Examples of Students Essays

Unit 206: Understand the Role of the Social Care Worker Essay Example

Unit 206: Understand the Role of the Social Care Worker Essay

UNIT 206: UNDERSTAND THE ROLE OF THE SOCIAL CARE WORKER= RICHARD MUNYAMA TASK B HANDOUT Bi – Unit 206: Understand the Role of the Social Care Worker Essay introduction. Agreed ways of working The agreed ways of working are set of codes by the employer for the social care worker to conduct and inform service users and the public about the standards of conduct they can expect and includes legislation, practice standards and employers’ policies and procedures that should be met.

It is the responsibility of social care workers to work within the policy guidelines and following the laid –down procedures and ensuring that their conduct does not follow below the standards set out and that no action or omission on their part harms the wellbeing of service users. Bii. The importance of having full and up-to-date details of the agreed ways working. It is the requirement of the organisation to adhere to relevant legislation and to form their policies and procedures in respect of new legislation changes . e. g.

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Equality act 2010 is a fairly new act so necessary that it must be reflected in the organisation’s policies and procedures. To ensure the safety and well being of service users, staff and the public. To ensure staff are clear on their duties, roles and responsibilities and can carry out their job in the right way. The needs of service users change, staff members change, staff skills and abilities change so support plans, guidelines and risk assessments must reflect this, to help providing a service that the individual needs, as set out in their care plan are met. To ensure continuity of care and to prevent misunderstanding and confusion.

It’s important that all information is relevant and up to date. Biii. Why it is important that social care workers follow guidance about the limits of their job role. It is to ensure the smoothly running of delivery of services. Each job role has its responsibility and is accountable for what to be done. Every job role requires experience and qualifications to carry it out. Some job roles may require specialist knowledge or training and will require that training and relevant experience is gained. To follow guidance about the limits of their job role is a good indication that you carrying out your job in the right way.

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Risk Assessment and Young People Essay Example

Risk Assessment and Young People Essay

If you care for children of mixed age range you may need to section of certain areas or have activities – Risk Assessment and Young People Essay introduction. This would prevent, for example, a child who is crawling from getting access to a climbing frame or unsupervised water-play. Special needs Some children and young people have special needs related to a physical condition, disability, sensory impairment or a learning difficulty. Keeping these children safe while providing them with equal opportunities to play, explore and be active is an additional challenge that requires careful thought.

You may need to adapt play equipment or find suitable enabling or protective aids. Consider also how to make sure children understand safety instructions and can follow them sufficiently Specific risks There may be particular risks to bear in mind. For example, if you are working with colleague who is pregnant, or individuals with a sensory impairment, you will to make allowances. There may also be specific risks associated with particular activities, so you have to make sure to use the relevant safety equipment and give appropriate safety instructions in preparation.

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For example, if you are starting a baking session, don’t begin without making sure that aprons and oven gloves are available, that children know how who may use matches and how to use them safely, that only open the oven when an adult is present, and understand the importance of personal hygiene while cooking 1. 2 Explain how health and safety is monitored and maintained and how people in your work setting are aware of risk and hazards and encouraged to work safely All care settings must have systems in place so that each aspect of health and safety concerning the workplace and practice re checked regularly.

These should be itemized as part of a health and safety policy and include details about how often the checks should take place, who should make the checks and how information must be recorded and reported. Every member of staff has a right to have their health and safety protected and holds an equal responsibility to protect the health and safety of others. This includes the children and young people in your care, their families, your colleagues, visiting practitioners and Other visitors.

For example, a draftsperson such as an electrician might need to do repair or maintenance work during day of a playgroup. During the electrician’s visit children need to be kept safe from dangers such as tools and exposure to electricity, and the electrician must be kept safe from accidents and incidents, such as falling over a dropped toy or slipping in split juice. 1. 3. Identify sources of current guidance for planning healthy and safe environments and services. There are a number of different sources of information available to you.

Your place of work and your local library are good starting points, and a great deal of information can be found on the internet. People leagues – some of your colleagues may have specialist knowledge or wealth of experience from which you can benefit from visiting practitioners people who practice in other professions but come to your workplace as part of the service provision may be able to give you different insights Documents legislation documents explain ways in which health and safety relates to your work and your work role Policies describe under-running principles for safe working.

There will be specific health and safety policy, as well as other related policies, such as safeguarding and moving and handling procedures et detailed instructions about what must happen in particular circumstances, such as a fire alarm sounding, or if a building is to be evacuated, or in a event of a child or young person going missing other professions such as police, social services or healthcare can be contacted by letter to request specific relevant information Public information Health and Safety Executive (HOSE) is a national independent watchdog for work-related health, safety and illness.

Its role is enforce legislation, provide information and advice and run an advocacy service that supports individuals ho have been injured at work to go through a complaints procedure British Safety Council (BBS) is a UK charity offering information and guidance on health, safety and environmental Health Protection Agency (HAP) is an independent UK organization set up protect up to protect the public from infectious disease and environmental hazards. It others advice and information. 1. Explain how current health and safety legislation, policies and procedures are implemented in own work setting or service. Within my work setting we follow The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974. It is the employer’s duty to put leslies and procedures into place to ensure that the setting is meeting the standards of The Health and Safety at Work Act and the employee’s duty to make sure these are followed. We follow this act by making sure that the building and environment is well maintained, clean and safe.

Equipment is stored properly and is regularly checked to ensure it is safe. Hazardous materials and equipment is locked away and we follow the COACH act. We have systems in place to ensure the safety Of children at all times I. E. Fire procedure, accident and illness procedure. We provide adequate facilities to tit the needs and abilities of all children and young people and all members of staff are qualified, CRY checked and given regular training.

Gloves and aprons are worn at all times when dealing with bodily fluids to prevent cross- infection. All accidents and incidents are recorded are reported to the correct person. Practitioners are first aid qualified and are able to deal with minor injuries within the setting. First aid boxes and fire extinguishers are in every room along with a fire whistle to alert other rooms of a fire. We have a health and safety officer who oversees the running of the setting and ensures that sis assessments are regularly carried out and updated.

Staff members are given guidance on how to protect themselves throughout day to day activities and also regarding manual handling. Risk assessments also have to be signed by each practitioner otherwise they are void because the practitioner can say that they haven’t read them, maybe attend courses on health and safety, food hygiene, manual handling etc. Staff meetings to update health and safety requirements. Display the health and safety poster and make sure it is up to date (recently new updated version in our area). 2. Undertake a health and safety assessment in own work setting or service illustrating how its implantation will reduce risk A health and safety risk assessment is a careful examination of any hazards or situations that could cause harm to people or damage to buildings or equipment. In carrying risk assessments you have the opportunity to recognize potential risk before harm occurs and to take measures to avoid or minimize the impact. You can carry out informal risk assessments many times, often without thinking such every time you cross the road or drive a car.

A formal risk assessment process uses structure to identify and assess the risk and find ways to avoid or reduce it to an acceptable level. The five steps of risk assessment that undertake are, l: [1] 1. Identify the hazards[2] 2. Decide who might be harmed and how[3] 3. Evaluate the risks and decide on precaution[4] 4. Record my findings and implement them[5] 5. Review my assessment and update if necessary 2. 4 Explain how health and safety risk assessments are monitored and reviewed Risk assessment is an ongoing process that needs continuous review until the risk is over.

The law does not expect you to eliminate all risk, UT you are required to protect people as far is reasonably practicable and this means monitoring risk and keeping them under review When you work with children and young people the workplace does not usually stay the same from day to day. Different people are around at different times and each individual will have different needs on different occasions. Also over the weeks, new equipment and new activities will be probably be introduced. This means once for all risk assessment.

Regular monitoring and reviewing keeps up with changes, allowing risk assessments to be adjusted and adapted as necessary. When considering how risk assessment might need to changed, I usually think about: The children and young people taking part The staff members who are going to be involved Other people who are around, such as family members, visitors or strangers The weather conditions Time of day The previous activity and how it may impact on this one Any potential hazard that have arisen will also ask the opinion and advice of others, who may spot things that I may have overlook, or have a different viewpoint.

I will also check what has worked well on other occasions and always learn from previous mistakes. . 1 Explain why it is important to take a balanced approach to risk management As practitioners, our main concern is to keep children safe from harm. Doing this can be very hard, as at the same time we need to encourage them to experience risk and challenges. If we try to remove all risks from children’s lives we could be risking restricting their learning experiences. It is very important that We teach children skills that will help those managing dangers and risk for themselves.

Giving children the opportunity to experience a certain level of risky experiences will help them o develop confidence and competence to make their own balance approach is taken in risk taking, so children are not over protected. Children are allowed to play and explore in safe environment and make right decision about risk with the help of adult. Children need to learn how to control risk themselves; by learning what is a safe boundary are with the help of adult, and showing the children how to recognize the risk and dangers in the safest way possible.

When you do any new activity it does create dilemma and conflict at some point between the duty and care and children rights. The activities we do with children, make they are right age for them, and extra care of children during the activity, because if is any things goes wrong then we have to make balance decision between the risk and child right. 32 Explain the dilemma between the rights and choices of children and people and health and safety requirements: Children learn by trying out new experiences and making choices.

But they do not have the skills and judgment always to make safe choices. Careers have the responsibility to identify potential hazards in any situation and to judge hen it is safe to allow a child to undertake an activity or make a choice. Some children need this freedom to explore risk even more than others. For example a disabled child may be restricted in play at home because of parental concern that the child could hurt themselves. In a well-controlled setting the child can be encouraged to explore and try out new skills. Children are usually very good at deciding what is safe or not.

Using large play equipment is a good example of how children assess and manage risk. In the Outdoor area in Foundation Stage there is a climbing wall where I believe that he children should use with caution but also given the chance to decide whether they can get over without hurting themselves or not, thus they are assessing and managing their own risk. This is a choice that they should make themselves, if they are not happy they will get down. However parents and cares who are being over cautious about children may stop a child trying new things out. 3. Give examples from own practice of supporting children or young people to assess and manage risk All children and people are different, but many do exercise a natural caution when trying a new experience or challenge. This can be seen as a self-protective instinct. Risky behavior often comes about when a child has been over protected and not exposed to any risk, so has not learnt how to asses risk Learning how about risk assessment and risk management is a gradual process in which there should be an increasing number of min-steps along the route to independence.

If a child is allowed to get it wrong sometimes, as long as it within a controlled environment where they cannot come too much harm, they will learn from their mistakes. There are a number of ways that I can help to support a child or young person to asses and manage risks safely Be present to physically support a young child physically as they try out new skills, for example, standing behind a very child to give confidence as they negotiate stairs and to be there if they fall Be positive role model, for example holding a safety rail/wearing a bike helmet/ using safety belts and explaining why these precautions re necessary.

Be encouraging by praising effort and highlighting competence and achievement Create opportunities to practice decision-making such as when crossing a road, suggested a child tells when they think it is safe to do so Talk over the recess of accessing ask as you carrying out task, for example, I’ll use an oven glove so don’t burn myself on the cooker Allow enough time for process of risk assessment to take properly Support parents to let go as they allow children to more independent choices Increase opportunities for independent decision making for children and young people as they get older 4. Explain the policies and procedures of the settings or service in response to accidents, incidents, emergencies and illness In my setting there several policies and procedures that I adhere to which include first aid, fire and accident and emergency. I refer to them at all times. 4. Identify the correct procedures or recording and reporting accidents, incidents emergencies and illness As an early years setting we have policies and procedures in place for how we respond to accidents, incidents, emergencies and illness and procedures for reporting and recording Sickness and illness: The settings policy for the exclusion of children with sick or infectious children is displayed in our waiting room; these include the period of time we require a child to stay home following a bout of sickness or diarrhea or other infectious illness such a chicken pox.

When infectious illness is discovered, such as head lice, parents are notified by signs being put up. If a child, following consultation with a qualified medical professional has an infectious disease which is on the modifiable diseases list then Offset are informed. If a child becomes ill whilst at the setting there parent/career are called, if they are not available we have a list of authorized emergency contacts who can come and collect the child, until such time the child is cared for in an appropriate area of the setting.

If a child becomes unwell and is a cause for serious once then an ambulance would be called. Certain illnesses as Meningitis need rapid action, there are posters in our waiting room to advice people on what to do should meningitis be suspected, age specific symptom lists and aids to diagnose such as the glass test. We have procedures and specific cleaning kit for use on spilled bodily fluids. Accident/First Aid: We have a qualified first eider in the setting or on an outing at any one time.

The first eiders are listed on a notice for everyone to see should they require help. If a child has an accident at the setting and requires first aid then the elevate qualified person will use the settings first aid kit which is easily accessible and regularly checked. When an accident occurs we fill out or accident book which details; where, when, how and what treatment was administered. The parents/career is then informed and asked to sign it at the end of the session.

If the injury is more severe and requires further medical attention then the parent/career or authorized is contacted and informed or following signed consent on the settings registration form the child can be taken to the nearest Accident and Emergency unit. We have a duty to inform Offset and the Health and Safety Executive of any injury that requires treatment by a medical professional or in the event of the death. Reviewing the accident book half termed allows us to identify any potential or actual hazards.

We have an Evacuation Bag which is taken out with us whenever we go outside of the premises or on off site visits/trips the contents of our evacuation bag include: First Aid Kit, Cold Compress, Accident Book, Fire Alarm Whistle, Individual child’s medication in own container, tissues, anti-bacterial hand gel, mobile phones, daily signing in/out sheets, contact details of parents/careers and emergency contacts. Incidents: When an incident occurs at the setting we record it in our Incident book which is kept in the office filing cabinet.

An incident could be a break in or theft, vandalism, dangerous occurrence, injury or fatality. In the incident book we record the date and time of the incident, nature of the event, who was affected, what was done about it – or if it was reported to the police, and if so a crime number. Any follow up, or insurance claim made, should also be recorded. We comply with current HOSE Regulations and report to the Health ND Safety executive.

Risk Assessment and Young People Essay

Support Children and Young People’s Health and Safety – Risk Assessment and Young People Essay introduction. 1 Understand how to plan and provide environments and services that support children and young people’s health and safety. 1. 3 Identify sources of current guidance for planning healthy and safe environments and services. The Health & safety executive: HSE is the national independent watchdog for work-related health, safety and illness. They are an independent regulator and act in the public interest to reduce work-related death and serious injury across Great Britain’s workplaces

Child accident prevention trust: They are committed to reducing the number of children and young people killed, disabled or seriously injured in accidents. Department for schools and families The Department for Education is committed to creating a world-class state education system. They will work to improve the opportunities and experiences available to children and the education workforce by focusing on the following priorities:  Giving greater autonomy to schools Improving parental choice Offering more support for the poorest Whole system improvement

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Great quality provision for children A Workplace’s policies and procedures: Risk Assessment: Risk Assessments are a legal requirement mainly under the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999, although most health and safety legislation requires a risk assessment approach. 1. 4 Explain how current health and safety legislation, policies and procedures are implemented in own work setting or service. We have folders with all the policies and procedures for the whole school in them so if we aren’t sure about something we can go to the folder and find out.

Also when we get new staff they are given a hand book with all the policies and procedures in it which they have to read through before they start. Also we as a team make sure we are following policies and procedures on a day to day basis by reminding each other and supporting each other. For example we have two different policies for personal care in the school in my class the policy is one person to attend to a child’s personal care with the door open, whereas in all the other classes they have to have two people with a child but can close the door.

Examples of Students Essays

Unit Assignment Brief Essay Example

Unit Assignment Brief Essay – Part 2

You will also have to take part in the interview and perform the post-interview activities – Unit Assignment Brief Essay introduction. As this is your first interview the HER manager has asked you to analyses and evaluate your experience so that you can improve in future. Tasks You have to produce the interview pack for the interview panel to use. This must include: Shortlist Tasks and test for the interview Interview questions (ensuring they are within the legislation and ethical constraints) Procedure for interview decisions Job offer to the successful candidates

Informing unsuccessful candidates Using your interview pack you must take part in the selection process both as an interviewer and an interviewee You have been asked to write a report to analyses your contribution to the process, and evaluate your experience of planning and participating both as an interviewer and an interviewee. Evidence you must produce for this task Interview pack Report Criteria covered by this task: To achieve the criteria you must show that you are able to: Unit Criterion reference

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Plan to take part in a selection interview 13 L 04. Up Take part in a selection interview ALL. UP Analyses your contribution to the selection process in a given situation 13 ALL. MM Evaluate your experience of planning and participation in the recruitment and selection process 13 ALL. DO Sources of information www. Biked. AC. UK Educational website www. Hallucinogens. AC. UK corporate website vim. Tutor. Co. UK Educational website.

Examples of Students Essays

Health and Safety in a Clinical Laboratory Essay Example

Health and Safety in a Clinical Laboratory Essay

HEALTH AND SAFETY IN CLINICAL LABORITORIES Health and safety at work act (1974) show that it is a duty of every employer to ensure as far as reasonably practice to health safety and welfare at work of all of its employees – Health and Safety in a Clinical Laboratory Essay introduction. Risks assessments must be carried out when more than 5 people are employed and implement changes as necessary. Risk assessment is a carefully recorded examination of what might cause harm and accidents to people in work places e. g. staff, visitors, patients, clients and contractors. Many activities are undertaken in clinical laboratories therefore anyone entering is at risk at pathological specimen.

Staff must observe important precautions to protect both themselves and others. The degree of risk will depend upon the sort of work they do and how well they observe the safety rules. Infection control is very important in laboratories because infections may be acquired by breathing in airborne droplets or dust containing infectious micro-organisms and others may be through abrasions wounds or liquid splashing onto mucous membranes into eyes. Any form of cuts or dermatitis should be covered by waterproof dressing before start of work. The cover must be enough to prevent contamination and if in doubt ask the line manager.

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Personal protection equipment [PPE] is very important from reducing the spread of infections. In laboratories always wear a protective gown or coat to protect own clothing from acting as transmitter for infection. Gowns should be changed at least twice per week and neither should personal things such as pencils, combs, brushes taken into the laboratory. Essential items are always provided. Gloves should be worn when handling specimen. If gloves become perforated you should stop work immediately and dispose of into appropriate bin. Wash hands thoroughly and put new gloves.

When gowns are contaminated they should be changed and placed in appropriate container and hands should be washed and put new clean coat. Food, drink, cigarettes are not allowed into the laboratory. Eating, chewing, smoking and applying cosmetics in laboratory are forbidden. All that may bring hands into contact with face and mucosae [eyes, nose and mouth] must be avoided as this spread infections. Hands should be washed thoroughly when leaving the laboratory. Reporting Of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulation 1995 [RIDDOR] was introduced to report any injuries or disease within the workplace

In clinical laboratories if any cuts occur the wound should be encouraged to bleed by washing with running water. This should not be scrubbed as this may encourage infection. Proper treatment dressing is very important and no matter how small the cut is this should be reported to the line manager. If u become ill this should be reported and the doctor should be told where you work by showing medical contact card in case of further information if required. Do not take unnecessary risks always follow the rule. Handling of specimen in the laboratory is the main focus of the job.

Always observe all the requirements and regulations. Gloves should be used to handle specimen which include saliva, blood and urine . Always wear disposable gloves if u are to get in contact with blood or body fluids. The use of protective clothing and equipment [gloves, aprons, full-face visors] will minimise the risk of infection Any spillage which would be infectious should be reported and make sure that the spillage is properly cleaned to prevent accidents which can cause injuries or death if someone slips [shattered lives]. Broken equipment should be placed in containers provided to avoid cuts.

Used materials should be placed in appropriate marked bins and dispose of manner accordingly. Control of Substance Hazardous to Health 2002[COSSH] this was amended to control exposure to chemicals and protect workers. In laboratories activities such as autoclaving and cleaning must only be performed according to instructions and must be followed at all times unless in circumstances to meet special needs. Avoid practices of splashing or releasing of droplets into atmosphere as this causes infections. Pathological material should be carried in a microbiological safety cabinet e. . transport screen . Always protect yourself by putting on full-face visor, gloves and disposable plastic apron over your gown or coat. Mouth pipetting is forbidden always use provided pipetting devices. Protective clothing should be removed on completing the job and place various items in the designated places for disinfection, autoclaving or disposal . Always wash hands at the end of each job. Minimise the use of sharp objects as these can cause cuts, when using them use with extreme condition or whenever possible use plastic. Clear spillages and clutter.

Use racks or trays to contain specimen. Items must be disinfected properly and disposed safely. Labels should be correctly done and never to be licked Do not enter any room which has` Danger of Infection` sign on the door unless you are told it’s safe to do so by your manager. Clinical waste should be properly bagged or safely contained according to local rules. Fire awareness is very important in any form of employment. Employees should be trained and be familiar with surroundings in case of fire. In laboratory the causes of fire could be electrical faults or chemical reaction.

In case of fire staff needs not to panic but to move away from affected area but on the same floor [horizontal evacuation]. This reduce evacuation time by moving to a short distance helps in not moving outside unless absolutely necessary . Regular training is advised [triangle of fire] When collapses it is an individual responsibility to risk assess to the rescuer during resuscitation Firstly u have to approach safely and don’t panic them. Check for response and shout for help. Open airway to make sure it is clear there is no vomit or dentures.

Apply 30 chest compressions and keep checking for normal breathing by looking and feeling . This is very important for every employee to be trained [Basic life support]. When faced with aggressive behaviour one should remain calm, communication, posture, should be considered. We need to use common sense in all what we do. REFERENCES ? HSE. Health Services Advisory Committee. (2003), Safety in Health service Laboratories, HSE Books, UK. ? HSE, (2006), Essentials of Health Safety at work, ? www. hse. gov. uk/biosafety/information. htm

Examples of Students Essays

Managers employees and organizational cultures Example

Managers employees and organizational cultures

The technical part is having eight training knowledge and tools so the business can be productive and effective in making sure the customers are happy and return consistently – Managers employees and organizational cultures introduction. Social technical systems theory was started being used by Japanese companies which integrated technical systems and management to achieve high performance. Large U. S. Automakers like Ford and Chrysler also started to look this way. They wanted to understand how the Japanese were applying these tactics to make their business and their products achieves. The second approach is called quantitative management.

This approach helps analysis the decisions and problems of the manager. This helps them to develop formal mathematical models of whatever the problem is. This is the use of science. This started during the World War II around sass. Private companies started to use this theory to get a grip of more complex issues they were having. They use computers to develop certain quantitative methods. This would include techniques such as queuing theory, inventory modeling and simulation. The companies would use these techniques in areas like marketing, planning and human resources.

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Many managers aren’t trained in this area and do not apply this as their primary approach. They might use this approach as a tool in the process off decision. Many managers will use the result that are up to their judgment and beliefs. Overall manager decisions are unpredictable and cannot be expressed in a mathematical form. Organizational behavior is a contemporary approach in which researches and understands management in which will make employees effective by focusing on the hard nature that a certain group utilizes and works together successfully.

Organizational behavior focuses mainly on the behavior of employees which analysis the psychology and the sociology. This approach The fourth approach is called the systems theory. This is the classic approach where everyone involved is criticized as a whole. This theory depended on what the outside world had to say such as human resources and raw materials. Instead of focusing on the external they would use the input as a whole to make OUtpUt needs meet the desires of consumers for what services and goods they needed as the external part.

This then caused people to talk which then caused others to make the next process of the company better. Which then turned into cause and effect. This cause was great for the company who was following through with this because it did wonders for them, who were spreading greatness all around for those who asked and then received. Every association or organizations rely on the input from their consumers to make their goods and services what they demand so they can be the best they can. This is an open system and how they work.

Regarding environments there are a few tepees to consider in an organization. For instance there are macro environment, internal and competitive. Macro environment is about the elements the external business includes that can influence them on strategic decisions they can make. As a whole the technology, demographics, economy and social values all include these regulations and laws are considered. Second environment is called internal. This is where the inside of a certain firm refers to any resources they have and uses them such as manager’s employees and organizational cultures.

The third environment is called competitive. This is extremely important because they need and keep track of other competitors in their line of company and other companies that may cause harm to them. I believe all the approaches go hand and hand with the environments. I believe they all individually have their purpose but each is much needed in the environments. I believe if you use all of the approaches with the environments in the proper times, any business or organization would be extremely successful.

Unit Assignment Essay

Windows Vista was the removable media policies – Unit Assignment Essay introduction. It allowed for the use of USB drives, flash memory cards, external USB hard drives, and CD/DVD writers. These however posed a huge security problem for companies because it allowed the users to easily copy data from their systems, or even place unwanted viruses or mallard onto their neuron. This lead to a lot of companies removing or just destroying these devices so that they wouldn’t work on their workstations. Vista also addressed the power management settings that weren’t available by default in Windows operation systems beforehand.

There were third party software that was used before this release, but companies would prefer if it were built into Windows to reduce costs. Power management policies allowed the companies to save money on electricity, and run at lower temperatures. Hard disk settings were added which allowed the hard drive to be set to turn on or off at specific times. For example when the computer is on battery power, then the hard drive would power down. The other policy that was added for this is for when the computer is plugged in. These allowed for set time values to be set after inactivity or other events happen which would rower down the hard drives.

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There were also settings for the displays which worked the same way as the hard drives. A very useful policy that is called “Require a password when a computer wakes” was added. This made it easier for companies to keep their networks secure. Everyone knows that not all employees and other users log off or lock their computers before walking away to go on break or something. With this setting, after the computer went into a sleep state then when it wakes, the user will have to input their credentials again to verify that they are who they say they are.

Examples of Students Essays

Task Centred Approaches Essay Example

Task Centred Approaches Essay


Task centred approach has been found to be one of the ways in which service users can be empowered – Task Centred Approaches Essay introduction. This paper looks into the various ways in which service users can get to be empowered. In providing this analysis, this paper examines several ways by which service users can be empowered such as theory and practice, which is used for changing the institutional and social contexts in a way which permits people to achieve the goals and values for social work. Next the paper explores codes of conduct as well as the duties which are expected of the social workers. At the same time, the paper discussed the issue of poverty and how it can be eradicated before discussing the whole process of empowerment while illustrating the principles of the same. The paper equally examines the issue of knowledge and how it is important in the field of social work. In this regard the concept or research is mentioned and how it contributed to the generation of more knowledge and under standing of social work. Eventually the paper makes a conclusion. For instance the paper concludes by emphasising the need to adopt the task centred approaches in helping the service users in resolving the problems as a way of empowering them.

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There is a lot of debate going on with respect to the best ways in which task centred approach can be used to empower service users. Before analysing how this can be done, it is important to understand some basic definitions. First task centred approach is a psychological approach of solving any problem more so in social work. This implies that social work involves several tasks. The rationale behind the task centred approach is to select problem solving technique which is relevant to the particular task that is being undertaken. It is drawn from both behavioural as well as cognitive psychotherapies which are concerned with the perceptions, learning and thoughts of individuals with regards to information (Sternberg, 1995). Task centred approach is highly structured and time limited approach which is usually focused on the problem. At the same time, service users are those people who are directly involved or the direct recipients of the services provided by the social work being undertaken. One way by which task centred approach is helpful to service users is by empowerment.

Theory and Practice

Theory and practice is one way that task-centred approach can be used to empower service users. Theory is used for changing the institutional and social contexts in order that people may achieve the goals and values for social work. The theories of social work are practice guidelines and are drawn from the sociology and psychology disciplines. The social work theories help in the construction of the human needs understanding. Social workers should identify the reasons of their social work practices. Theories are framework threads that are used in practice and therefore people need to construct the threads for the practice of the social work. Theories components are like tools and people need to select the component that is relevant to the work context of the social worker since the social work primary’s task is varied. Since there are various context of social work such as risk management, community education, policy development among others, social workers have many theories that go with the contexts (Healy 2005).

            Task centred approach are theories that show how people learn, perceive, think and remember the things that they see (Sternberg 1995). The approach is a structured highly, focused on problem and time-limited even though it can used in many other theories. This approach is used in many interventions of social service. In interventions that are short term, human beings tend to have a great progress than in long term interventions. There are various task centred practice principles. The principles include promoting structured approaches and systematic to intervention, planned briefness and adopting a practice evaluation scientific approach. The other principles include seeking mutual clarity with service users and aiming at achieving small changes. The other principles of the task centred practice include focusing on the things that are here and now, promoting collaboration that is between service users and social workers and lastly building client action capacities (Healy 2005).

            In seeking mutual clarity, social workers ensure that identify the simple gesture and visiting the people in need. In the mutual clarity, the social workers also ensure that they work out a plan that will be used for the treatment process of the service users. The social workers should also ensure that they achieve small things than achieving the large changes. An example of achieving small changes is shown when a social worker start by determining the problems that the client is facing and determining the medical assistance that is needed. The social worker should also focus on the present and not the future of the client and by this the social worker will be applying the focus on here and now principle. The social worker should also do the task together with their clients for the recovery process. By doing this the social worker will be applying the collaboration principle. The sessions of the social worker and the client should also be systematic, structured and brief. The social worker should apply the principle of using a scientific approach to ensure that he or she is evaluating the work outcomes and the strengths of the practice (Healy 2005, p.116).

            Task centred approaches are used for treating problems that have been accepted and acknowledged by the clients. The task centred approaches are also used for problems that have clearly defined by the clients and are resolved through actions. For example, when a client acknowledges that he or she is having a problem, the problem can be easily and immediately resolved by finding out the possible course of action that can be used. This process helps the resolving of the service user process easier. The social worker’s intervention strategy is to ensure that clients are first helped in the problems that are mostly concerned to them. In the second task, the social worker should help the clients in having a good experience while resolving the problem. This process is to help the clients in improving the future capacity of dealing with the problems. The clients are also helped in being willing to accept the problems that are facing them using this approach (Payne 1997).

            The social worker should be willing to work with the clients in the resolving of the problems. The social workers must be available in the provision of the services to the service users. The social workers should use the planned, systematic and the structured approach that will be used in giving the clients the experiences that will help the clients in problems solving capacities in the future. By doing this the service users will be empowered by the task centred approach which will encourage them in resolving their problems in the future. Task centred approaches are used by the social workers to achieve collaboration between the client and the social worker. The social workers need to work in conjunction with the service users in order to resolve the problems and this will therefore encourage the service users (Payne 1997).

The task centred approaches are also used in targeting the problems of the clients in order for the achievement of rehearsal and review of the task centred approaches. This means that the task centred approaches are theories such as the social learning, cognitive-behavioural and communication since the task centred approaches focus on learning the behaviours of human beings and resolving the problems that face people (Payne 1997, p. 108). Task centred approaches are a formal working ways. The task centred approaches aims at doing all the tasks in a formal way. The task centred approaches are not effective especially in crisis that are debilitating constantly. When crisis tend to weaken regularly, the task centred approaches can not be able to resolve the crisis. The task approaches are non effective in problems that are long-term psychological. The practices that are mostly used by the task centred approaches are focused, directive and time-restricted (Payne 1997, p.113).

The Codes of Conducts and Duties of the Social Workers

For the service users to be empowered by the task centred approaches, the social workers should ensure that they follow the codes of conducts such as treating every person as one. The social workers should also respect and maintain the service users’ privacy and dignity. The social workers should promote and ensure that every service user is given equal opportunity. The social workers should also ensure that the different and diverse service users’ values and cultures. The social workers are also supposed to prepare the work for the service users and thereafter work with the service users in the task centred approaches in resolving the issues that are affecting the community. The social workers are also supposed to plan the various task centred approaches and carry out while evaluating the task centred approaches of the social work. The social workers are also supposed to help the service users by demonstrating the task centred approaches of the social work (Cunningham & Cunningham 2007).

Poverty Eradication

Another task centred approach that can be used in the empowering of the service users is through poverty eradication since poverty is one of the defining characteristics of the social work service users’ lives. This can be done by identifying the poverty causes. The task centred approach is to identify the values and beliefs of the social work (Cunningham & Cunningham 2007). Since the service users are overwhelmed with the poverty levels that they are faced with, they have been discouraged and therefore by eradicating the poverty levels of the service users they will be empowered (Smale et al. 2000, p.18). The features that are identified with the poverty such as social isolation, unemployment and low incomes have enhanced the problems that are faced by the service users. The problems that have been caused by poverty include poor health, break ups of families and poor care for the children. The social workers should aim at dealing with the poverty problem so as empower the service users by reducing the chances of people going to social cares (Becker 1997).

            Social workers are encouraged to understand the factors that generate poverty so that they can empower the service users. This is because the social workers have been found not to understand the factors that produce the poverty. The social workers have also been found to have failed in the addressing the issues of the poverty in the social work (Becker 1997, p.114). Social workers should help in the poverty eradication by ensuring that they work on the individual service users than the structural levels (Becker 1997, p.116).

            The social workers should use task centred practices to address the poverty impacts on the lives of the service users since they are practical approaches that can deal with the problem of poverty (Doel and Marsh 1992; Reid and Shyne 1969). The task centred approaches are practical approaches that can help in dealing with problems affecting the service users such as debt, living problems and lack of housing. This is because task centred approaches are models that are practical and ensures that the service users are empowered since the problems that the service users need to be worked on are chosen. The task centred approaches are based on principle that the social worker work in conjunction with the service users. The process of the social worker working together with the service users ensures that the new methods of problems solving are learnt to ensure that the service users are equipped in problem solving in the future (Cunningham & Cunningham 2007).

            The task centred approaches can also be combined with other essential approaches such as the individualised approach to help in the poverty eradication to the service users to ensure that they are empowered (Cunningham & Cunningham 2007). To address the issue of poverty among the service users, there is need of the social workers to reduce inequality to help in the poverty eradication. It is also suggested that the social workers should adopt the mutuality approach so that people can be in a position to share the responsibilities and resources to help in the poverty eradication. The social workers should support the service users by changing the inequalities among the service users (Holman 1993, p. 71).


A task centred approach is of great importance because it can empower service users. There are different ways in which this approach can be expressed. One such way is through empowerment. Empowerment as a perception is comprehensive and gives information on different tasks in the communal employment together with features of hypothesis and rehearsal. Empowerment also assists in the understanding of different customs of societal work since it is a loom in its own accuracy (Payne 1997, p.266).

           It is therefore important to note that empowerment tries to offer support to the customers in order for them to increase influence. The authority to be gained through empowerment by the users is for both pronouncement and accomplishment over their own existence. This is by reducing the consequences of both collective and individual blocks in order for the existing power to be put into effect. This can all be achieved by making sure that the users have augmented their competence and self-confidence in order to make appropriate use of the power. The users can also move power from the atmosphere to the customers (Payne 1997, p.266).

            Empowerment is comprehensive with the shifting of authority and the importance. This is in the direction of congregating the requirements and privileges of the users who might be demoralized. Therefore, empowerment is the process of escalating individual authority. The escalation is aimed at assisting the individuals to acquire accomplishment for them to perk up their conditions (DuBois 1994, p.202 & Miley 2005, p.25). Authorizing is about the accomplishment of influence. Allowing can refer to a state of mind, for instance sentiment of value and capability. Empowerment can also be described as the reorganization of authority that results from shifting communal constructions (DuBois & Miley 2005).

Principles of empowerment

The essential sanctioning purpose is communal impartiality. This means that providing protection for individual users together with social equality through the mutual support and shared learning (Payne 1997). Therefore, authorizing, originates from the knowledge regarding the speculations of individual. Sanctioning can also be derived from both the fundamentals of political affairs and way of life. This can be in terms of the background since democratic organization is basically based on the authoritarian principle. This principle of inhabitants encourages the partaking of the resolutions which influence their wellbeing.

            The implication here is that the principle of empowerment dates back from long ago implying that it is quite difficult to exactly figure out its origin. That not withstanding, Payne (1997) argues that empowerment originates from such theories as community development or self help. Still it could originate from the ideology of political empowerment. What needs to be noted is that the main aim of empowerment is to achieve social justice. Social justice entails not only giving people more security but also giving the people more political and social equality by the use of mutual support as well as shared learning.  It is therefore evident that empowerment is informed by not only many knowledge bases but also many theoretical foundations.

            There are some of the essential principles of allowing which are drawn from the performance of enlightening. The principles include observing customers as knowledgeable and capable if they get access to the prospect and possessions. There is also achievement of proficiency through the practices of life which is an enhancement before being informed what to do. There is a requirement of users to involve themselves in their own authority regarding the objectives, ways and the description of effects (Payne 1997, DuBois & Miley 2005).

             Another approach requires that users gain and use proficiency since it can assist in the practice of freedom. The awareness level provides information which is essential for the happening of transformation (Payne 1997, DuBois & Miley 2005). The users are required to be inter-confidence of the performance and strategy. The elevation of awareness controls the lives, self-assurance in the user aptitude together with the informal representative recognition. Therefore, the achievement of sanction is accomplished through individual improvement.

            The principles inform empowerment practices in the social work in different ways. The ways include providing maintenance to the users in the process of making pronouncements which influence their lives. The users are very crucial in the elucidation discovery process since this has a force (Payne 1997). Communal employees contain acquaintance and skills which can be utilized and allocated by the users. There should be corporation between the users and the communal employees. There should be perspective focus on the indulgent of the users on their circumstances. The communal working ways and user experience connection is essential in connecting individual with diplomacy.

            The approach of empowerment is a very effective more so when dealing with women who have undergone domestic violence. Given the fact that empowerment entails a collaborative process between the clients and the practitioners working together. It therefore follows that those involved in social work appreciate the fact that clients are expertise regarding their personal problems, capacities as well as potential solutions.        The principle of working in collaboration is very appropriate in cases of domestic violence. This is because it reduces the aspects of social control existent in worker-client relationships. Besides it does not replicate the power imbalances usually experienced by women particularly with regards to domestic violence. Through working in collaboration, survivors are presented with an opportunity of experiencing shared power besides being considered as equals in the relationship. In particular, feminist empowerment seeks to achieve empathy, common experience as well as mutual respect (Worell & Remer, 1992).


One fundamental aspect of social work is carrying out research with the intentions of generating more knowledge. This is more so important in a situation in which more and more information is being produced but which is not being utilized towards knowledge and understanding. Marsh & Fisher (2005) while analyzing the need to support for research in social work borrow from Lewis’s work in trying to come up with a formula for determining knowledge. Their contribution is that knowledge as applicable in social work is a result of combined evidence with not only practice and wisdom but also the views of the users. Evidence in this case refers to research based evidence which is usually very vital in policy formulation in social work. This combined together with the views of the service users makes suggests how powerful and transformative knowledge is.

            It is however important to note that there are other ways in which knowledge can be polarized. This is informed by the fact that there exists several means of knowledge. Mode 1 knowledge for instance, is knowledge which is generated with the intention of ensuring that there is compliance with scientific practice. On the other hand, mode 2 knowledge is not only socially accountable but is equally transient and transdisciplinary (Gibbons et al 1994, p. 3). The second description is in tandem with what social work research seeks to achieve. The argument here is that when there is too much information, competence is not achieved by merely being in a position to generate more of the same. Rather emphasis should be laid on generating more insights by properly arranging what already exists (Gibbons et al 1994, p. 64).

                For a long time now, those in charge of policy formulation in the UK have emphasized on evidence based practice (EBP). This was brought about by the realization that there was an absence of a systematic evidence to prove that that social work intervention just like in other professions had any positive impacts. Evidence based practice has the central concern of decision making which are supposed to be based on the evidence of what actually works (Webb 2001, p. 61).  The only drawback with respect to knowledge is that assumptions vary about what planned results of social work interventions should be. This usually results from the disagreements which are bound to occur amongst professionals with regards to policy results. Still, these differences could result from the interpretations the policies which could be an indication of the expectations of then various people in the system.


             In conclusion, there is need of the social workers to ensure that they adopt the task centred approaches in helping the service users in resolving the problems so to empower the service users. The social workers should training and teach the service users on how to use the task centred approaches in the resolving of the problems that are affecting the service users so as to empower them in dealing with problems in the future (Campbell 2008, p. 9). The social workers should also use theories to help in the construction of the human needs understanding by identifying the reasons of their social work practices. Social workers should use theories since they are framework threads that are used in practice and therefore people need to construct the threads for the practice of the social work (Healy 2005).

Conclusively, for the service users to be empowered by the task centred approaches, the social workers should ensure that they follow the codes of conducts such as treating every person as one and also respect and maintain the service users’ privacy and dignity. The social workers should promote and ensure that every service user is given equal opportunity. The social workers should also ensure that the different and diverse service users’ values and cultures. The social workers should also address the issue of poverty since many service users are affected by poverty to ensure that they are empowered (Cunningham & Cunningham 2007).


Becker, S. 1997, Responding to poverty, the politics of cash and care, Longman, London.

Campbell, P. 2008, Good Practice Guide lines: Service User and Carer Involvement within Clinical Psychology Training, The British Psychological Society, Leicester. Available at: http://www.bps.org.uk/downloadfile.cfm?file_uuid=DE688754-1143-DFD0-7E15-0DEEB1F678F9&ext=pdf.

Cunningham, J. & Cunningham, S. 2007, Sociology and Social Work, Learning Matters, Southernhay East. Available at: http://www.learningmatters.co.uk/sampleChapters/Sociology.doc.

Doel, M. & Marsh, P. 1992, Task-centred social work, Aldershot, Ashgate.

Du Bois, B. & Miley, K. 2005, Social Work – An Empowering Profession,

5th Ed, Pearson, Sydney.

Gibbons, M., Limoges, C., Nowonty, H., Schwartzman, S., Scott, P. & M. Trow.

1994, The New Production of Knowledge: The dynamics of science and research in contemporary societies London: Sage

Healy, K. 2005, Social Work Theories in Context: Creating Frameworks for Practice, Palgrave Macmillan, Houndsmill

Holman, B. 1993, A new deal for social welfare, Lion Books, Oxford

Marsh, P. & M. Fisher. 2005, Developing the evidence base for social work and

social care practice. London, Scie.

Payne, M. 1997, Modern Social Work Theory, 2nd edn, Macmillan Press, Houndsmill

Reid, W. J. & Shyne, A. W. 1969, Brief and extended casework, Columbia University Press, New York

Smale, G., Tuson, G. & Statham, D. 2000, Social work and social problems, Palgrave, Basingstoke.

Sternberg, R. 1995, In search of the Human Mind, Harcourt Brace College Publishing, Sydney

Webb, S. 2001, ‘Some considerations on the validity of evidence bases practice in

social work’ in British Journal of Social Work 31(1): 57-79

Worell, J. & Remer, P. 1992, Feminist Perspectives in Therapy – An

Empowerment Model for Women, Wiley, Brisbane


Examples of Students Essays

Writing assignment history Essay Example

Writing assignment history Essay

You will produce a leaflet explaining both how infections are caused by different pathogens (Pl) and how pathogenic micro-organisms grow and spread (UP) – Writing assignment history Essay introduction. Task deadline – September 30th 2013 2. You will demonstrate (UP) standard precautions that would be used to prevent the spread of infection in a health and social care setting. This will be observed by your subject tutor within the skills lab. Task deadline – w/k commencing 7th October 2013 3. Your subject tutor will give you a case study about an outbreak of infection in a health and social care setting.

In small groups you will study these case studies and present the following to your peers; Explain (MI) how you would manage the outbreak of infection Identify (UP) key aspects of legislation and guidelines relevant to the prevention and control of infection Explain (MM) the role of organizational procedures in the prevention and control of infection. Task deadline – presentations w/k commencing 9th December 2013 To follow the presentation you will now complete a report that assesses (D 1) how the suggested measures meet legal requirements and guidelines for the prevention ND control of infection.

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Task deadline- 16th December 2013 4. In your placement competency portfolio complete the questionnaire to describe (AS) the roles and responsibilities of personnel in relation to infection control in your health and social care placement. Task deadline – 3rd February 2014 5. Your subject tutor will supply you with a risk assessment in relation to infection prevention and control undertaken at a health or social care setting. In small groups you will review (MM) the risk assessment which will be recorded by your tutor.

After the discussion you will complete a 500 word assignment that assesses (DO) how the risk assessment can contribute to reducing rates of infection the health and social care setting. Task deadline – Discussions w/k commencing 17th March 2014. Assignment (DO) 6th April 2014 Submission Policy Only work submitted by deadline or by previously agreed extension will be marked and returned within 3 weeks. You can only give work to your teacher in class or to the support office. Resubmission Policy Please see the department’s resubmission policy.

Examples of Students Essays

Example Assignment Essay Example

Example Assignment Essay

If you are not sure, check with your tutor – Example Assignment Essay introduction. Q Can I copy other people’s work? ANON. The work that you produce must be your own work and you may be asked to sign a declaration to say that the work is your own. You should never copy the work of other candidates or allow others to copy your work. Any information that you use from other sources, e. G. Books, newspapers, professional journals, the Internet, must be clearly identified and not presented as your own work. Q Can work in a group? Ayes. However, if you work in a group at any stage you must still produce work hat shows your individual contribution.

Q How should I present my work? A You can present your work in a variety of ways, egg hand-written, word- processed, on video. However, what you choose should be appropriate to the task(s). For some work, e. G. Presentations, coaching sessions, role-play, work experience, you will need to provide proof that you completed the task(s). A witness statement or observation sheet could be used for this. If you are unsure, check with your tutor. Q When I have finished, what do I need to hand in? A You need to hand in the work that you have completed for each task. Do not include any draft work or handouts unless these are asked for.

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When you hand in your work make sure that it is labeled, titled and in the correct order for assessing. Q How will my work be assessed? A Your work will be marked by an assessor in your centre. The assessor will mark the work using the assessment objectives and the grade descriptors in the qualification specification. Scenario Safety Matters As the Health and Safety Office for the Local Authority you have been asked to put on a training day for new care workers in your area. The following advert has been sent to all health and social care settings in your area.

You are to prepare for the training day by producing presentations, risk assessments and written reports to show to your group of trainees. A wide variety of professions are expected to be represented at the training day, so you will need to cover a selection of scenarios from various environments. Tasks Task 1: Potential hazards in health and social care Assessment Criteria Pl For the first part of your training day, you must prepare a presentation that explains the potential hazards and the harm that may arise from each hazard. You should choose a setting that you know well and refer to this throughout he presentation.

You may wish to include photographic evidence to highlight the hazard (be sure to obtain consent from your setting before doing this). A minimum of six potential hazards should be covered. The evidence for this will be: A set of presentation slides that explain potential hazards and the harm that may arise from each in a health or social care setting (Pl) Task 2: Legislation……. What’s the impact? Assessment Criterion UP, MI Now you have grabbed the attention of your audience you need to introduce them to legislation and policies and procedures. You must outline each piece of isolation etc. ND make it clear how it influences health and social care settings. Produce a descriptive table or poster which gives outline information about the legislation, polices etc. And how each relates to health safety and security within health and social care environments. Additionally, you must produce a written report that explains in detail the roles and responsibilities relating to the health, safety and security of individuals in a health and social care setting. Include a range of different roles and the responsibilities. The evidence for this task will be:

A table/poster that outlines how legislation, policies and procedures relating to health, safety and security influence health and social care settings (UP) A written report that describe the roles and responsibilities relating to the health, safety and security of individuals in a health and social care setting (MI) Task 3:Risk Assessment Assessment Criterion UP, MM, Del Now your group have a good understanding of the potential hazards and the legislation that settings adhere to, you need to demonstrate the correct way of carrying out a risk assessment in a health or social care setting.

To help you to accomplish this task, firstly read the advice from the Health and Safety Executive: http://www. Hose. Gob. UK/simple-health-safety/manage. HTML You need to carry out a risk assessment in a setting and use this to show the correct procedures to follow. Additionally you need to show your recommendations for controls that will minimize or remove the hazards you identified in your risk assessment. Finally, you should evaluate the effectiveness of the controls you have recommended in reducing the incidents or harm or injury. On the next page is an example of a risk assessment you could use.

You ay also wish to download a blank assessment form from the Health and Safety Executive: http://www. Hose. Gob. UK/risk/festivities. HTML A risk assessment that you have carried out in a health or social care setting (UP) A written account of the recommendations for controls that will minimize/ remove the hazards identified in the risk assessment (MM) A written evaluation of the effectiveness of the recommended controls in reducing the incidents or harm or injury (D 1) An example of a risk assessment in a health or social care setting Task 4: Dealing with incidents and emergencies Assessment Criterion UP, MM, DO

The last task on your training day is for you to demonstrate to your group the possible priorities and responses when dealing with incidents or emergencies in a health or social care setting. You can use the scenarios on the next page or you can discuss your own that you have either witnessed or heard about in your workplace setting. Firstly, you should choose two particular incidents or emergencies in a health or social care setting and explain the possible priorities and responses when dealing with each one.

Secondly, you should explain why it is important to maintain respect and dignity hen responding to incidents and emergencies. Use your examples from your chosen two incidents or emergencies to highlight specific points and include other examples where necessary Finally, you need to justify the need to review policies and procedures following critical incidents. Again, you can use examples from either your chosen two incidents or emergencies and include others where necessary.

An explanation of possible priorities and responses when dealing with two particular incidents or emergencies in a health or social care setting (UP) An explanation of why it is important to maintain respect and dignity when espousing to incidents and emergencies (MM) A written report that justifies the need to review policies and procedures following critical incidents (DO) It is highly recommended that you complete a first aid course as part of this task and include a copy of your certificate in your evidence.

Examples of incidents and emergencies within a health or social care setting A member of staff has tried to wash the kettle in the sink. She is lying on the floor and is not making any sound. What do you do? An elderly gentleman has been admitted for a hip replacement. He looks like he isn’t had a bath for days, has dark bags under his eyes and bruise marks on his wrists. What should you do? You are helping to serve lunch to the patients when the fire alarm sounds. You have no idea where the fire is or how bad it is. What do you do?

Examples of Students Essays

Unit level assignment Essay Example

Unit level assignment Essay

Scenario: Hartford Grange is a residential care home for 15 older people who have various impairments including dementia, strokes and arthritis – Unit level assignment Essay introduction. Hartford Grange is an old Victorian house set in its own gardens on a busy road. The new manager has asked you to create a report on the potential hazards and harm they may cause. She also asked you to create a booklet for new staff that covers how legislation, policies and procedures influence health and safety at Hartford Grange and promotes the safety of the individuals in the setting.

For this task I will explain six potential hazards in a health and social care setting. There are potential hazards in the Hartford Grange residential home, these shards affect all the people working and living in the residential care setting. There are loads of hazards which can be found in every surface of the care setting. Hazards Harms that may arise Slippery floor The harm that may arise is either a service user or a member of staff slipping and hurting themselves. i. E. Recaptures, sprains, cuts and bruises. This is once again more harmful towards people suffering with arthritis as it will just make pains worse and if someone suffering from strokes slips on the floor it may cause them shock or fright that ca possibly trigger of another stroke or make the previous offering worse. Objects left on the floor The harm this may cause is a person tripping over and hurting themselves or if the object has any sharp edges there is a possibility they may cut themselves.

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This is even more serious for people with arthritis as it will cause them immense pain. Equipment blocking fire exits This can be harmful as it may prevent service users and members of staff getting out in time when there is a fire. Also if a service user suffering from dementia is told to leave through the fire exit and it is blocked it will quite possibly confuse them. This is also dangerous for the staff working the Hartford House as it will be much harder for them to get residents and themselves out safely.

Also , the residents will breath in the smoke if it takes too long and since their lungs are not as strong due to being to fragile, it can easily cause death. And if there is anyone suffering from asthma and their inhaler is not in reach and no one can go get it for them, this can also be highly dangerous. Poor Lighting This can be very hazardous to the residents who are visually impaired, due to their poor vision, the staff at Hartford Grange are responsible for taking special are of these residents e. G. Y making sure that there is a good contrast between objects and surroundings such as dark doors in white surrounding or else if the area is dark and difficult to see the visually impaired patient would then be at great risk of possibly falling over or bump into something sharp causing themselves serious harm or fracture. Equipment not functioning and placed correctly Equipment that is not functioning or placed correctly e. G. Cord pulls for call help systems, not within easy reach of the residents who may be in wheelchairs ay have the residents overstretching and this may cause them to fall.

Another example would be if the residents which have arthritis have a sudden serious cramp and fall over, an out of reach cord pull is useless to them if they are trying to call for help. Busy road near by The risk of road traffic accidents may be likely to occur if residents with dementia get confused, they may become disorientated and get lost. Along with this there are people who suffer from arthritis, which means they may possibly walk slower than normal and this can be an issue when walking along a busy road.

Examples of Students Essays

Person-centred and Systems Theory approach case study based Essay Example

Person-centred and Systems Theory approach case study based Essay

Case Study :

Ramesh is 45 year old Sri Lankan man who works as a telephone call centre agent – Person-centred and Systems Theory approach case study based Essay introduction. He was close to and lived with his mother, who died 18 months ago. Ramesh was recently hospitalised after a suicide attempt. He had been taking anti-depressants for several months before he took an overdose. According to his sister, he had become depressed and was drinking and smoking a lot, and hardly ever eating. He had been taking time off work, and was at risk of losing his job with BT. His sister says that Ramesh went downhill after the death of their mother, but that she was surprised at this as he always complained about all the things he had to do for her when she was alive. The sister has a family of her own, but says that she has tried to involve Ramesh in her family, but he had mostly refused. He had some friends who he used to play cricket with, but he has stopped seeing them. He had been saying that there’s nothing to live for, and he wanted to be left alone. Ramesh is due to be released from hospital in two weeks’ time.


The purpose of this essay is to critically analyse the Task-centred and client-centred approaches to Social Work Intervention. I will initially explain their main principles, advantages and disadvantages and apply them to the assessment, planning and intervention of the above case study. Particular attention will be paid to how these perspectives inform the application of anti-oppressive practice (AOP). The word ‘perspective’ describes a partial ‘view of the world’ (Payne 1997:290) and is often used to attempt to order and make sense of experiences and events from a particular and partial viewpoint. The reason for choosing these two theories is because they can be used simultaneously. One of the major attributes of the Person Centred approach is the emphasis on relationship building between the Social Worker and the service user, which therefore makes it easier to set out the tasks that need to be carried out because lines of communication have been opened up

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Task- centred Approach

The task-centred model is a short-term, problem-solving approach to social work practice. It is a major approach in clinical social work perhaps because unlike other several practice models, it was developed for and within Social Work (Stepney and Ford, 2000). My reasoning behind adopting this approach is because it is essentially a clear and practical model that can be adapted for use in a wide range of situations. It is designed to help in the resolution of difficulties that people experience in interacting with their social situations, where internal feelings of discomfort are associated with events in the external world. One of the many benefits of planned short-term work is that both the Social Worker and Client put immediate energy into the work because the time is limited. The dangers of the effectiveness of the intervention being reliant on the Social Worker/Client relationship, which may or may not work out, are minimised in the short-term. The model consists of five phases.

Phase one

This is the problem exploration phase and is characterised by mutual clarity. Problems are defined as an unmet or unsatisfied wants perceived by the client (Reid, 1978). The client should be as clear as the social worker about the processes that will be followed in order to fully participate fully in the work. Involving the service user right from the initial phase has the advantage that they feel empowered and is a good example of anti-oppressive practice. Less commonly the worker may take the lead in identifying the problems but however must be careful not to detract from the clients’ unique expertise in the understanding of their own individual situation. This phase normally takes from one to two interviews although some cases may require more. It ends with setting up of initial tasks. In Ramesh’s case the Social Worker will be using the following sequential Steps.

Identifying with Ramesh the reasons for the intervention in the first place. Explain to Ramesh how long the process will take (roughly between 4- 6 weeks). The social worker has to assess Ramesh’s ability to understand his problems and their extent especially taking into consideration that he has issues with alcohol and dependent on anti-depressant drugs. Establish whether Ramesh acknowledges he has a problem and is willing to do something about it. The process of problem exploration will entail the answering of a series of questions: How did his problems begin?

What happens typically when Ramesh drinks a lot of alcohol?

How often this happening iand what quantities of alcohol is he going through per day/week? What efforts (if any) he himself has put into resolving his problems?

Phase two

This is when the selecting and prioritising of the problems occur. This has to be what both the Social Worker and Ramesh acknowledge as the ‘Target problem’ and explicitly agree will become the focus of their work together. Commonly there will be a series of problems identified and will be ranked in order of their importance (Stepney and Ford, 2000). There are basically three routes for problem identification. The most common is through client initiation. Clients express complaints which are then explored. A second route is interactive. Problems emerge through a dialogue between the practitioner and client in which neither is a clear initiator. In the third route to problem identification the practitioner is clearly the initiator. So for example, using the information in case study, the problems could be listed as: Dependence on alcohol

Excessive smoking


Phase three

Following the identification and ranking of target problems stage, the first problem to be identified will need to be framed within a ‘problem statement’. The client’s acceptance of the final problem statement leads to a contract that will guide subsequent work. Both practitioner and client agree to work toward solution of the problem(s) as formulated. The way the problems are framed and defined are crucial in motivating both the Social Worker and the service user. The ultimate goal is to avoid the service user from feeling over-whelmed or that the goals set are unachievable. Therefore they have to be set in a realistic manner which also reflect the concerns and wishes of the service user, again this re-enforces anti-oppressive practice issues. They should be clear and unambiguous and which lend themselves, as far as possible, to some sort of measurement so that the Social Worker and service user can tell what progress is being made. So for instance if it is agreed that Ramesh’s dependence on alcohol is the priority, the Social Worker can suggest and also help him join an Alcohol support group. Agree on the number of meetings he’ll attend. Not only will the support group help him tackle the alcohol issues but will also give him the opportunity to be around other people and interact with them. Gradually this should help eliminate the isolation issues which are major facilitator of depression. Evidence shows that the more support and services the person has, the more stable their environment. The more stable their environment, the better the chances of dealing with their substance problems (Azrin 1976, Costello 1980, Dobkin et al 2002, Powell et al 1998). An important secondary purpose of the model is to bring about contextual change as a means of preventing recurrence of problems and of strengthening the functioning of the client system. One of the issues Ramesh is dealing with is depression which according to his sister was triggered by his mother’s death. With his approval, it might be useful for Ramesh to be referred for bereavement counselling in order to come to terms with losing his mother. Other important things that need to be considered during this phase are ways of establishing incentives and motivation for task performance. The task may not itself satisfy Ramesh’s ‘wants’ but at least he must see it as a step in that direction. Phase four

This is the stage where implementation of tasks between sessions occurs. There is not a great deal to say about this self-evident phase, however, that is not to say it is not an important phase. Its success will depend on all the groundwork undertaken in the previous phases of the process. Task implementation addresses the methods for achieving the task(s), which should be negotiated with the service user, and according to Ford and Postle, (2000:55) should be; ‘’designed to enhance the problem solving skills of participants…it is important that tasks undertaken by clients involve elements of decision making and self-direction…if the work goes well then they will progressively exercise more control over the implementation of tasks, ultimately enhancing their ability to resolve problems independently”. According to Doel (2002:195) tasks should be “carefully negotiated steps from the present problem to the future goal.” Once tasks are set, it is important to review the problems as the intervention progresses in order to reassess that the tasks are still relevant to achieving the goals. Cree and Myers (2008:95) suggest that as circumstances can change, situations may be superseded by new problems. The workers role should be primarily to support the user in order to achieve their tasks and goals which may include providing information and resources, education and role-playing in order to handle difficult situations. In this case Ramesh will go ahead and continue attending his alcohol cessation support group and the Social Worker can work on arranging bereavement counselling for him and liaise with him about when he feels ready to start. Phase five- Termination Session

Termination in the task-centred model begins in the first session, when client and practitioner set time limits for the intervention. Throughout the treatment process the practitioners regularly reminds the client of the time limits and the number of sessions left additional progress. If an extension is made, practitioner and client contract on a small number of additional sessions, usually no more than four interviews. It should also be noted that such extensions occur in less than one fifth of the cases in most settings. Any accomplishments made by the client are particularly stressed in the termination session. This emphasizing of the client’s accomplishment serves as a reinforcer. In another final termination session activity, the practitioner assists the clients in identifying the problem-solving skills they have acquired during the treatment process, review what has not been done and why not. An effort is made to help clients generalize these problem-solving skills, so they can apply them to future problems they may encounter. Person Centred Approach

The key emerging principles of the person centred approaches are that individuals must rely on themselves and liable for their own actions (Howe D, 2009). The Person-Centred Approach developed from the work of the psychologist Dr Carl Rogers (1902 – 1987). He advanced an approach to psychotherapy and counselling that, at the time (1940s – 1960s), was considered extremely radical if not revolutionary (BAPCA). In order for people to realise their full potential they must learn to define themselves rather than allowing others to do it for them. the An important part of this theory is that in a particular psychological environment, the fulfilment of personal potentials includes sociability, the need to be with other human beings and a desire to know and be known by other people. It also includes being open to experience, being trusting and trustworthy, being curious about the world, being creative and compassionate. This is one of the most popular approaches among practitioners (Marsh and Triseliotis 1996: 52) because of its hopefulness, accessibility and flexibility.

The psychological environment described by Rogers was one where a person felt free from threat, both physically and psychologically. This environment could be achieved when being in a relationship with a person who was deeply understanding (empathic), accepting (having unconditional positive regard) and genuine (Trevthick,P, 2005). The approach does not use techniques but relies on the personal qualities of the therapist/person to build a non-judgemental and empathic relationship. This in itself could be an issue because of the sole reliance on the Social ability to engage with service users. However, there are disadvantages to this approach. For example, treating people with respect, kindness, warmth and dignity can be misconstrued as ‘’adopting a person centred approach’’. This means the counselling part of the relationship has a risk of being completely over-looked.

The goal would be to work on a one-to-one with Ramesh mainly using counselling skills. He has a sister who has a family of her own so therefore family work can be included as a possibility. If he is willing to perhaps go and temporarily live with his sister when he is discharged from hospital in two weeks, it will be a positive step for him to spend more time in a family setting rather than by himself. That way he might not feel so isolated and depressed. This will also help build his self-confidence and self-esteem. The lack of motivation that Ramesh has for going to work needs to be further explored. It could be he is feeling unfulfilled and that at 45 years of age he has not achieved much. He needs social work intervention which is geared towards him attaining ‘’human potential’’ (Maslow’s basic theory). The Social Worker should encourage him to come up with ways in which he can work towards that and also look at areas in his life where he can make his own choices with an aim to recognise elements in his situation that constrain these and seek to remove them. For example, if he is not turning up for work because he is unsatisfied with his job perhaps he could enrol for a vocational course in an industry he enjoys which will improve his job prospects. The fact that he says he has nothing to live for means he has no feeling of self-worth and hasn’t reached the stage of self-actualisation in his life, this is something he is going to need support in figuring it out for himself because it is relative.



It is evident that both the task-centred and person centred approaches are popular and generally successful models of social work practice and can both be used in a variety of situations. Both approaches are based on the establishment of a relationship between the worker and the service user and can address significant social, emotional and practical difficulties (Coulshed & Orme, 2006). They are both structured interventions, so action is planned and fits a predetermined pattern. They also use specific contracts between worker and service user and both aim to improve the individuals capacity to deal with their problems in a clear and more focused approach than other long term non directive methods of practice (Payne 2002,). Both of these approaches have a place in social work practice through promoting empowerment of the service user and validating their worth. They do provide important frameworks which social workers can utilise in order to implement best practice However, there are certain limitations to both of the approaches, for example Further to the constraints of short term interventions Reid and Epstein (1972) suggest that these approaches may not allow sufficient time to attend to all the problems that the service user may want help with and that clients whose achievement was either minimal or partial thought that further help of some kind may be of use in accomplishing their goals. The problems Ramesh is facing are deep rooted psychological problems which may require a longer time frame to sort them out. Depression can take really long to deal with and 4-6 weeks may not be sufficient and the fear is that this might actually have an adverse effect on Ramesh if he does not see any progress within the agreed time frame.


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