being open to experience, being trusting and trustworthy, being curious about the world, being creative and compassionate. This is one of the most popular approaches among practitioners (Marsh and Triseliotis 1996: 52) because of its hopefulness, accessibility and flexibility.

The psychological environment described by Rogers was one where a person felt free from threat, both physically and psychologically. This environment could be achieved when being in a relationship with a person who was deeply understanding (empathic), accepting (having unconditional positive regard) and genuine (Trevthick,P, 2005). The approach does not use techniques but relies on the personal qualities of the therapist/person to build a non-judgemental and empathic relationship. This in itself could be an issue because of the sole reliance on the Social ability to engage with service users. However, there are disadvantages to this approach. For example, treating people with respect, kindness, warmth and dignity can be misconstrued as ‘’adopting a person centred approach’’. This means the counselling part of the relationship has a risk of being completely over-looked.

The goal would be to work on a one-to-one with Ramesh mainly using counselling skills. He has a sister who has a family of her own so therefore family work can be included as a possibility. If he is willing to perhaps go and temporarily live with his sister when he is discharged from hospital in two weeks, it will be a positive step for him to spend more time in a family setting rather than by himself. That way he might not feel so isolated and depressed. This will also help build his self-confidence and self-esteem. The lack of motivation that Ramesh has for going to work needs to be further explored. It could be he is feeling unfulfilled and that at 45 years of age he has not achieved much. He needs social work intervention which is geared towards him attaining ‘’human potential’’ (Maslow’s basic theory). The Social Worker should encourage him to come up with ways in which he can work towards that and also look at areas in his life where he can make his own choices with an aim to recognise elements in his situation that constrain these and seek to remove them. For example, if he is not turning up for work because he is unsatisfied with his job perhaps he could enrol for a vocational course in an industry he enjoys which will improve his job prospects. The fact that he says he has nothing to live for means he has no feeling of self-worth and hasn’t reached the stage of self-actualisation in his life, this is something he is going to need support in figuring it out for himself because it is relative.

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Conclusion

It is evident that both the task-centred and person centred approaches are popular and generally successful models of social work practice and can both be used in a variety of situations. Both approaches are based on the establishment of a relationship between the worker and the service user and can address significant social, emotional and practical difficulties (Coulshed & Orme, 2006). They are both structured interventions, so action is planned and fits a predetermined pattern. They also use specific contracts between worker and service user and both aim to improve the individuals capacity to deal with their problems in a clear and more focused approach than other long term non directive methods of practice (Payne 2002,). Both of these approaches have a place in social work practice through promoting empowerment of the service user and validating their worth. They do provide important frameworks which social workers can utilise in order to implement best practice However, there are certain limitations to both of the approaches, for example Further to the constraints of short term interventions Reid and Epstein (1972) suggest that these approaches may not allow sufficient time to attend to all the problems that the service user may want help with and that clients whose achievement was either minimal or partial thought that further help of some kind may be of use in accomplishing their goals. The problems Ramesh is facing are deep rooted psychological problems which may require a longer time frame to sort them out. Depression can take really long to deal with and 4-6 weeks may not be sufficient and the fear is that this might actually have an adverse effect on Ramesh if he does not see any progress within the agreed time frame.

REFERENCES

1. Caplan,G. (1995) Principles of Preventive Psychiatry, London, Tavistock. 2. Coulshed, V. and Orme, J. (2006) Social work practice. 4th ed. Basingstoke,Palgrave, MacMillan. 3. Doel, M. and Marsh, P. (1992). Task-centred Social Work. Aldershot, Ashgate

4. Ford and Postle (2000) Task-centred Practice and Care Management, Social Work Models, Methods and Theories, Russell House

5. Howe,D (2009) A brief Introduction To Social Work Theory, Palgrave, Macmillan 6. http://www.bapca.org.uk/about/what-is-it.html

7. Murgatroyd,S. and Woolf,R. (1982) Coping with Crisis: Understanding and Helping People in Need, London, Harper and Row. 8. O’Hagan,K. (1986) Crisis Intervention in Social Services, Basingstoke, McMillan. 9. Payne, M (1997) Modern Social Work Theory (2nd edn) Macmillan 10. Thompson,N. (1991) Crisis Intervention Revisited: A guide to Modern Practice, Birmingham. PEPAR Publications 11. Trevthick,P,( 2005) Social Work Skills- A Practice Handbook, Open University Press. 12. Cree, V. and Myers, S. (2008) Social Work: Making a Difference, Bristol: The Policy Press

Examples of Students Essays

Compare and Contrast Person Centred with Psychodynamic Essay Example

Compare and Contrast Person Centred with Psychodynamic Essay

When comparing and contrasting the differences in the three approaches, I will review the relationship between client and counsellor – Compare and Contrast Person Centred with Psychodynamic Essay introduction. I will attempt to discover how the relationship is formed and how it is maintained during the therapeutic process. Once this has been established, I will then look at how the changes occur in the therapeutic relationship and which techniques will be used. I will compare and contrast the approaches of Carl Rogers, Sigmund Freud and Albert Ellis. I will look at how their theories have impacted on the counselling processes in modern times and throughout history.

In the humanistic approach in counselling there is a vital importance that the core conditions between client and counselling are present from the outset for the relationship to exist. Roger stated that the core conditions were “necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. ” (Mcleod 2001) Without the core conditions being present, there is no hope for the therapeutic movement for the client. Empathy is seen as being with the client, this is going into the clients frame of reference and experiencing the emotions and feelings that the client is experiencing at that particular moment in time.

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In 1986 Rogers underlined empathy as “ To my mind, empathy is in itself a healing agent. It is one of the most potent aspects of therapy, because it releases, it confirms, it brings even the most frightening client into the human race. If a person is understood, he or she belongs” (Merry 2002) To me this sentence is what empathy is in a nut shell, this shows that the client is being understood, and the counsellor is secure in their own identity so that they don’t get overwhelmed in the client world. Another of the core conditions is congruence, this is the genuineness of the counsellor.

This is where the counsellor has understanding of the complex feelings, thoughts and the attitudes of the client. However there is a fine line between the counsellor an understanding the client needs and the counsellors feelings and thoughts being projected. Congruence should be used to show the client that the counsellor is sincere and that they are not clinical and unemotional. The last core condition is unconditional regard, this is where counsellor show the client acceptance of who they are in the present time.

Where the beliefs and attitude of the counsellor are not used in judgement against the client. It is important skill for the counsellor to have so that the client can feel secure in the emotions that they feeling in the present. In the psychodynamic approach in counselling the relationship between the client and the counsellor is an intensive relationship, and the emotional tone of the client and the attitude towards the counsellor is essential for the relationship to exist.

Through analysing his patients Freud devised a structure that was to define the personality of the individual, these were the id, the ego and the super ego. Freud believed that in order for the human psyche to be balanced and healthy all these have to be in harmony with each other. Freud once stated that“ The conscious mind may be compared to a fountain playing in the sun and falling back into the great subterranean pool of subconscious from which it rises. “ (brainy quotes. com 2010).

A Psychodynamic counsellor can use a technique called transference, this is where the counsellor reflects on in the past so that they can reflect on it in the present. Transference is drawing on the past experience with significant figures such as the mother and the father and the relationship that the client has with them. This is carried out on a unconscious level even thought the client knows that the information is out dated. The counsellor uses the information in a way that gets them to understand some of the problems that they are experiencing.

Once the transference is brought in to the open it is important to use this as a learning experience and for the clients to identify the faulty patterns within their own behaviour with regards to others. Counter transference is where the feelings of the client is unconsciously reacting to the client thoughts and feelings towards the counsellor. However, counter-transference is caused by the counsellors own limitations which might include the counsellor unresolved emotional issues, but a counsellor can use this to their advantage and draw out information that is important to the clients therapeutic process.

In the cognitive behaviour approach to counselling the use of potential outcomes of cognitive behaviour therapy, looking at the fact that there are emotional disorders that result from negative thoughts and thinking on unrealistic terms, and this in time can be altered by changing the unrealistic terms and negative thoughts to positive thoughts and realistic ideas. Rational emotional therapy is there to assist the client to make enlightened changes to themselves. In 1962 Ellis stated that “ human thinking and emotions are, in some of their essences, the same thing, and that by changing the former one does change the latter ( Dryden 2001).

This would let the client to give up the demands of their own psyche, others and the world, and change it to suit their choices and to allow themselves to accept themselves for who they really are. If the counsellor can get the client to do this, they can experience healthy negative emotions such as sadness, concern and disappointment, while still retaining their desires, wishes and needs. The client will rarely experience unhealthy negative emotions that would have surrounded with ‘should,’ ‘musts,’ and ‘oughts. The client and the counsellor has to collaborate within the relationship as it gives autonomy to the client to encompass their own problems, and to overcome and use problem solving as a way of coming to term with the issues. When looking at the differences in the three approaches in counselling it was important to note that the core conditions related to all three theories. In the Humanistic Approach the core conditions are necessary for the therapeutic relationship to develop. In the two other approaches they were sufficient for the relationship to develop.

With humanistic approach all of the core conditions are present, but with psychodynamic non judgemental attitude are poignant to the relationship, and the counsellor will not take side in the conflict, however congruence and empathy is present, but not widely used by the counsellor. With cognitive behaviour again all three core conditions are present but unpositive regard is important to show the client that their imperfections are accepted by the counsellor. There has to be empathy as this helps the counsellor to build a rapport with the client.

I have noticed that there is at least one of the core conditions are present in the therapeutic relationship, with exception of the humanistic approach, where all three are used in conjunction with each other. I also realised that transference is present in the cognitive approach as the client constructs an image of the counsellor, which results in transference, but this is used like psychodynamic transference in a therapeutic way. When looking at how the therapeutic approaches is the three different pproaches to counselling, the humanistic approach is where you understand that this process is client led and that it is where the client wants to go. With the humanistic approach to counselling the counsellor will start the very beginning of the relationship with a contract. This is where the relationship between the counsellor and client is formed. The counsellor will hope that this contract will establish trust between the both parties. Trust is paramount in the relationship, with out trust the client cannot be open and honest with the counsellor.

The counsellor works within the client internal frame of reference. This is where the counsellor tries understands the clients world, thoughts and feelings of the significant points that were happening at that time. Rogers once said “To be of assistance to you I will put aside myself – the self of ordinary interaction – and enter into your world of perception as completely as I am able. I will become, in a sense, another self for you- an alter ego of your own attitudes and feeling – a safe opportunity for you to discern yourself more clearly, to experience yourself more truly and deeply, to choose more significantly. (Rogers 1951) I understand that this is what Rogers was trying to say about the clients internal frame of reference and how the counsellor should try and move around freely with out imposing their own thoughts and feelings. However some times the clients thoughts and feelings are from their conditions of worth. If the client feels that they are useless at most things in their life. This could be due to the fact that there have been negative feelings on them from a early age. Sometimes when the client has been surrounded by feelings of worthlessness they some times lose their inherent values as an individual.

When looking at the process of the therapeutic changes in the Psychodynamic approach to counselling, you have to look at what specific techniques are used, but you have to be clear what the aims of the treatment are. Freud stated that “where id was, let ego be” (McLeod 1993) he said this to summarise his aims. What he means by this is that we are driven by the force and impulses and after therapy people are more rational, aware of their inner emotional life and be able to control these feelings with appropriate behaviour.

McLeod (2003) also stated that “ A key aim of psychoanalysis is, then, the achievement of insight into the true nature of one’s problems…. ” A counsellor also uses the skills of listening, observing, clarifying, linking, interpretation, giving reflective responses and drawing on past events and presenting behaviour. You also have to look at defence mechanism. The ego is govern the Reality Principle which has the task of dealing with demands of the Id, while it is also praising the external reality and then it decides on the what behaviour is suitable for the environment.

It also deals with threat and punishment off the Superego which with all the factors of the Id and Ego, it generated anxiety in the individual. This is where the person’s wishes and external reality is dealt with the use of the defence mechanism. Freud once stated that “The poor ego has a still harder time of it; it has to serve three harsh masters, and it has to do its best to reconcile the claims and demands of all three… The three tyrants are the external world, the superego, and the id. ” From New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis, (1932) psychology. about. com.

Once we know where the emotions that we experience comes from, we will know how to deal with the issues if they were ever to arise again. When a person understands their feelings and emotions they will get a release of the emotional tension of the repressed or buried memories, Freud called this “catharsis”, this means to purify the emotions from the ties that it had to our past. When looking at the process of the therapeutic approach of cognitive behaviour therapy, In 1962 Ellis stated that “ human thinking and emotions are, in some of their essences, the same thing, and that by changing the former one does change the latter ( Dryden 2001).

Ellis went on to put forward a model that would be easy to remember, this is the ABC model. The A is for activating events where the emotional and behaviour leads to the consequences ( C) and the emotional residual is decided by Beliefs (B) this model shows some action or attitude of an individual or physical event that has happened in the clients life. A counsellor will show the client how this can be used to monitor the cognitive reactions to events, this then shows the client how to engage the thoughts and reactions to any events, which then turn give them choice on how to react towards the event.

There is also cognitive change techniques this is where the counsellor can help the client to look at the irrational and rational beliefs. This is done by giving the client homework, which is a imagery technique that helps the client to change their unhealthy negative emotions to healthy ones. This is said to give the client an intellectual insight in their irrational beliefs. This is also used in the behaviour change techniques, this is where the counsellor and client negotiates the homework, where the client aims to putting what they have learnt in therapy in to play.

There is also the emotive-evocative change techniques, this is where the counsellor uses self -disclosure and openly admit that they make errors. When looking at the similarities and the differences to the three approaches on how each of them impact on the outcome of the counselling process, it is important to note that each of them have a variety of different techniques but the outcome is the same for each. However each of the approaches were all governed by the fact that a contract had to be established for trust to develop.

In the humanistic approach the counsellor would stay in the clients frame of reference when they were experiencing the emotions that was difficult to convey. Also the humanistic approach is given a time limit in weeks that both counsellor and client must try to achieve. With Psychodynamic approach it is a timely and an expensive course of therapy. With psychodynamic approach it looks for patterns that happened in childhood that is now no longer tolerated in adulthood.

Where as the humanistic approach is looking at why they feel the negative feeling that other have imposed on them in childhood. In the cognitive behaviour approach this is seen as the therapy that is fast acting and that gives the client homework to do in there own time. This the only approach that give the client homework. This approach is a collaborative between the client and counsellor and the work is mostly done with the client being in control of the therapy.

In conclusion, I understand the core conditions are vital in all approaches to counselling – they are only a necessity in the humanistic approach, but they are sufficient in the other two approaches. I also realised that, when it came to the therapeutic changes in the approaches, even though each of them used different techniques, the outcome was the same. This was to get the client to have autonomy for their own life and that what the past and what others have placed on them is nothing compared to the power that is within the client.

Examples of Students Essays

The Law egg Sex Discrimination Act Example

The Law egg Sex Discrimination Act – Part 2

Policies and procedures within services: equal opportunities; grievance procedures; bullying and harassment at work; other anti-discrimination policies; recording and monitoring of equal opportunities data and complaints; complaints procedures for service users Diversity issues: employment within public services; development of a diverse workforce through recruitment and staff selection strategies; catering for employees’ needs through support mechanisms (staff unions, associations and federations); aspects of public service work which may impact on individual beliefs Task 2 (UP) deadline Evidence = Individual written document) – The Law egg Sex Discrimination Act introduction. A) Use the case study on p. 0 about positive action in the Humidifiers Fire and rescue Service. What are the positive and negative effects of the positive action policies to the Fire and rescue Service? What is positive Action? This is used to recruit firefighters from under-represented groups within the community as a whole egg women, ethnic minorities, gay men and women and people with disabilities. They are allowed to do this by law egg Sex Discrimination Act, Race Discrimination Act, Disabilities Discrimination Act Positive Effects Currently 97% white men However population is 52% women and 48% men White British 4% Asian 2% Black They want a diverse fire service that represents society as a whole.

So they do the following at Humidifiers Equality and Diversity Officer Evening and weekend awareness courses Opportunity to ask questions of minority officers The positives could be that more ethnic minorities may consider a career in the fire service. Also minority groups may feel able to get information and advice about the fire service. The negative could be that white men feel discriminated against (Telegraph article about Avon Fire Service). It could be that the wrong person is chosen for the job. They may be chosen because of their minority background How might this ensure the Fire and rescue Service has a diverse workforce? Open days provide opportunities for minorities to find out more An equality and Diversity officer may actively every day promote recruitment of minorities b) Use the case study on p. 00 about the Army Equal Opportunities Policy 2000 What are the positive and negative effects of positive action to the Army? Individuals from different religious backgrounds can join the army and still keep ND practice their faith. This includes provision of specialist food, daily prayer when safe, celebration of holy days, Sikh men are allowed to wear turbans, regular liaison with a variety of faiths. Negatives may be that white British men may think they are getting special treatment, the enemy may be able to pick off those with turbans more easily, Generalizations by white British about different faiths may lead to more racism because the minorities are treated differently.

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More costs associated with preparing and ordering specialist food, holy festivals and prayer may not always e practical. How might this ensure the Army has a diverse workforce? If this becomes more widely known it may make more people from different religions want to join the army Task 3 (AS) deadline Choose the Army or the Fire and Rescue Service to research a) What recruitment policies does this public service have to try to ensure its workforce reflects society? Army – Use bullet points from case study b) What policies does the public service have to combat under-representation? Respecting different religions, food, clothing, prayer Open days, information services Task 4 (UP) deadline

Essential content – 3 bullet points for each side heading – in a spider diagram Equality of service: services to individuals; Come to emergency calls egg 999, fire, road traffic crash, chemical spillage, rescue Home visit to check for fire safety Provide advice Same applies to businesses statutory requirements; There are laws to ensure the minimum standards of service are provided accessibility by users; All users must able to fully access fire service premises egg disabled, mobility impaired Fire makes special plans to help all users Leaflets, websites, information must be made available in a variety of formats g Braille, languages, video, talks, home visits recognizing needs of citizens as individuals and groups Fire Service has policies to ensure all needs of all groups can be met. Task 5 (UP) deadline (Evidence = Individual written document).

POI Give 5 examples of how specific public services provide equality of service to all citizens See bullet points in case study Task 6 (MM) deadline Analyses the effectiveness of the methods used by public services to promote equality and diversity in society and within the service Review the case studies from task 2 – answer these questions in detail ) What are the positive and negatives of these policies in terms of recruitment and retention? B) What might these positives and negatives lead to and why? (In terms of recruitment and retention) Possible short term and long term effects because Length – 1 side minimum Task 7 (DO) deadline Write a summary and conclusion for MM. Overall do these policies lead to more negative or positive effects in terms of recruitment and retention for the public service? What is your opinion? What do you recommend the public services should do in the future? 3 Rig Para’s

Unit assignment Essay – Part 2

In this first section, explain the key features of the relevant legislation and regulations applicable to each workplace – Unit assignment Essay introduction. PA. Describe the roles and responsibilities of those involved under current H&S legislation and regulations. For each of the two working environments chosen, discuss the roles and responsibilities of the employer, the employee, the health and safety executive and one other, it says in the specification. The one other, I might recommend, could be an external contractor working on site.

We had quite a lot of information on the roles and responsibilities of contractors from Out Jump, so this could be a handy place to start as we know the names and roles of the main staff involved with H&S at SUMAC and can explain how these relate to the roles and responsibilities within the company. MI . Explaining the consequences of not following legislation. What happens if management do not abide by legislation and regulations when carrying out their roles and responsibilities?

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Base this on one of the engineering workplaces that you have considered during the assignment. Consider who is culpable in the event of an incident and what the possible consequences could include. Tips: Anything in bold and underlined can be regarded as a heading or a sub heading in your assignment. Aim to complete this assignment in approximately 2000 words or 4 sides of AY. Use the HOSE website for examples and legislation information as required. Reference any sources used.

Examples of Students Essays

Promote Person Centred Approaches Essay Example

Promote Person Centred Approaches Essay

1.1 Explain how and why person centered values must influence all aspects of health and social care work:

Because everybody has different belief systems, needs, disabilities, cultures, religious beliefs – Promote Person Centred Approaches Essay introduction. Everybody has their own person centered care plans that help us approach them in an individual way, even if we know how to assist clients we still try to offer those choices and independence. We need to make sure we do not push our beliefs onto those who cannot choose for themselves.

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1.2 Evaluate the use of care plans in applying person centered values:

Care plans are the primary source of client information. We can make individual plans and requirements to suit the specific needs of an individual. The better the care plan the easier it becomes for us to assist a client in their own way without getting into a mess from not understanding the care plans.

2.1 Work with an individual and others to find out the person’s history, preferences, wishes and needs:

Depending if the individual can communicate we can ask them, or their family if they have family, if they have no family and cannot communicate we have best interest meetings to discuss the care that an individual may need. Care plans also have all the information that we need about a person’s history and preferences.

2.2 Demonstrate ways to put person centered values into practice in complex or sensitive situations:

Maybe just sitting and spending time with individuals on a 1:1 basis Intensive interaction with individuals

2.3 Adapt actions and approaches in response to an individual’s changing needs or preferences;

By reviewing care plans on a regular basis

3.1 Analyze factors that influence the capacity of an individual to express consent:

Dementia, understanding, not being able to communicate

3.2 Establish consent for an activity or action:

We have care plans to follow, it explains what individuals need, like. A lot of clients that I work with lack the capacity to make informed choices.

3.3 Explain what steps to take if consent cannot be readily established:

Best interest meetings will be made to acquire consent for those that lack capacity. 4.1 Describe different ways of applying active participation to meet individual’s needs: * Changing the way they approach the activity

* changing the activity to meet the individual’s need

* Variety of activities to suit everybody

* Prompt and encourage them to take part

* Try different activities if the others fail

4.2 Work with an individual and others to agree how active participation will be implemented:

* Team meetings

* Best interest meetings

* Annual review meetings

4.3 Demonstrate how active participation can address the holistic needs of an individual: * More of a social life

* No need to be bored all the time

* Wide variety of activities to choose from

* Can help with communication

* Can give them a better quality of life

4.4 Demonstrate ways to promote understanding and use of active participation:

* Going out shopping

* Doing housework (to what their abilities allow them to do )

* Cooking (or assisting with cooking if they can )

5.1 Support an individual to make informed choices:

If they have the capacity to make a choice then let them make it. Let them know that no choice is wrong and that the choice is 100% theirs to make. Don’t push your opinions onto them. Support them with whatever choice they make. If they lack capacity then best interest meetings will need to be set up so we can make choices for them bearing in mind what they used to like and dislike when they did have capacity or if they show a like/dislike to something.

5.2 Use own work role and authority to support the individual’s rights to make choices: * Listen to them

* Don’t make them choose

* Explain the outcome for either choice

* Give them time to make their own decision

5.3 Manage risk in a way that maintains the individual’s right to make choices:

* Risk assessments

* Safe systems of work assessments

* Write in care plans that they can or cannot make choices for themselves 5.4 Describe how to support an individual to question or challenge decisions concerning them that are made by others: The decision may not be in the individual’s best interest and may cause stress or anxiety to the individual. Make sure that the individual’s voice has been heard and that they are included in any decisions made if the individual lacks capacity it may be good to bring in family or an advocate to speak on behalf of the individual so that they still have a voice and their choices and rights are still there for them.

6.1 Explain the links between identity, self-image and self- esteem: Identity is finding yourself

Self-image is looking at yourself

Self-esteem is accepting yourself

6.2 Analyze factors that contribute to the wellbeing of individuals:

They may have different religious beliefs which could mean that they are not allowed to take part in certain activities or they may have to undertake daily tasks that we don’t need to. If an individual is catholic they may not take part in some holiday traditions such as Halloween or they may like to go to church when others don’t. An individual may cry or scream all the time which can upset others, they may need more 1:1 attention to try and help or they may just need to be away from others to stop everyone being upset.

6.3 Support an individual in a way that promotes their sense of identity, self-image and self-esteem:

A client that has dementia and forgets how to brush their teeth: Explain to them, prompt and show them what to do, make them their own picture cards explaining the task applaud them and praise them for completing the task. Tell them how well they have done.

6.4 Demonstrate ways to contribute to an environment that promotes wellbeing: Taking a client (that wants to go) to church but not taking others that don’t want to go, joining in with a certain task to make the individual know that you take their beliefs seriously.

7.1 Compare different uses of risk assessment in health and social care:

* To protect

* To reduce harm

* To see if any health and safety measurements need to be put into place

7.2 Explain how risk taking and risk assessments relate to rights and responsibilities:

Risk taking- we are not to take risks as our health and others can be put into jeopardy We need to follow all risk assessments that are put into place to reduce risk and harm.

7.3 Explain why risk assessments need to be regularly revised: Things change e.g. someone may have been able to walk around becomes immobile or an individual’s seizures become worse that they need use of bed rails.

Examples of Students Essays

How to deal with an abusive boss Essay Example

How to deal with an abusive boss Essay

How to cover with an opprobrious foreman:

Joanne had worked in a house for over three old ages in the Research Department – How to deal with an abusive boss Essay introduction. She was a hard-worker, turning in every assignment on the due day of the month and being a more than obedient employee. After the terminal of the first twelvemonth, her wellness started deteriorating. She felt ill frequently, describing megrims and easy, her productiveness went down-hill. One twenty-four hours after work, she was seen running out of the office, crying.She hasn’t slept for months, she is ever distressed and unnerved and when asked why, she nods her caput in soundless dismissal.

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Meanwhile, her co-workers point out that their supervisor, Mr.Frederick ever seems to indicate out and take a cleft at her work, and is ever dissing her in forepart of them, when Joanne seems to be making nil incorrect. What is even worse, they say is that although everyone is entitled to be nominated for an employee award, she hasn’t even been listed one time.

Is this form relatable? An American Survey suggests that about every employee might hold faced atleast one case which they may hold to be “abusive” , from their direct supervisor or foreman. An of import thing to clear up here is to decode the exact significance of maltreatment, and its stature in the position quo.

After all, the nature of the remedy can be understood by its possible amendss and features.

Workplace Abuse: Is it Legal? Illegal?

The ambiguity of workplace maltreatment, in all its battalions is the lending factor as to why it has been misunderstood by many, and therefore, it is frequently over-looked by employees and employers likewise.

Remember the clip when your instructor might hold screamed at you in forepart of the full category, for no ground? Or the clip when you felt that the same instructor was pointedly picking on you for no ground?

How is this related to workplace maltreatment, you may inquire, but psychologists province that intimidation and being picked on by instructors are the most fundamental signifiers of maltreatment, and this analogy is cardinal in understanding the way of maltreatment.

Many a times we might’ve been heart-broken and profoundly affected by the reaction and general un-appreciation of the instructor, but is it illegal for the instructor to indicate to you, every clip? And while we are on the topic, is it improper for foremans to maintain seting you down?

Outstanding psychologist, Dr.Lynn Johnson says that workplace maltreatment is clearly different from gender favoritism, racial favoritism and sexual torment. While these are all types of workplace maltreatment, these are the 1s that can be taken into tribunal and can be convicted.

Harmonizing to the Workplace Bullying Institute, we can understand the exact definition of workplace maltreatment and what can be deduced is that anyindicant of changeless bullying,menaces, anyefforts of undermining work chancesandverbal maltreatmentall come under the cover of work-place maltreatment.

Atrocious, right? However, none of these actions have been ruled as “illegal” by states, and therefore is the ground its rampant rise in today’s society.

Signs of workplace intimidation:

Harmonizing to Divergent.com, this sort of maltreatment isn’t specifically set to one gender, and what is more dismaying is that the most common typeset of maltreatment is propagated by adult females higher-ups towards adult females, lending to 60 % of workplace maltreatment. The male on male cases of work-place maltreatment make up 12 % of the pie-chart, 30 % are the cases of maltreatment by a male superior towards female employees.

So, now that we can set up that it can be perpetrated by both genders, across a big spectrum of actions, what are some tell-tale marks of workplace maltreatment?

There are a few words associated with workplace maltreatment, and maintaining in head these words while associating them to the incident where you may probably believe you are a victim.

Isolation:The most important mark of workplace maltreatment is when your superior singles you out and you are the lone mark for his changeless disapprovals, abuses or choler. When a superior behaves this manner to all of his employees, it isn’t so much maltreatment, since it could be a major personality defect. Isolation creates an unstable vacuity of ideas in the heads of the victim, while it may be emancipating to the culprit.

REPETITIVE:When your foreman cries at you one time, he could be holding a bad twenty-four hours. Twice, take it with a pinch of salt. If you find him singling you out and average petroleum and harsh all the clip, you can be certain it is one signifier of work-place maltreatment. Abuse and strong-arming are insistent in nature, since it is an intricate merger of one’s personality towards another, merely perpetrated by manner of their occupations.

Once the maltreatment has been identified, it’s of import to cognize how to face it and cover with it. Here are a few ways:

There are NO fringe benefits of being a wall-flower:

One of the psychological thrusts being workplace intimidation or maltreatment is the esthesis of laterality. And laterality is frequently directed towards the more soundless, lame and obedient. By exerting any of the marks of workplace intimidation, what the culprit Bankss on, is the silence of their victim. By standing up for oneself, this barbarous nexus can be dissipated. When you confront the supervisor, you stand up for your rights and what you are as a individual.

And what you are is strong. Establishing this firmly throws a bully napping and even builds some regard from their side. When you can sternly province that you are guiltless and it is doing you hurt, the scoundrel might merely endorse off.

Bing a door-mat isn’t traveling to work out the job.

Vantage point for the state of affairs:

Workplace intimidation can be hard to descry, and what is most important at this point, is to take a measure back and objectively measure the state of affairs.

Ask yourself some of these inquiries:

-Is my foreman this manner merely to me or in general to all my co-workers?

-Is he invariably mortifying me in forepart of my equals or was it merely my work that was non upto the grade?

-Have I lost out on chances and advantages because of his alleged “dislike” towards me?

Opportunities are that if your foreman shows evident displeasure is unpleasant, you might non be the lone one to detect it. If this is the instance, so it is easier to rectify as you have like-minded equals would desire to work out the issue every bit much as you. One manner to get the better of intimidation is to halt allowing it affect you.That is what the tough wants. Once you are unagitated, patient and strong-minded, you can be certain that their bad attitude will non upset you.

When the traveling gets tough, name in the military personnels:

If you find that your supervisor’s Acts of the Apostless have a toll on your wellness and productiveness and you feel hard-pressed, rattled and insulted due to state of affairss from work, the bounds might merely be crossed off.

Work-place maltreatment may travel unnoticed, but they are similar weeds in a garden of roses.

When one finds that they are merely unable to stand up for themselves, they can describe to the Human Resources Department. Although these patterns may look “tattle-tale”-like, it is of import that you involve people who are designed to work out state of affairss of this sort.

After all, most toughs are unlogical and irrational, so there may be no usage in sitting and seeking to screen it out. They might be able to acquire you a transportation in place or section, and possibly even to throw out the supervisor.

They say that the one thing every employee wants is a safe environment. Workplace intimidation is damaging to the mind of an employee, and it is seen that 60 % of offices have reported atleast one case of work-place intimidation. Eliminating it is every bit of import as eschewing off strong-arming in educational establishments.

After all, looking after your morale is inviolable for your wellness and development, and if the state of affairs isn’t solved, take your endowment and bent elsewhere.

Examples of Students Essays

Standard 7 Person Centred Support Essay Example

Standard 7 Person Centred Support Essay

1 – Standard 7 Person Centred Support Essay introduction. Promote person centred values in everyday work 1. 1Understand how to put person centred values into practice in your day to day work By protecting the rights and promote the interest of the individuals, strive to establish and maintained the trust of the each individuals, promote individual’s independence while protecting them from harm and danger, respect the right of the individuals while making sure that they don’t harm others. 1. Understand why it is important to work in a way that promotes these values when providing support to the individuals The aspects of health and social care work is important because the care value base able the care settings to meet the need of all the clients. if they did not exist in a care settings then the client/ individual would not reach their full potential. 1. 3Understand how to promote dignity in your day to day work with the individual you support

The care value base sets out rules and guidance for every carer to follow in order to provide service to an individual by: promoting anti-discriminatory practice, maintaining confidentiality of information, promoting and supporting individual right to dignity, independence, choice and safety, acknowledge of people personal beliefs and identities, protecting individuals from abuse, by providing effective communications and relationship, providing individualised care Working in a person centred way 2. 1Recognize the features of working in a person centred way Person-centred approaches are about the individual being the centre of their care and support plan enabling them to have control over their lives. Person-centred approaches are about enabling individuals to live their own lives and not just providing a service. It is about focusing on the individual person’s needs.

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Service user has a right to plan their own lives and be at the centre of any planning that is done for them, a right to be part of their community, and a right to live their lives as they want, and if they need support to do this for this support to be provided in a way in which they want it. 2. 2Understand why is it important to find out the history, preference, wishes and needs of the individuals you are supporting The more you know about the individual the more I will be able to assist them in their needs, wishes and preferences.

Examples of Students Essays

Person Centred Care Essay Example

Person Centred Care Essay

Person Centred Care is a major skills acquired by a healthcare providers.Which main target is individual traits of character in doing health care provision – Person Centred Care Essay introduction. Treat every person as a unique human being disregard his/her age, culture, sex and race.Acknowledge, respect, and take into considerations the choice that every service is entitled to. Set some standards for practice but not so precise to deny the specific application demands of each individual uniqueness. Guidelines might be essential for the care providers to include complex concerns that help the nurses but sometimes leads to apart a patients’ rights.

According to Professor Draper ,getting to know the person behind the illness is the key principle of person centred nursing care.We as the care providers needs to listen diligently to our patients conditions, treat as a unique human being.

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Psychologist Carl Rogers, founder of person care centred define as ” structure result from distributing pont of view and assertion of oneself “. It is a positive persuasion belief of our senses, ideas, and valuing of a person capabilities of what he/she can do. It is having assurance to see her actions as interactions made with confidence. Roger use these therapy in treating individual as a person to improve his quality of life. Carl establish supporting evidence that individual inductive knowledge as the fundamental healthful effect. He also states that the therapeutic process is substantial achievement made by the patient. He strongly believed that his structured analysis should be practice rather than the other way round. His persuasion for the improvement of care is based on sincerely felt or expressed in a genuine emotion in helping patient grief.

Some Psychologist criticised Rogers method for insufficient structure and by Psychoanalyst in providing care relationship , which in some studies, proves to be effective and approved therapy. Carl Rogers optimistic and warmer approach stated that Individuals self concept and understanding modify behavior way and means of letting facilitative attitudes.

The Royal College of Nursing adapted Rogers analysis by using person care centred in all aspect of holistic care system given to patients, colleague, and relatives. It was recommended at all levels of health care organisations from government policy-making to a group of health care providers that they operate. Contributing to the overall idea of excellence care delivered in nursing practice.

By delivering PCC in our practice we combine Rogers method of care a genuinely following the concepts of person centred care by:

Highly consider everyone and by showing them that they are worthy of esteem. Respect and consider their opinions with regards to the whole course of treatment.Listen to their interest, dislikes and honor their views if they refuse to be treated. Respect individual judgment consider it as a challenge for improvement. As a healthcare provider everyone expected to have a different desire and wishes. We hold and accept those attention and disposition into considerations.

Be an open minded with their distinction, dissimilarity, and characteristics quality could adhere corresponds to their needs. Asking for their preference needs could mean a lot in delivering care and building a good therapeutic relationships between them.

According to (Chambo and Amned, 2000), effective communication is versed as a device part of excellence care. Linguistic communication involves knowledge substitute of refining moral and intellectual of a person and cognitive content of individuals.(Gillam and Levenson, 1999).

Continuity and trustworthiness is of great significance vision of nursing care.

(Patmore,2001; Raynos et al., 2001 5WRDU,2007; Francis and Nelten ,2006). It is particularly noted the importance of effective communication towards the whole aspect of care.

Patient security is established in NMC code ( Nursing and Midwifery Council 2008), and the RCN Principles of Nursing Practice (RCN 2010a) as a substantial area of risk of danger every patient in the practice.(RCN 2010b, Principles). Provides updated information about patient safety.

Valuable Things of a Person Centred Care in Practice:

The objective of these study is to transform our knowledge and experience into an excellence accomplishment in in of PCC in our clinical skills. Staff of all levels are expected to use the person centred care as a standard important basis in determinants of the quality care and significantly the client experience of that care. Our contribution as a humane quality of better understanding the sufferings of others and wanting to do something about it. Rogers concept theory was widely used healthcare settings area because it was focus on the humanistic therapies. Better knowledge of ones consciousness rather than external observation.

Person centred care was implemented in nursing practice by taking into considerations client unconditional positive regard.Accept their own personality and characteristics as they really are. To hold and consider their worth and being value regardless of their status in the society. Estimate the true nature of a person is one of the structure model discuss in person centred care. We carefully maintained our positive attitude towards client.

Being empathetic to clients feelings and always participate good communication skills. Understanding truly their feelings. Rogers describe empathic understanding, as an experience of each client, how life was viewed and interpret, but Rogers emphasised that

If you put yourself into their world and truly deeply understand feels to be in their world , without being judgmental you will precisely undesirable believe to be an effective role well in delivering excellence care.

Work as a team by getting assurance, trust, and hope to the people we rendered care. Able to listen and hear what they want and connect to us how we value them. Our positive words with them fully assured with professional confidence. Having the power of positive direction influence our care with our client . Person centred care strengthen our movement in focusing care with them.

Being a role model and implementing person centred care in nursing practice, gives others a chance to follow your acts and play in the same pattern in accordance to NMC code of nursing practice. Inspire and increase everyone confidence to help forward the quality of care in nursing practice. Good motivation and challenges others requires full use of resources in performing most challenging task in delivering care ideality.

To partnerships with families, colleagues and other social care people gives you satisfactory outgrow. Positive relationship and building their trust means a lot to you as a person who gives care with their family. You meet their needs and expectation is already a great contribution in nursing practice.

The Impact of Person Centred Care in all Healthcare Providers:

They are worthy of special considerations, respected by others.

Your contribution using PCC in clinical skills played a positive results. The act of feeling proud in sharing advance role model in your place of work.

The conscientious activity that you intended do in nursing practice gives you accomplishment something.

It is a gift something that is acquired without any receiving compensation.

Exercise your skills with independence and confidence.

Freedom to control and influence of another or others.

Harmonious relationships which established in person centred care.

Your truthfulness would give you space to reflect and develop with each other and to our client.

A positive connections between client feelings supported and wanting to go

extra mile to support others.

Functioning competently. Practicing you skills sufficiently and to be a qualified nurse in future.

Reflecting, listening to each others, a good pathway communication between you and and your colleagues.

Recognition and appraisal in your own orientational team.

Effective communication demonstrated highly authority in your responsibility.

Trust relationship was build up in practicing PCC.

Practicing your skills without any risk of danger to your client or patient.

Positive feedback being rewarded in using person centred care in your clinical areas.

Working in a safe environment.

Patients/ clients receiving excellent level of quality care.

Support your enthusiasm especially among general public, groups, and the organisation.

Excellent planning, knowledge base, update information, good resources and training.

Interact with your colleagues,client as a unique individual.

Being motivated and be ready for any task that are waiting to be done. By using PCC in nursing practice with decreased complai

Examples of Students Essays

Carl Rogers – Person-Centred Therapy Essay Example

Carl Rogers – Person-Centred Therapy Essay

Describe Rogers’ theory with attention to the following four areas: * General theory/philosophy * Theory of personality * Acquisition of dysfunction * “Treatment” of dysfunction This essay will begin by introducing Carl Rogers, with a brief description of his upbringing and career background and will go on to discuss the main areas of his theory – Carl Rogers – Person-Centred Therapy Essay introduction. The humanistic philosophy will be explained briefly and will lead on to Carl Rogers’ own humanistic beliefs and the birth of client-centred therapy.

Carl Rogers’ theory of the human personality will be explored, mainly Rogers’ idea of self and the self-concept and a person’s natural actualising tendency. This will lead on to his beliefs around the acquisition of human dysfunction, primarily being the imposed conditions of worth present from birth and a person’s internal locus of evaluation becoming external. This will then be brought to Rogers’ main theories of the “treatments” for these dysfunctions, concentrating on his six necessary and sufficient conditions within a therapeutic relationship and the positive effects these have on the client.

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The essay will then be brought to a conclusion, drawing together the main points and ideas from the essay. Carl Ransom Rogers was born on January 8th 1902 in Chicago, USA. He was one of six children who grew up in a fundamentalist Christian family. While he once felt he was called to become a Christian minister he eventually went on to embark on a career as a clinical psychologist. Rogers found it increasingly difficult to adapt to the ideas of behaviourism and psychoanalysis so he began to formulate his own ideas from his personal experience with clients and thus created client-centred therapy (Thorne, 2003).

The person-centred approach is a part of the group of approaches referred to as ‘humanistic psychology. ’ Humanistic psychology takes a phenomenological approach to the person. It is concerned with the human as an organic being and values human nature above the more scientific theories. It focuses on how the person experiences and perceives themselves and the world around them, whilst also believing the person to be continually in a process of growth.

It also takes an existential view of life, valuing the person’s autonomy and personal responsibility (Merry, 2002). According to Richard Gross, humanistic theories are concerned with characteristics that are distinctly and uniquely human. He describes how we have first-hand experience of ourselves as people and therefore are the experts on understanding our own behaviour. He also explains that Rogers himself saw human nature in a very optimistic light and believed that people are generally good and healthy (Gross, 2010).

A main humanistic belief is that of the actualizing tendency. Rogers himself believed this was a natural part of every human and that it was the single motivation present in every human being to maintain itself, grow, improve and move towards their full potential (Mearns and Thorne, 2007). He also described it as “…the tendency of the organism to maintain itself – to assimilate food, to behave defensively in the face of threat, to achieve the goal of self-maintenance even when the usual pathway to that goal is blocked.

We are speaking of the tendency of the organism to move in the direction of maturation, as maturation is defined for each species” (Rogers, 1951 cited in Mearns and Thorne, 2007). It is clear that he believed it was the fundamental force that drives the person towards fulfilment and development. Rogers’ also had many beliefs around the human personality. Lawrence A. Pervin explains that the main concept in Rogers’ theory of personality is that of the self and the self-concept.

Rogers believed that the individual perceives experiences and objects in the world around them and attaches meaning and value to them. The complete system of these perceptions is known as the person’s phenomenal field. Pervin then goes on to explain “Those parts of the phenomenal field seen by the individual as ‘self,’ ‘me,’ or ‘I,’ make up the self” (Pervin, 1993:174). The self-concept describes how a person views him or herself and is developed over time. It is dependent on the attitudes of the significant people around them, how they relate to the world and their own perceptions of themselves.

The person may trust other people’s ideas of reality and incorporate them in to their self-concept as though they were their own. (Thorne, no date, online) Another main concept within Rogers’ personality theory, as discussed earlier is that of the actualizing tendency. A person’s self-actualization, in an ideal world where it would not be hindered in any way would naturally lead the person towards reaching their full potential and becoming a fully functioning person (Mearns and Thorne, 2007). Rogers’ himself describes this as a process and a direction rather than a fixed destination (Rogers, 1961).

While a person moves naturally towards self-actualization this can be seriously hindered by what Rogers described as conditions of worth. In simple terms this can be described as the shaping of a child’s self-concept dependant on what is deemed acceptable behaviour to the child’s parents. This concept will be explored fully later in this essay. In an ideal world where parents were unconditional in their love for their child, the child would not have to adapt to suit their parents, therefore self-actualizing and growing in to a fully functioning person without any conditions of worth (Merry, 2002).

John Mcleod (2009) explains that from a very early age a child has a strong need to be loved and valued, usually by the significant people in their life, particularly their parents. However the love or approval from parents is not always unconditional and the child may find it difficult to grow with an acceptance of themselves and will begin to mould themselves, their behaviours and feelings in the way that is acceptable and approved of by their parents. Rogers described these as conditions of worth. He describes the self-concept of the child being shaped by their parent’s influences.

Tony Merry explains that babies begin to learn that some things are acceptable and some are not. Behaviour that their parents find acceptable will be rewarded and anything they do not believe is acceptable will be less rewarded or looked upon with negativity. Because of this the child will grow up wanting certain types of experiences, generally those that create positive reactions in people (Merry 2002). Richard Nelson-Jones describes this as a learned need for positive regard from others that will remain throughout childhood and continue in to adulthood.

This can become confusing then, if for instance the child is conditioned to believe that his/her natural behaviour is unacceptable. For example if a child is rewarded for apparent ‘tough’ behaviour and not rewarded, or even disapproved of for a soft nature, the child will begin to value themselves based on others perceptions and ideas rather that their own organismic valuing process. The child’s self-worth will become dependent on the positive regard shown to them by others by behaving in ways that others believe is worthy of respect and love.

The child’s self-concept would become distorted and as they grow in to adulthood they would believe fully that these behaviours are a part of their natural, true self (Nelson-Jones, 2010). Merry describes that someone who has acquired many conditions of worth and whose self-concept is distorted would become incongruent, this means that their conditioned self and their natural, organismic self would not match up. They would search for positive regard from others and have little faith in their own judgments and opinions; they would trust others evaluations and ideas above their own.

Rogers describes this as having an external locus of evaluation rather than an internal locus of evaluation. The person looks for confirmation from outside sources rather than themselves. This would ultimately cause very low self-esteem and self-confidence. Furthermore, if the persons conditioned self and organismic self are un-matching this may cause increasing confusion, tension, anxiety and depression in adult life. Rogers believed that the necessary treatment for these dysfunctions was for the person to experience the correct conditions within a therapeutic relationship.

The person would then be able to dissolve these conditions of worth and gradually their organismic and conditioned selves would merge. The self and self-concept would become one and they would be in a state of congruence. The person would be able to over-come issues such as anxiety and depression and live a more contented life. They would possess an internal locus of evaluation, trusting in their own judgements rather than depending on the opinions of others and would truly accept and understand themselves as individuals (Merry, 2002).

Carl Rogers describes six conditions that he believed to be necessary for therapeutic change. He stated that “No other conditions are necessary. If these six conditions exist and continue over a period of time, this is sufficient. The process of constructive personality change will follow. ” (Rogers, 1957a, cited in Merry, 2002:49). Although most attention were later given to three of the six conditions of which have become known as the core conditions, six were originally described by Rogers as necessary and sufficient for therapeutic change.

The three core conditions are all employed by the counsellor and are attitudinal qualities and values that are more about the counsellor’s beliefs than counselling techniques (Casemore, 2011). The first of the six necessary and sufficient conditions states a need for the client and therapist to be in psychological contact. Rogers believed that significant change in the client could not occur unless they are in relationship. He stated that all that is intended for the first condition is that the two people are in contact and that “each makes some erceived difference in the experiential field of the other. ” (Rogers, 1957 cited in Kirschenbaum 1990:221). The second of the six conditions states that the client should be in a state of incongruence, being vulnerable or anxious. This incongruence, as described earlier in this essay is an un-matching of the person’s self-concept and organismic self. When a person is unaware of the incongruence in them, they can become vulnerable to such things as anxiety and depression (Rogers, 1957 cited in Kirschenbaum 1990). The third condition as Brian Thorne explains states that the therapist should be congruent.

This means that the therapist would be completely themselves, completely transparent and not hiding behind a professional facade. It is the matching of what the therapist feels on the inside with what is portrayed on the outside. This however is dependent on the therapist maintaining a high level of self-awareness in order for them to be constantly in touch with their own feelings so that they are available to communicate this with the client when it is appropriate. Rogers came to believe that congruence was the most fundamental of the attitudinal qualities of the therapist that promotes growth in the client.

The fourth condition requires the therapist to experience unconditional positive regard for the client. This is an unconditional acceptance and caring of the person without any judgement or evaluation. Rogers liked to use the term ‘prizing. ’ Thorne goes on to explain the fifth condition which is that of the therapist experiencing an empathic understanding of the client’s internal frame of reference. Rogers described an ‘as if’ quality that stated the importance of the therapist entering the world of the client, thinking and feeling as if they were the client, without losing the ‘as if’ quality.

It is also of fundamental importance here to communicate this empathic understanding with the client in order for the client to experience this empathy (Thorne, 2003) The importance Rogers placed on the communication of empathy with the client is reflected in the last of the six conditions which states that the client perceives, to a minimal degree the therapist’s empathic understanding and unconditional acceptance for them. Rogers believed that if these conditions were not perceived by the client then they did not exist in the relationship and the therapeutic process would be hindered (Rogers, 1957 cited in Kirschenbaum 1990).

Although Rogers specified that these six conditions together were necessary and sufficient, most attention has been paid to the conditions of congruence, unconditional positive regard and empathy. These became known in the late 1960’s as ‘the core conditions. ’ These three conditions describe attitudes or qualities present in the counsellor and do not describe a technique used by the therapist but are a part of the therapist’s person (Merry, 2002).

Rogers’ (1964) states “If I can create the proper climate, the proper relationship, the proper conditions a process of therapeutic movement will almost inevitably occur in my client. ” Rogers’ then goes on to describe this therapeutic change in more detail, stating that if these conditions were present, a variety of things are likely to happen. He explains that the client may begin to explore their feelings more deeply and begin to discover hidden aspects of themselves that were not previously known.

If a client is prized by him they may begin to prize themselves and if they sense realness from him they may begin to be more real with themselves. Furthermore, if the client feels a deep understanding and acceptance from him, they may be more willing to listen to their own feelings and move towards an acceptance of themselves. Finally, he believes the client would move from having an external locus of evaluation to an internal locus of evaluation, trusting in their own judgments and opinions.

On reflection, this essay introduced Carl Rogers with a brief over-view of his upbringing and career background and lead on to describe and explore his theory of person-centred therapy, paying close attention to four main areas; general person-centred theory, Rogers’ theory of personality, his ideas about the acquisition of human dysfunction and what he believed to be the necessary “treatment” of these dysfunctions. While explaining the general theory of person-centred therapy, humanistic psychology, of which person-centred theory is a part, was explored paying attention to how it views the person.

Generally speaking humanistic theory values the human being and believes the person to be an organic, continually growing being while focusing on how the person experiences and perceives themselves and the world around them. Carl Rogers’ himself was optimistic in his view of the person and believed that humans are generally good and healthy. This then lead on to Rogers’ theory of the actualizing tendency that he believes is present in every human being giving a natural need to grow and develop and become a fully functioning person.

The essay then moved on to describing Rogers’ theory of personality where the self and the self-concept were described. Rogers believed that the individual perceives experiences and objects in the world around them and attaches meaning and value to them. He also believed that a person can unknowingly take on board another’s views and opinions and this can become a part of their self-concept, however distorted. The acquisition of human dysfunction was then described, looking at Rogers’ theory of conditions of worth. Rogers’ believed that a child is conditioned by their parents depending on what they find acceptable.

This can then cause the child’s self-concept to become distorted and for them in later life to possess an external locus of evaluation. The “treatment” of dysfunction was explained in detail looking at Rogers’ six original therapeutic conditions of which he believed were necessary and sufficient for therapeutic change in the client, whilst pointing out the three conditions; congruence, unconditional positive regard and empathy that later became known as the ‘core conditions. ’ The essay then explained finally the positive affects these conditions have on the client within a therapeutic relationship.

Word count: 2,568 References Casemore, R. (2011) Person-centred counselling in a nutshell. 2nd edn. London: SAGE. Gross, R. D. (2010) Psychology : the science of mind and behaviour. 4th edn. London: Hodder Education. Kirschenbaum, H. (ed. ) (1990) The Carl Rogers Reader. London: Vintage McLeod, J. (2009) An introduction to counselling. 4th edn. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Mearns, D. and Thorne, B. (2007) Person-centred counselling in action. 3rd edn. London: SAGE. (Counselling in action). Merry, T. (2002) Learning and being in person centred counselling. nd edn. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books. Nelson-Jones, R. (2010) Theory and practice of counselling and therapy. 5th edn. London: SAGE. Pervin, L. (1993) Personality: Theory and Research. 6e edn. Chichester: Wiley. Rogers, C. R. (1961) On becoming a person: a therapists view of psychotherapy. London: Vintage. Rogers, C. (1964) – http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=ZBkUqcqRChg Thorne, B. Article – http://www. elementsuk. com/libraryofarticles/personcentred. pdf Thorne, B. (2003) Carl Rogers. 2nd edn. London: SAGE. (Key figures in counselling and psychotherapy).

Examples of Students Essays

The Causes and Effects of Growing Up in an Abusive Home Essay Example

The Causes and Effects of Growing Up in an Abusive Home Essay

Coming from an abusive home myself I personally know what the uncalled for causes and the dramatic effects of abuse are – The Causes and Effects of Growing Up in an Abusive Home Essay introduction. During the ages of 5 until I was 16 my stepfather physically abused me almost daily. I get beat with a belt, a wire hanger, extension cords, wooden spoons or anything else he could get his hands on. I was 4 or 5 the first time it happened, he told me to clean my room and when he came to check on me I was not yet done. He then began to count to 10 and when he got there if I was not done he beat me. This would continue until my room was clean which seemed like an eternity but was more like 10 minutes.

As I grew the beatings also grew and at some point when I was 13 or 14 he slapped me so hard across my face that he broke my nose and I had a bright green bruise on my cheek for a week. I was so embarrassed about it that I tried to cover it with make-up every day until it was gone. Finally, it all stopped one night at the age of 16 when he kicked me out of the house for sticking up for my friend who he had threatened to hit. I was so happy to be out of that house but I was terrified at the same time. The one thing I think that bothered me the most was that while all of this was going on my mom just stood by and let it happen. The causes of abuse are numerous and the effects are significantly higher in number. My stepfather blamed his rage on stress and my being defiant. What he did not realize is that I was only defiant because of his anger towards me which is just one of the effects of abuse, another would be low self-esteem. These effects can last long after the abuse stops and can ruin future relationships for the rest of ones life. Many different stressors including work issues, money problems and even sleep deprivation might bring on abuse.

More Essay Examples on Family Rubric

My stepfather and mom ran an auto body business and on the days when things did not go well at the shop my stepfather would take it out on me. It almost seemed like he would try to pick a fight with me just so he could beat me and make himself feel better. One time when I was 12 or 13 my granddad was in he hospital dying and we had driven 8 hours in the middle of the night to be with him. He was like a father to me and I loved him very much so I asked my grandma if I could stay at the hospital with her. My stepfather told me no and I was very upset by this so I began to cry.

When my family got out to the parking lot my stepfather told me I should feel like the smallest piece of s*** on the planet. This made me very angry so I threw my things on the ground and began running away from him. As he chased me I screamed at the top of my lungs for someone to help me because I knew if he caught me that he would beat me. My grandma came out of the hospital room to see what the problem was and I was hiding behind a food cart crying hysterically as my stepfather tried to get at me. He later apologized and blamed his anger on being tired from the long drive.

Financial problems seem to be a big cause of stress among families and mine was no different. Even though we had our own business we were still very poor. This was probably because my stepfather had an expensive hobby of driving modified midget racecars. Every weekend in the summer we would go to the track and spend hundreds of dollars on food, drinks, gas, and parts for the racecar. Then there were the many trips across the country for the state and national races, which cost thousands of dollars. This went on for 9 years so one could imagine the kind of money that was put into this hobby.

Needless to say my stepfather was stressed out all of the time and I was the one that usually got the ugly end of the deal. In my case I was a very defiant child for a variety of reasons. I went from being the younger of 2 kids to being the middle of 7 in a matter of 3 years. No longer was the attention on me because it was on my 3 new stepbrothers and my new stepsister. Then 2 days before my 7th birthday my mom had my little sister, which meant that I would have to share my birthday with her now. I was very resentful towards my little sister for many years after that.

So yes, I was a defiant child and then the beatings started and I got worse. All I wanted was attention and I really did not care how I got it. I would back talk my mom; totally disrespect my stepfather, beat up on my sisters and lied to everyone regularly. When I would ask my mom if I could have a friend over, my stepfather would answer for her and that irritated me. When he would do that I simply looked at him and would say, “Is your name mom! ” and then I would ask my mom again. She usually would say the same thing my stepfather said but I did not care. I know that on several ccasions I threatened both my mom and my stepfather with violence and showed no remorse for it. Skipping school became a regular thing for me in high school and I rarely go caught. When I did though I would get very aggressive when my mom or stepfather would punish me. They later admitted to me that they were afraid of me but I already knew that. I could see how it would be hard to handle a kid like that but still it is no reason to abuse them. The effects of abuse, however, are much more severe in my eyes. Being a defiant child may not last forever but the long-term effects can include low self-esteem.

I can recall my stepfather telling me that I was fat, stupid, ugly and several other things when he would beat me. I began to believe this as some point in my life because the kids at school began to say the same things to me. I felt like an outcast and like no one would ever be my friend or love me at all. I don’t remember ever hearing my mom tell me she loved me but I heard her say it to my sisters all the time. Still to this day she never says it to me but does to my sisters and I don’t know why that is. I do not think very highly of myself now as an adult, though I try not to show it.

Deep down inside I feel ugly, fat and stupid just like my stepfather use to say to me so many years ago. No matter how hard I have tried to forget the past or tell myself that I am good enough to be loved, the thought will not leave my head. It follows me in my everyday life and I fear that it will for the rest of my life. Just because someone is stressed because of financial issues or tired from lack of sleep does not make it okay for them to take it out on their kids. What we as parents need to keep in mind is how our actions towards our kids are going to effect them later in life as well as right now.

We should try to put ourselves in their shoes and think of how what we are doing would make us feel. By doing this we could come up with alternative ways of disciplining our kids that do not include intimidation or fear. Now that I am 30 years old and have 2 wonderful kids of my own I make sure to tell them everyday how much I love them. I do not ever want them to feel the way I did growing up. I would never do to them what was done to me because I know what it felt like not only physically but also emotionally.

Examples of Students Essays

Person-centred approach differs to cognitive bahavioural approaches Essay Example

Person-centred approach differs to cognitive bahavioural approaches Essay

In order to be able to say what the differences are between PCT, CBT and Psychodynamic approaches to counselling I have first of all set out below a brief summary of all three; Person centred therapy concentrates mainly on the subjective experience of the client and on how they might lose touch with their own organismic experiencing through taking on board the evaluations of others and treating them as if their own – Person-centred approach differs to cognitive bahavioural approaches Essay introduction. Therapy puts importance on a relationship built on empathy; respect and non-possessive warmth. Cognitive therapy works on the assumption that clients become distressed because of faulty processors of information leading them to jump to unwarranted conclusions. Therapy involves educating clients to test the reality of their thinking and by making use of a style of questioning which helps the client to become more aware of how he thinks. Real life experiments might also be used. Psychodynamic approaches pays attention to unconscious factors which have caused neurosis. The treatment consists of working through transference where the client regards the therapist as an important figure from their past. Also the interpretation of dreams may be used. (Nelson-Jones, 2011).

It appears that some of the ways that the PCT approach differs from CBT and psychodynamic approaches is that PCT relies on the relationship that is built between therapist and client and also makes a point of not directing the client. This is what makes PCT so unique from other approaches. PCT was developed by Carl Rogers, an American psychotherapist, researcher and academic. Rogers and his colleagues developed the person centred techniques from about 1940 onwards. At the time it was considered to be a very radical way of working with people because it sharply moved away from Freudian and cognitive-behavioural approaches that were so dominant at the time. PCT moved away from the need and belief of a diagnostic assessment and labelling, instead it concentrated on building a relationship between client and therapist. (Sanders, 2012).

More Essay Examples on Psychology Rubric

Roger’s developments of the conditions which are non-directive are

1. That two persons are in psychological contract;

2. The client is in a state of incongruence;

3. The therapist is congruent;

4. The therapist experiences unconditional regard towards the client;

5. The therapist is experiencing an empathic understanding of the client’s internal frame of reference (and endeavours to show it to the client);

6. That the client perceives conditions 4 and 5, the unconditional positive regard of the therapist for him/her, as well as the empathic understanding of the therapist. The above conditions are thought to be all that is needed to achieve a constructive personality change. This highlights that the fact that one of the key differences between PCT and cognitive/psychodynamic approaches is that it is the relationship between therapist and client which is the agent for change. Because PCT declared no other conditions were necessary to bring about change it created a direct challenge to the other approaches that were based on the theoretical knowledge or expertise of the therapist, including a diagnosis of symptoms followed by the application of specific techniques. In fact Rogers believed that each individual had the capacity to heal himself if the correct conditions are in place, i.e. the client merely needs to be at the centre of a self-directed process facilitated by another, (the therapist) and ‘experts’ were not needed. (Sanders, 2012). Roger’s was of the belief that the 6 conditions could be demonstrated by anyone who acquired experiential training, as opposed to special intellectual professional knowledge, whether it be psychological, psychiatric or medical. A fundamental difference therefore, is that PCT works on the assumption that the client has the capacity for self-determination and the counsellor guides the client into doing something about her/himself. The counsellor might help the client to move towards self-growth and development by recognizing obstacles. Special techniques are not used to enable the client; it is merely the practising successfully the core conditions of congruence, empathy and unconditional regard; i.e. truly being able to place yourself into client’s shoes so to speak; not judging and being able to be real in the relationship. The main concept always being that the client has a natural urge towards growth and is also the expert on how to achieve it. This above approach is in direct opposition to the psychodynamic approach which assumes it is the counsellor that is the expert in knowing how to alleviate distress in the client because he/she has the knowledge of how the

unconscious mind works. There is the belief that problems are caused as a result of links between past experience and the present state of mind. (Bond, 2000). Cognitive Therapy differs again, not only in a reliance on expert knowledge, but also in the fact that there are no reservations about advice giving, and will also employ methods that include undertaking special exercise or activities regarded as homework between sessions. Albert Ellis, whose work was developed by cognitive therapists, was very critical of counsellors who avoid challenging inappropriate or self-destructive beliefs and he argued that the timidity of the counsellor is colluding with the clients own destructive urges. (Dryden, 1997). Cognitive therapy was further developed in the early 1960’s by Dr Aaron Beck who was of the opinion that during client’s cognitive development they learn incorrect habits of processing and interpreting information. The therapist helps the client to become aware of distortions and then to learn different and more realistic ways of processing and reality-testing information. This is achieved by observing the client; interpreting his observations and then using methods of interventions. The client is basically taught how to think about their thinking and in so doing correcting dysfunctions. Therapy is usually time-based and goals are enforced with a definition of problems. Generally therapy ends when goals are achieved. (Nelson-Jones, 2011).

Finally, in considering the differences of the approaches discussed, I think the most important thing to keep in mind is that Roger’s believed that individuals have within themselves their own capacity to develop their potential as a human being, but sometimes they may need the help of a person-centred approach to help them to tap into the resources they already have in order to create full realisation. Rogers did believe, like other theorists, that early childhood influences the kind of person we might become. The difference is that unlike many approaches to personality, PCT believes that significant changes to personality are possible later in life but sometimes need to be helped to tap into their own innate resources, this is in opposition to a belief that expertise might be needed or that the client needs to be taught.