Examples of Students Essays

Timothy Allen – How He Learned Vietnamese by Translating a Vietnamese Classic

Learning a language can sometimes go by unexpectedly, thus not the way you’re expecting it to. You don’t always have to devour grammar manuals in order to excel in a language. Timothy Allen has experienced this himself when he was able to improve his Vietnamese language by translating a popular Vietnamese literary creation.

After traveling to Ho Chi Minh city back in 1999, the writer was able to find a Vietnamese classic work that would teach him a lot about the culture and language of the country. As such, he translated it and ended up getting better at his own Vietnamese skills. It’s a story with a nice conclusion, so here’s how Tim Allen had the ability to learn a language through translation.

Who Is Timothy Allen?

Tim Allen is a poet and translator who became known especially for translating “Kieu: A New Lament for a Broken Heart”, a Vietnamese verse-novel. Born in Liverpool in 1960, Tim has worked in many parts of the world, including Albania, Uganda, Liberia, Mozambique, as well as Vietnam and many others. Not to mention, he has translated works for multiple languages, such as Spanish, Vietnamese and many others.

In 2008, he was awarded a prize thanks to his translation of the opening lines of the popular Vietnamese novel, as well as a Hawthornden Fellowship later on. The latter allowed him to continue and, ultimately, complete translating and reworking the poem.

How He Learned Vietnamese through Translation

Timothy arrived in Vietnam in late November 1999, being his first time visiting the country. He was there to look for some projects, for which he had funds from the NGO. After being picked up from the airport by his Vietnamese counterparts, he started telling them about how he’s interested in learning more about their culture and language.

When asking about literature, one of the counterparts told him about a book that Timothy would definitely love, and which would be a life-changing experience for him. Of course, upon hearing the name “Truyen Kieu, the Tale of Kieu”, it didn’t mean much to him, so he couldn’t know how much of an impact it would have on his life. The tale was written by Nguyen Du, a diplomat-poet, and published in 1920.

During his time in Vietnam, Timothy Allen spent enough time analyzing the life of Vietnamese people and was impressed. They had a special sense of family and solidarity.

One evening at the restaurant, Timothy engaged in conversation with one of his new colleagues and asked her to tell him about the “Truyen Kieu” book.

It was revealed that the story takes place in China and is about a Chinese girl who falls in love with a boy. However, the boy has to move away due to a family business, after which she is somehow tricked into working in a brothel. She doesn’t stay there forever – she manages to escape and has plenty of adventures. But one thing is sure – she never forgets her first love.

The story is known by all Vietnamese people, and some even use it as a fortune teller – you open the book and put the finger on a verse, and that’s what future has in store. So, Tim Allen traveled the country and asked locals about the story. Many were eager to share their knowledge about it, and he was even lucky enough to find a bilingual version of it. Therefore, he started deciphering it.

He was impressed by the message of the story. The story told you to keep going despite the difficulties life is throwing at you, and stay true to yourself. It also tells you that bad people will fade away too.

At the end of the trip, when Timothy had to leave Vietnam, he brought the book with him, together with a dictionary. He only wanted to maintain his knowledge of the language, not make a proper translation. But little did he know that reworking the book will develop his own Vietnamese skills.

Apparently, what Allen was aiming for was capturing the essence of the story and being able to deliver the same magic as Nguyen Du was able to. He wanted to maintain the lyricism, as well as the characters and the flow of the story while translating it properly. Now that he translated it, he wishes that many people will be in awe stumbling upon the wonderful story of Kieu.

Final Thoughts

A language can be learned through other methods, rather than simply reading grammar books and dictionaries. As the story of Timothy Allen has proven, you can start translating something out of pure fascination, and before realizing it, your skills have improved.

If you’ve been impressed by this story and now you’re curious about Vietnamese literature, yet you don’t find translated one, don’t hesitate to seek Vietnamese translation services.

Examples of Students Essays

Best Research Paper Writing Services to Choose From

Students can have it tough at times. Schoolwork can be stressful, and the amount of homework they carry can require a lot of time.

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Why Hiring the Right Paper Writing Service Is Important

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Impressive Paper Writing Services You Could Hire

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Examples of Students Essays

Risk Assessment and Young People Essay Example

Risk Assessment and Young People Essay

If you care for children of mixed age range you may need to section of certain areas or have activities – Risk Assessment and Young People Essay introduction. This would prevent, for example, a child who is crawling from getting access to a climbing frame or unsupervised water-play. Special needs Some children and young people have special needs related to a physical condition, disability, sensory impairment or a learning difficulty. Keeping these children safe while providing them with equal opportunities to play, explore and be active is an additional challenge that requires careful thought.

You may need to adapt play equipment or find suitable enabling or protective aids. Consider also how to make sure children understand safety instructions and can follow them sufficiently Specific risks There may be particular risks to bear in mind. For example, if you are working with colleague who is pregnant, or individuals with a sensory impairment, you will to make allowances. There may also be specific risks associated with particular activities, so you have to make sure to use the relevant safety equipment and give appropriate safety instructions in preparation.

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For example, if you are starting a baking session, don’t begin without making sure that aprons and oven gloves are available, that children know how who may use matches and how to use them safely, that only open the oven when an adult is present, and understand the importance of personal hygiene while cooking 1. 2 Explain how health and safety is monitored and maintained and how people in your work setting are aware of risk and hazards and encouraged to work safely All care settings must have systems in place so that each aspect of health and safety concerning the workplace and practice re checked regularly.

These should be itemized as part of a health and safety policy and include details about how often the checks should take place, who should make the checks and how information must be recorded and reported. Every member of staff has a right to have their health and safety protected and holds an equal responsibility to protect the health and safety of others. This includes the children and young people in your care, their families, your colleagues, visiting practitioners and Other visitors.

For example, a draftsperson such as an electrician might need to do repair or maintenance work during day of a playgroup. During the electrician’s visit children need to be kept safe from dangers such as tools and exposure to electricity, and the electrician must be kept safe from accidents and incidents, such as falling over a dropped toy or slipping in split juice. 1. 3. Identify sources of current guidance for planning healthy and safe environments and services. There are a number of different sources of information available to you.

Your place of work and your local library are good starting points, and a great deal of information can be found on the internet. People leagues – some of your colleagues may have specialist knowledge or wealth of experience from which you can benefit from visiting practitioners people who practice in other professions but come to your workplace as part of the service provision may be able to give you different insights Documents legislation documents explain ways in which health and safety relates to your work and your work role Policies describe under-running principles for safe working.

There will be specific health and safety policy, as well as other related policies, such as safeguarding and moving and handling procedures et detailed instructions about what must happen in particular circumstances, such as a fire alarm sounding, or if a building is to be evacuated, or in a event of a child or young person going missing other professions such as police, social services or healthcare can be contacted by letter to request specific relevant information Public information Health and Safety Executive (HOSE) is a national independent watchdog for work-related health, safety and illness.

Its role is enforce legislation, provide information and advice and run an advocacy service that supports individuals ho have been injured at work to go through a complaints procedure British Safety Council (BBS) is a UK charity offering information and guidance on health, safety and environmental Health Protection Agency (HAP) is an independent UK organization set up protect up to protect the public from infectious disease and environmental hazards. It others advice and information. 1. Explain how current health and safety legislation, policies and procedures are implemented in own work setting or service. Within my work setting we follow The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974. It is the employer’s duty to put leslies and procedures into place to ensure that the setting is meeting the standards of The Health and Safety at Work Act and the employee’s duty to make sure these are followed. We follow this act by making sure that the building and environment is well maintained, clean and safe.

Equipment is stored properly and is regularly checked to ensure it is safe. Hazardous materials and equipment is locked away and we follow the COACH act. We have systems in place to ensure the safety Of children at all times I. E. Fire procedure, accident and illness procedure. We provide adequate facilities to tit the needs and abilities of all children and young people and all members of staff are qualified, CRY checked and given regular training.

Gloves and aprons are worn at all times when dealing with bodily fluids to prevent cross- infection. All accidents and incidents are recorded are reported to the correct person. Practitioners are first aid qualified and are able to deal with minor injuries within the setting. First aid boxes and fire extinguishers are in every room along with a fire whistle to alert other rooms of a fire. We have a health and safety officer who oversees the running of the setting and ensures that sis assessments are regularly carried out and updated.

Staff members are given guidance on how to protect themselves throughout day to day activities and also regarding manual handling. Risk assessments also have to be signed by each practitioner otherwise they are void because the practitioner can say that they haven’t read them, maybe attend courses on health and safety, food hygiene, manual handling etc. Staff meetings to update health and safety requirements. Display the health and safety poster and make sure it is up to date (recently new updated version in our area). 2. Undertake a health and safety assessment in own work setting or service illustrating how its implantation will reduce risk A health and safety risk assessment is a careful examination of any hazards or situations that could cause harm to people or damage to buildings or equipment. In carrying risk assessments you have the opportunity to recognize potential risk before harm occurs and to take measures to avoid or minimize the impact. You can carry out informal risk assessments many times, often without thinking such every time you cross the road or drive a car.

A formal risk assessment process uses structure to identify and assess the risk and find ways to avoid or reduce it to an acceptable level. The five steps of risk assessment that undertake are, l: [1] 1. Identify the hazards[2] 2. Decide who might be harmed and how[3] 3. Evaluate the risks and decide on precaution[4] 4. Record my findings and implement them[5] 5. Review my assessment and update if necessary 2. 4 Explain how health and safety risk assessments are monitored and reviewed Risk assessment is an ongoing process that needs continuous review until the risk is over.

The law does not expect you to eliminate all risk, UT you are required to protect people as far is reasonably practicable and this means monitoring risk and keeping them under review When you work with children and young people the workplace does not usually stay the same from day to day. Different people are around at different times and each individual will have different needs on different occasions. Also over the weeks, new equipment and new activities will be probably be introduced. This means once for all risk assessment.

Regular monitoring and reviewing keeps up with changes, allowing risk assessments to be adjusted and adapted as necessary. When considering how risk assessment might need to changed, I usually think about: The children and young people taking part The staff members who are going to be involved Other people who are around, such as family members, visitors or strangers The weather conditions Time of day The previous activity and how it may impact on this one Any potential hazard that have arisen will also ask the opinion and advice of others, who may spot things that I may have overlook, or have a different viewpoint.

I will also check what has worked well on other occasions and always learn from previous mistakes. . 1 Explain why it is important to take a balanced approach to risk management As practitioners, our main concern is to keep children safe from harm. Doing this can be very hard, as at the same time we need to encourage them to experience risk and challenges. If we try to remove all risks from children’s lives we could be risking restricting their learning experiences. It is very important that We teach children skills that will help those managing dangers and risk for themselves.

Giving children the opportunity to experience a certain level of risky experiences will help them o develop confidence and competence to make their own balance approach is taken in risk taking, so children are not over protected. Children are allowed to play and explore in safe environment and make right decision about risk with the help of adult. Children need to learn how to control risk themselves; by learning what is a safe boundary are with the help of adult, and showing the children how to recognize the risk and dangers in the safest way possible.

When you do any new activity it does create dilemma and conflict at some point between the duty and care and children rights. The activities we do with children, make they are right age for them, and extra care of children during the activity, because if is any things goes wrong then we have to make balance decision between the risk and child right. 32 Explain the dilemma between the rights and choices of children and people and health and safety requirements: Children learn by trying out new experiences and making choices.

But they do not have the skills and judgment always to make safe choices. Careers have the responsibility to identify potential hazards in any situation and to judge hen it is safe to allow a child to undertake an activity or make a choice. Some children need this freedom to explore risk even more than others. For example a disabled child may be restricted in play at home because of parental concern that the child could hurt themselves. In a well-controlled setting the child can be encouraged to explore and try out new skills. Children are usually very good at deciding what is safe or not.

Using large play equipment is a good example of how children assess and manage risk. In the Outdoor area in Foundation Stage there is a climbing wall where I believe that he children should use with caution but also given the chance to decide whether they can get over without hurting themselves or not, thus they are assessing and managing their own risk. This is a choice that they should make themselves, if they are not happy they will get down. However parents and cares who are being over cautious about children may stop a child trying new things out. 3. Give examples from own practice of supporting children or young people to assess and manage risk All children and people are different, but many do exercise a natural caution when trying a new experience or challenge. This can be seen as a self-protective instinct. Risky behavior often comes about when a child has been over protected and not exposed to any risk, so has not learnt how to asses risk Learning how about risk assessment and risk management is a gradual process in which there should be an increasing number of min-steps along the route to independence.

If a child is allowed to get it wrong sometimes, as long as it within a controlled environment where they cannot come too much harm, they will learn from their mistakes. There are a number of ways that I can help to support a child or young person to asses and manage risks safely Be present to physically support a young child physically as they try out new skills, for example, standing behind a very child to give confidence as they negotiate stairs and to be there if they fall Be positive role model, for example holding a safety rail/wearing a bike helmet/ using safety belts and explaining why these precautions re necessary.

Be encouraging by praising effort and highlighting competence and achievement Create opportunities to practice decision-making such as when crossing a road, suggested a child tells when they think it is safe to do so Talk over the recess of accessing ask as you carrying out task, for example, I’ll use an oven glove so don’t burn myself on the cooker Allow enough time for process of risk assessment to take properly Support parents to let go as they allow children to more independent choices Increase opportunities for independent decision making for children and young people as they get older 4. Explain the policies and procedures of the settings or service in response to accidents, incidents, emergencies and illness In my setting there several policies and procedures that I adhere to which include first aid, fire and accident and emergency. I refer to them at all times. 4. Identify the correct procedures or recording and reporting accidents, incidents emergencies and illness As an early years setting we have policies and procedures in place for how we respond to accidents, incidents, emergencies and illness and procedures for reporting and recording Sickness and illness: The settings policy for the exclusion of children with sick or infectious children is displayed in our waiting room; these include the period of time we require a child to stay home following a bout of sickness or diarrhea or other infectious illness such a chicken pox.

When infectious illness is discovered, such as head lice, parents are notified by signs being put up. If a child, following consultation with a qualified medical professional has an infectious disease which is on the modifiable diseases list then Offset are informed. If a child becomes ill whilst at the setting there parent/career are called, if they are not available we have a list of authorized emergency contacts who can come and collect the child, until such time the child is cared for in an appropriate area of the setting.

If a child becomes unwell and is a cause for serious once then an ambulance would be called. Certain illnesses as Meningitis need rapid action, there are posters in our waiting room to advice people on what to do should meningitis be suspected, age specific symptom lists and aids to diagnose such as the glass test. We have procedures and specific cleaning kit for use on spilled bodily fluids. Accident/First Aid: We have a qualified first eider in the setting or on an outing at any one time.

The first eiders are listed on a notice for everyone to see should they require help. If a child has an accident at the setting and requires first aid then the elevate qualified person will use the settings first aid kit which is easily accessible and regularly checked. When an accident occurs we fill out or accident book which details; where, when, how and what treatment was administered. The parents/career is then informed and asked to sign it at the end of the session.

If the injury is more severe and requires further medical attention then the parent/career or authorized is contacted and informed or following signed consent on the settings registration form the child can be taken to the nearest Accident and Emergency unit. We have a duty to inform Offset and the Health and Safety Executive of any injury that requires treatment by a medical professional or in the event of the death. Reviewing the accident book half termed allows us to identify any potential or actual hazards.

We have an Evacuation Bag which is taken out with us whenever we go outside of the premises or on off site visits/trips the contents of our evacuation bag include: First Aid Kit, Cold Compress, Accident Book, Fire Alarm Whistle, Individual child’s medication in own container, tissues, anti-bacterial hand gel, mobile phones, daily signing in/out sheets, contact details of parents/careers and emergency contacts. Incidents: When an incident occurs at the setting we record it in our Incident book which is kept in the office filing cabinet.

An incident could be a break in or theft, vandalism, dangerous occurrence, injury or fatality. In the incident book we record the date and time of the incident, nature of the event, who was affected, what was done about it – or if it was reported to the police, and if so a crime number. Any follow up, or insurance claim made, should also be recorded. We comply with current HOSE Regulations and report to the Health ND Safety executive.

Risk Assessment and Young People Essay

Support Children and Young People’s Health and Safety – Risk Assessment and Young People Essay introduction. 1 Understand how to plan and provide environments and services that support children and young people’s health and safety. 1. 3 Identify sources of current guidance for planning healthy and safe environments and services. The Health & safety executive: HSE is the national independent watchdog for work-related health, safety and illness. They are an independent regulator and act in the public interest to reduce work-related death and serious injury across Great Britain’s workplaces

Child accident prevention trust: They are committed to reducing the number of children and young people killed, disabled or seriously injured in accidents. Department for schools and families The Department for Education is committed to creating a world-class state education system. They will work to improve the opportunities and experiences available to children and the education workforce by focusing on the following priorities:  Giving greater autonomy to schools Improving parental choice Offering more support for the poorest Whole system improvement

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Great quality provision for children A Workplace’s policies and procedures: Risk Assessment: Risk Assessments are a legal requirement mainly under the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999, although most health and safety legislation requires a risk assessment approach. 1. 4 Explain how current health and safety legislation, policies and procedures are implemented in own work setting or service. We have folders with all the policies and procedures for the whole school in them so if we aren’t sure about something we can go to the folder and find out.

Also when we get new staff they are given a hand book with all the policies and procedures in it which they have to read through before they start. Also we as a team make sure we are following policies and procedures on a day to day basis by reminding each other and supporting each other. For example we have two different policies for personal care in the school in my class the policy is one person to attend to a child’s personal care with the door open, whereas in all the other classes they have to have two people with a child but can close the door.

Examples of Students Essays

Unit Assignment Brief Essay Example

Unit Assignment Brief Essay – Part 2

You will also have to take part in the interview and perform the post-interview activities – Unit Assignment Brief Essay introduction. As this is your first interview the HER manager has asked you to analyses and evaluate your experience so that you can improve in future. Tasks You have to produce the interview pack for the interview panel to use. This must include: Shortlist Tasks and test for the interview Interview questions (ensuring they are within the legislation and ethical constraints) Procedure for interview decisions Job offer to the successful candidates

Informing unsuccessful candidates Using your interview pack you must take part in the selection process both as an interviewer and an interviewee You have been asked to write a report to analyses your contribution to the process, and evaluate your experience of planning and participating both as an interviewer and an interviewee. Evidence you must produce for this task Interview pack Report Criteria covered by this task: To achieve the criteria you must show that you are able to: Unit Criterion reference

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Plan to take part in a selection interview 13 L 04. Up Take part in a selection interview ALL. UP Analyses your contribution to the selection process in a given situation 13 ALL. MM Evaluate your experience of planning and participation in the recruitment and selection process 13 ALL. DO Sources of information www. Biked. AC. UK Educational website www. Hallucinogens. AC. UK corporate website vim. Tutor. Co. UK Educational website.

Examples of Students Essays

Health and Safety in a Clinical Laboratory Essay Example

Health and Safety in a Clinical Laboratory Essay

HEALTH AND SAFETY IN CLINICAL LABORITORIES Health and safety at work act (1974) show that it is a duty of every employer to ensure as far as reasonably practice to health safety and welfare at work of all of its employees – Health and Safety in a Clinical Laboratory Essay introduction. Risks assessments must be carried out when more than 5 people are employed and implement changes as necessary. Risk assessment is a carefully recorded examination of what might cause harm and accidents to people in work places e. g. staff, visitors, patients, clients and contractors. Many activities are undertaken in clinical laboratories therefore anyone entering is at risk at pathological specimen.

Staff must observe important precautions to protect both themselves and others. The degree of risk will depend upon the sort of work they do and how well they observe the safety rules. Infection control is very important in laboratories because infections may be acquired by breathing in airborne droplets or dust containing infectious micro-organisms and others may be through abrasions wounds or liquid splashing onto mucous membranes into eyes. Any form of cuts or dermatitis should be covered by waterproof dressing before start of work. The cover must be enough to prevent contamination and if in doubt ask the line manager.

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Personal protection equipment [PPE] is very important from reducing the spread of infections. In laboratories always wear a protective gown or coat to protect own clothing from acting as transmitter for infection. Gowns should be changed at least twice per week and neither should personal things such as pencils, combs, brushes taken into the laboratory. Essential items are always provided. Gloves should be worn when handling specimen. If gloves become perforated you should stop work immediately and dispose of into appropriate bin. Wash hands thoroughly and put new gloves.

When gowns are contaminated they should be changed and placed in appropriate container and hands should be washed and put new clean coat. Food, drink, cigarettes are not allowed into the laboratory. Eating, chewing, smoking and applying cosmetics in laboratory are forbidden. All that may bring hands into contact with face and mucosae [eyes, nose and mouth] must be avoided as this spread infections. Hands should be washed thoroughly when leaving the laboratory. Reporting Of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulation 1995 [RIDDOR] was introduced to report any injuries or disease within the workplace

In clinical laboratories if any cuts occur the wound should be encouraged to bleed by washing with running water. This should not be scrubbed as this may encourage infection. Proper treatment dressing is very important and no matter how small the cut is this should be reported to the line manager. If u become ill this should be reported and the doctor should be told where you work by showing medical contact card in case of further information if required. Do not take unnecessary risks always follow the rule. Handling of specimen in the laboratory is the main focus of the job.

Always observe all the requirements and regulations. Gloves should be used to handle specimen which include saliva, blood and urine . Always wear disposable gloves if u are to get in contact with blood or body fluids. The use of protective clothing and equipment [gloves, aprons, full-face visors] will minimise the risk of infection Any spillage which would be infectious should be reported and make sure that the spillage is properly cleaned to prevent accidents which can cause injuries or death if someone slips [shattered lives]. Broken equipment should be placed in containers provided to avoid cuts.

Used materials should be placed in appropriate marked bins and dispose of manner accordingly. Control of Substance Hazardous to Health 2002[COSSH] this was amended to control exposure to chemicals and protect workers. In laboratories activities such as autoclaving and cleaning must only be performed according to instructions and must be followed at all times unless in circumstances to meet special needs. Avoid practices of splashing or releasing of droplets into atmosphere as this causes infections. Pathological material should be carried in a microbiological safety cabinet e. . transport screen . Always protect yourself by putting on full-face visor, gloves and disposable plastic apron over your gown or coat. Mouth pipetting is forbidden always use provided pipetting devices. Protective clothing should be removed on completing the job and place various items in the designated places for disinfection, autoclaving or disposal . Always wash hands at the end of each job. Minimise the use of sharp objects as these can cause cuts, when using them use with extreme condition or whenever possible use plastic. Clear spillages and clutter.

Use racks or trays to contain specimen. Items must be disinfected properly and disposed safely. Labels should be correctly done and never to be licked Do not enter any room which has` Danger of Infection` sign on the door unless you are told it’s safe to do so by your manager. Clinical waste should be properly bagged or safely contained according to local rules. Fire awareness is very important in any form of employment. Employees should be trained and be familiar with surroundings in case of fire. In laboratory the causes of fire could be electrical faults or chemical reaction.

In case of fire staff needs not to panic but to move away from affected area but on the same floor [horizontal evacuation]. This reduce evacuation time by moving to a short distance helps in not moving outside unless absolutely necessary . Regular training is advised [triangle of fire] When collapses it is an individual responsibility to risk assess to the rescuer during resuscitation Firstly u have to approach safely and don’t panic them. Check for response and shout for help. Open airway to make sure it is clear there is no vomit or dentures.

Apply 30 chest compressions and keep checking for normal breathing by looking and feeling . This is very important for every employee to be trained [Basic life support]. When faced with aggressive behaviour one should remain calm, communication, posture, should be considered. We need to use common sense in all what we do. REFERENCES ? HSE. Health Services Advisory Committee. (2003), Safety in Health service Laboratories, HSE Books, UK. ? HSE, (2006), Essentials of Health Safety at work, ? www. hse. gov. uk/biosafety/information. htm

Examples of Students Essays

Managers employees and organizational cultures Example

Managers employees and organizational cultures

The technical part is having eight training knowledge and tools so the business can be productive and effective in making sure the customers are happy and return consistently – Managers employees and organizational cultures introduction. Social technical systems theory was started being used by Japanese companies which integrated technical systems and management to achieve high performance. Large U. S. Automakers like Ford and Chrysler also started to look this way. They wanted to understand how the Japanese were applying these tactics to make their business and their products achieves. The second approach is called quantitative management.

This approach helps analysis the decisions and problems of the manager. This helps them to develop formal mathematical models of whatever the problem is. This is the use of science. This started during the World War II around sass. Private companies started to use this theory to get a grip of more complex issues they were having. They use computers to develop certain quantitative methods. This would include techniques such as queuing theory, inventory modeling and simulation. The companies would use these techniques in areas like marketing, planning and human resources.

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Many managers aren’t trained in this area and do not apply this as their primary approach. They might use this approach as a tool in the process off decision. Many managers will use the result that are up to their judgment and beliefs. Overall manager decisions are unpredictable and cannot be expressed in a mathematical form. Organizational behavior is a contemporary approach in which researches and understands management in which will make employees effective by focusing on the hard nature that a certain group utilizes and works together successfully.

Organizational behavior focuses mainly on the behavior of employees which analysis the psychology and the sociology. This approach The fourth approach is called the systems theory. This is the classic approach where everyone involved is criticized as a whole. This theory depended on what the outside world had to say such as human resources and raw materials. Instead of focusing on the external they would use the input as a whole to make OUtpUt needs meet the desires of consumers for what services and goods they needed as the external part.

This then caused people to talk which then caused others to make the next process of the company better. Which then turned into cause and effect. This cause was great for the company who was following through with this because it did wonders for them, who were spreading greatness all around for those who asked and then received. Every association or organizations rely on the input from their consumers to make their goods and services what they demand so they can be the best they can. This is an open system and how they work.

Regarding environments there are a few tepees to consider in an organization. For instance there are macro environment, internal and competitive. Macro environment is about the elements the external business includes that can influence them on strategic decisions they can make. As a whole the technology, demographics, economy and social values all include these regulations and laws are considered. Second environment is called internal. This is where the inside of a certain firm refers to any resources they have and uses them such as manager’s employees and organizational cultures.

The third environment is called competitive. This is extremely important because they need and keep track of other competitors in their line of company and other companies that may cause harm to them. I believe all the approaches go hand and hand with the environments. I believe they all individually have their purpose but each is much needed in the environments. I believe if you use all of the approaches with the environments in the proper times, any business or organization would be extremely successful.

Unit Assignment Essay

Windows Vista was the removable media policies – Unit Assignment Essay introduction. It allowed for the use of USB drives, flash memory cards, external USB hard drives, and CD/DVD writers. These however posed a huge security problem for companies because it allowed the users to easily copy data from their systems, or even place unwanted viruses or mallard onto their neuron. This lead to a lot of companies removing or just destroying these devices so that they wouldn’t work on their workstations. Vista also addressed the power management settings that weren’t available by default in Windows operation systems beforehand.

There were third party software that was used before this release, but companies would prefer if it were built into Windows to reduce costs. Power management policies allowed the companies to save money on electricity, and run at lower temperatures. Hard disk settings were added which allowed the hard drive to be set to turn on or off at specific times. For example when the computer is on battery power, then the hard drive would power down. The other policy that was added for this is for when the computer is plugged in. These allowed for set time values to be set after inactivity or other events happen which would rower down the hard drives.

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There were also settings for the displays which worked the same way as the hard drives. A very useful policy that is called “Require a password when a computer wakes” was added. This made it easier for companies to keep their networks secure. Everyone knows that not all employees and other users log off or lock their computers before walking away to go on break or something. With this setting, after the computer went into a sleep state then when it wakes, the user will have to input their credentials again to verify that they are who they say they are.

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NVQ level 5 Lead person centred practice Essay Example

NVQ level 5 Lead person centred practice Essay


Person centred practice are ways of commissioning, providing and organising services rooted in listening to what people want, to help them live in their communities as they choose – NVQ level 5 Lead person centred practice Essay introduction. These approaches work to use resource flexibly designed around what is important to an individual from their own perspective and work to remove any cultural and organisational barriers. People are not simply placed in pre-existing services and expected to adjust, rather the service strives to adjust to the person. Person – centred practice is treatment and care and considers the needs of the individual. Person centred practice:

Persons perspective is listened to and honoured.

Individuals have a role in planning the supports they receive and the staff that are hired. Regularly look at peoples lives to see what is working and not working. Employees know their roles and responsibilities in supporting people. Staff are matched with people based on skill and common interests. Person-centred practice is treating patients as they want to be treated.

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This involves: GETTING TO KNOW THE PATIENT AS A PERSON- health care workers need to get to know the person beyond the diagnosis and build relationships with patients and carers. SHARING OF POWER AND RESPONSIBILITY – respecting preferences and treating patients as partners in setting goals, planning care and making decisions about care, treatment or outcomes. ACCESSIBILITY AND FLEXIBILITY – meeting patients individual needs by being sensitive to values, preferences and expressed needs. Giving patients choice by providing timely, complete and accurate information they can understand, so they can make choices about their care. COORDINATION AND INTEGRATION – working as a team to minimise duplication and provide each patient with a key contact at the health service. Teamwork allows service providers and systems working behind the scenes to maximise patient outcomes and provide positive experiences. ENVIRONMENTS – physical and organisational or cultural environments are important, enabling staff to be person centred in the way they work.

1.4, EXPLAIN HOW PERSON CENTRED PRACTICE INFORMS THE WAY IN WHICH CONSENT IS ESTABLISHED WITH INDIVIDUALS. Person-centred care has been defined as treating people as individuals and ensuring they are fully involved in the planning process. By being involving, discussing and consulting with the individual regards their care plans, it can be deemed that verbal consent has been given to the care provider. By enabling the individual to make choices and contribute in the decision making process the individual has consented to the care to be administered. Choice involves providing the person with alternatives from which to choose and respecting the decision that is made, as far as possible. Consent means giving permission, an informed decision, permit, approve or agree. A persons capacity to consent is considered to be affected by three main processes: comprehension ( ability to understand and retain information ) decision making ( ability to weigh up information and reach a decision) and communication ( ability to communicate the decision made ) A person may be unable to give consent for several reasons including: Mental health problems

Brain injuries

Learning disabilities


Legally a competent adult can either give or refuse consent to care, even if that refusal may result in harm to harm to them. You must respect their refusal just as much as they would their consent. It is important that the person is fully informed with regards the consequences of their refusal EG: medication has been refused. If an individual refuses to give consent a record should be made. If an individual lacks the Mental Capacity to give consent to care. The Mental Capacity Act 2005 allows people over the age of 16 to appoint a proxy decision maker. The MCA has been in force since 2007 and applies to England and Wales. The primary purpose of the MCA is to promote and safeguard decision making within a legal framework. It does this in two ways: By empowering people to make decisions for themselves wherever possible and by protecting people who lack capacity by providing a flexible framework that places individuals at the heart of the decision making process. By allowing people to look ahead for a time in the future when they might lack the capacity for any number of reasons.

1.5, EXPLAIN HOW PERSON CENTRED PRACTICE CAN RESULT IN POSITIVE CHANGES IN INDIVIDUALS LIVES. Person centred planning can be a life changing, enriching experience and is now evidenced based practice. Recent research ( Robertson et al, 2005 ) has shown that person centred planning is associated with benefits for individuals and led to significant changes in the areas of social networks, contact with family, contact with friends, community based activities, scheduled day activities and levels of choice. Results:

30% increase in size of social networks

2.4 times more contact with family

41% increased contact with friends

35% increase in activities

2.8 times more choice making.

3.1, EVALUATE HOW ACTIVE PARTICIPATION ENHANCES THE WELLBEING AND QUALITY OF LIFE OF INDIVIDUALS. Wellbeing and quality of life for most people is enhanced through meaningful involvement and activity. It is crucial that individuals are involved in decisions that affect them. There are many ways in which such involvement can be facilitated and encouraged. Services should recognise the importance of social contact and companionship and on-going links with social networks. Your organisation should support continued community involvement, easy access to transport and the opportunity to participate in social and leisure activities. Maintaining social contact is also important to social identity and fulfilment. Active support is a proven model of support that encourages people with learning disabilities to plan the best use of their time, with the correct level of support to engage or participate in all activities that make day -to-day living. It empowers and motivates, changing the focus of support from caring for to supporting and working with. Active support underpins all areas of health and social care as it is so person-centred values into action. Services are changing their approach to support from the “hotel” model to the active support model. Active participation is an approach that enables individuals to be included in their care and have a greater say in how they live their life in ways that matter to them. The benefits of active participation can be divided into primary benefits and secondary benefits.

Primary benefits include:

Physical benefits including greater activity levels.

Increased independence and autonomy in what people do.

An opportunity for individuals in health and social care settings to have a say in matters of direct concern to their lives. Increased opportunities for social contact and interpersonal relationships. Encouraging involvement and self-awareness. Individuals become more involved in the community and more aware of opportunities and what they can hope for themselves. Increased opportunities for learning and development of important skills, knowledge, education and employment. Enhanced wellbeing with increases in self-confidence, self-esteem and self-belief. The benefits of active participation included the above primary benefits where the individual gains from its application in real world of health and social care practice but there are also some secondary benefits.

The secondary benefits: can be described as benefits that occur as a result of active participation but are not a direct aim of active participation. These included: Decreasing the likelihood of abuse. As the individual engages positively by actively participating is area of their life, such as in personal care, the scope for abuse by others is reduced. Decreasing vulnerability. As individuals gain in their self-confidence and self-esteem they are less prone to exploitation and harm from others.


Active participation is an approach that empowers individuals in the activities and relationships of everyday life leading to them living as independently as possible. The importance to the individual as an active partner in their own care or support is that it brings physical, psychological, relational and over all wellbeing benefits. Service user participation has resulted in an impact upon the service users, themselves, the organisation and also what the organisation does. For individual service users, the benefits of participation may include increased confidence and self-esteem, the chance to acquire new skills and improved material resources if, for example it helps them to acquire paid employment.

Participation leads to greater satisfaction and improved quality of life for instance, older people mental health service users and people with disabilities who have had greater control in decisions about the support they receive, report greater satisfaction and better health than those who have not. LISA GOTTS.



Today caregivers are adopting outcomes based practice methods to achieve desired patient care goals. Outcomes based practice ( sometimes called outcomes management ) involves a combination of teamwork, continuous quality improvement and process and outcome measurement. Outcome based care is about putting the person at the centre of the care service and not prescribing a standard service to everyone. It is about delivering meaningful outcomes to every individual and helping people to lead more fulfilling lives. Outcome based care requires careful planning which involves working with the people who use our services to help them identify and achieve the things they want to do. Delivered well, outcome based care increases interest and motivation and creates the enthusiasm needed to support people to lead a more fulfilling life. Key benefits of outcome based care:

The service users desires, aspirations, abilities and talents are explored and utilised to help ensure they lead a more fulfilling life. It empowers care workers to work more closely with service users to understand how best to enable their independence. The service can respond more easily to changing needs and preferences. It contributes to maintaining a service users independence.

It enables service users to exercise more choice and have more flexibility in the day-to-day delivery of their service. It encourages partnership working between all stakeholders involved in the delivery and management of an individuals care. It uses resources such as funding and time to gather effect. It provides a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of services. A fundamental part of outcome based care is looking for opportunities to

support people in activity throughout the day. This means thinking about the activities that need to be completed- key tasks such as personal care, travel or meal preparation. The practice of outcome based care ensures that service users are involved in their daily living choices, no matter what their physical or mental ability. Of course not everyone using our support services can undertake all tasks independently, people need different levels of support. The role of the care worker is to provide enough support to enable the service users successful participation. A key principle of outcome based care is helping service users to engage little and often so that they build up experiences of success and increase their motivation.

1.2, DESCRIBE HOW YOU CRITICALLY REVIEW APPROACHES TO OUTCOME BASED PRACTICE. Outcome based practice was introduced as a new way of working. Instead of, a needs based approach to care and the support offered, it became outcomes/results based accountability. A ‘needs’ based delivery of care was difficult to measure in terms of success or failure where as an ‘outcome’ based delivery was more focused on achievement. Outcomes in a social care context are concerned with quality of life rather than simply levels of ability, health, employment or housing status. At a community level this can be about people feeling safer, people being healthier, communities being stronger. At an individual level outcomes can be framed in terms of the steps a person needs to take in order to improve aspects of their lives relating to their own safety and security. For instance: Outome based practice is a disciplined way of thinking and moving from ‘talk to action’ quickly- from strategy to implementation. It is about re-focusing on the difference you are making to peoples lives, meeting their goals- knowing where you/re heading helps you change what your doing. Outcome based practice:

Offers a framework for strategic planning and enables all stakeholders, commissioners, service providers and communities alike, to improve the lives of children, young people, families and adults. Helps identify the activities that will make the most difference to individuals and communities. Can be used to improve the improve the performance of programmes, agencies and service systems through compelling links between

service activity and outcomes for users. Can dramatically improve partnership working by creating a common language, shared ownership and maximising the contribution of all stakeholders.

Outcome based practice focuses on the individuals goals and steers the carer away from a needs based care delivery. It also has measurable aims and objectives where needs based care has not. The work becomes driven and specific because there is a goal in mind. When outcomes were first introduced into care some care professionals had difficulties seeing the differences between an ‘outcome’ and a ‘need’. some professionals felt their role had been reduced because the individual became the ‘expert’ in their own care and the centre of the planning. This meant the care professional needed to come to terms with this new way of delivering services.


Program planning or management tools are outcome models that assist in an efforts proposal, funding and implementation phases. They illustrate the logic, theory of change and anticipated flow of an intervention, providing markers against which both incremental and ultimate progress may be measured Models:

1, The logic model: the most widely used of these models, providing a graphic overview of a program, outlining the outcomes to be accomplished along with how they are to be achieved and for what groups. A logic model generally includes the target group, the resources to be used activities and objectives. Best used for describing a program in the broadest strokes, it can be an extremely useful tool particularly at the earliest stages of a project.

2, Outcome funding framework: stresses key shifts in the thinking that traditionally has influenced human service programs. It encourages funders to think like investors and encourages programs to shift from emphasizing service activities to focusing on performance targets, defined in terms of client changes gained. The model also uses milestones, or sequential steps toward achieving ultimate targets, to allow for ongoing assessment and

mid-course program corrections.

3, Results based accountability ( RBA): Starts with the desired ends and works backward toward the means to achieve them. RBA first describes what a desired result would look like, then defines that result in measurable terms and finally uses those measures to gauge success or failure. RBA asks and answers three basic questions, what do we want, how will we recognize it, what will it take to get there. This model distinguishes between population accountability and program accountability. Its inclusion of the crosswalk, a tool for matching RBA with other outcome models, is a unique and useful aspect of the framework.

4, Targeting outcomes of programs (TOP ): based on a hierarchy of sequential steps in planning, implementing and evaluating programs. It helps answer four basic questions: why have a program, how should it be conducted, has the program design been implemented, what are the benefits delivered.

1.4, EXPLAIN HOW OUTCOME BASED PRACTICE CAN RESULT IN POSITIVE CHANGES IN INDIVIDUALS LIVES. Health and social care is increasingly moving towards outcomes-based services. An outcome describes the measurable impact of the service on a persons life. Every individual has different needs and goals and an outcomes-based service places these at the heart of its delivery rather than using a ‘one sixe fits all’ approach. This represents a major shift in the way services are designed, commissioned, delivered and evaluated. The importance of outcomes in social care has been widely recognized for many years. A focus on outcomes which encourages service users to express the outcomes they want for themselves provides scope for user empowerment and choice. It involves moving from a traditional activity-based approach to serve planning and delivery to a more flexible and responsive model where new thinking is needed about how to measure success. Outcomes based approach is used as a means of improving performance, accountability and consistency in service provision which can only result in positive changes in individuals lives. Outcomes refer to the impacts and end results of services on service users. They may be general EG: improve the health of older people or individualized and person-centred

where they based on the priorities and aspirations of individuals. Whether or not outcomes are perceived as successful may depend not just on the activities and skills of service providers and care managers but also on the goals and expectations of service users. By involving people in thinking and planning for their own services it also creates a more responsive service which is able to respond to users changing needs and preferences. Outcomes will be monitored and reviewed regularly to ensure the service is continuing to meet the service users wishes and needs. EG: whilst the overarching outcome might be for an individual to regain independence and control over his own life, progress may be better monitored if there are a series of bite-sized outcomes such as being able to: Make a simple meal

Dress and undress without help

Wash or shower on their own

Organise own shopping needs

And so on for the whole range of other activities of daily living. This is likely to give the individual a more rapid sense of achievement as areas of independence and regained. Benefits of outcome focused care planning:

Promotes independence and responsibility (empowerment )

Improves use of key social work skills- communication, negotiation, partnership working, task or goal centred planning ect. Enables people to exercise some choice and control which will hopefully lead to an improved quality of life. Treating people as individuals- feeling valued and respected. Compatibility with and respect for cultural and religious preferences. Puts the service user at the centre of the assessment- having ‘a say‘- takes account of preferences. Raises expectations within the community about what can be achieved and promotes the use of the community as a resource. Prompts you to consider different ways of meeting need and achieving outcomes.


Psychological health is important with respect to how we function and adapt and with respect to whether our lives are satisfying and productive. As manager this applies to both your staff and the people in our care. General

well-being does simply mean that you are free from anxiety and depression. People with long-term physical health conditions will often have psychological and emotional needs resulting from the burden of illness-related symptoms, the disability associated with the physical illness and the impact of living with more than one physical condition at any time. The links between physical and mental health are clear. There are shared risk factors for illness: illness regularly presents with both psychological and physical symptoms and being physically ill, particularly on a chronic basis, often has an impact on mental health and psychological wellbeing. The concept of holistic health and well-being incorporates several different facets including physical, intellectual, emotional and social.

Theories relating to the psychological basis for well-being: Well-being is a dynamic cincept that includes subjective, social and psychological dimensions as well as health related behaviours. The Ryff Scales of psychological well-being is a theoretically grounded instrument that specifically focuses on measuring multiple facets of psychological well-being. Definitions of Theory-Guided Dimensions of well-being:


High scorer: possesses a positive attitude towards the self acknowledges and accepts multiple aspects of self, including good and bad qualities, feels positive about past life. Lower scorer: feels dissatisfied with self, is disappointed with what has occurred with past life. Is troubled about certain personal qualities, wishes to be different than what he or she is. Positive relations with others

High scorer: has warm, satisfying, trusting relationships with others, is concerned about the welfare of others, capable of strong empathy, affection, and intimacy, understands give and take of human relationships. Low scorer: has few close, trusting relationships with others, finds it difficult to be warm, open and concerned about others, is isolated and frustrated in interpersonal relationships, not willing to make compromises to sustain important ties with others. Autonomy

High scorer: is self-determining and independent, able to resist social pressures to think and act in certain ways, regulates behaviour from within, evaluates self by personal standards. Lower scorer: is concerned about the expectations and evaluations of others, relies on judgments of others to make important decisions, conforms to social pressures to think and act in certain ways. Environmental mastery

High scorer: has a sense of mastery and competence in managing the environment, controls complex array of external activities, makes effective use of surrounding opportunities, able to choose or create contexts suitable to personal needs and values. Low scorer: has difficulty managing everyday affairs, feels unable to change or improving surrounding context, is unaware of surrounding opportunities, lacks sense of control over external world. Purpose in life

High scorer: has goals in life and a sense of directedness, feels there is meaning to present and past life, holds beliefs that give life purpose, has aims and objectives for living. Low scorer: lacks a sense of meaning in life, has few goals or aims, lacks sense of direction, does not see purpose of past life, has no outlook or beliefs that give life meaning. Personal growth

High scorer: has a feeling of continued development, sees self as growing and expanding, is open to new experiences, has sense of realizing his or her potential, sees improvement in self and behaviour over time, is changing in ways that reflect more self-knowledge and effectiveness. Low scorer: has a sense of personal stagnation, lacks sense of improvement or expansion over time, feels bored and uninterested with life, feels unable to develop new attitudes or behaviours.

4.1 EXPLAIN THE NECESSARY STEPS IN ORDER FOR INDIVIDUALS TO HAVE CHOICE AND CONTROL OVER DECISIONS. An informed choice means that a person has the information and support to think the choice through and to understand what the reasonably expected consequences may be of making that choice. It is

important to remember that too much information is presented to them. Professionals and organisations must be able to demonstrate that they have taken these individual needs into account. Enabling people to make informed choices does not mean the local authority or provider organisation should abdicate its responsibility to ensure people have a good quality of life. EG: if a person chooses to stay in bed all day, every day, the local authority or provider organisation has a responsibility to explore what is happening and respond to this appropriately, working to ensure that the individual fully understands the consequences of their decision. It is not acceptable to simply accept such a decision at face value if this would put the individual at significant risk, as acts of omission can be considered to be abusive. It is important to involve people in decisions even when they do not use speech as their main means of communication. Person centred planning techniques point us towards many ways of listening to people in different ways other than relying on what they actually say, using tools such as learning logs, communication charts and supported decision making agreements and these should all be utilised if we are to demonstrate that we have truly attempted to communicate effectively with an individual. It is also imperative that professionals and organisations ensure that the views of others who know and care about the person are invited and taken into account in any decision making process, without these taking precedence over the individuals views and wishes. Where we are supporting people who have complex communication needs, person centred approaches are essential to ensure peoples involement in decisions which affect their lives. The steps to follow to ensure the individual has choice and control over decisions, when discussing outcomes they wish to achieve should be: Step 1

Ensure who the individual wishes to be present and involved in any discussions and meetings. Step 2

Ensure the individual understands the process as you proceed and can communicate their wishes. Step 3

Seek consent from the individual to access information from others such as social worker, hospital. Never break confidentiality with others. Step 4

Record everything discussed and check the individual agrees with your records by asking them to sign an agreement. Step 5

Be open to feedback and regular evaluation and review of the plan to ensure it is working. Individuals needs and preferences constantly change.

5.3 USE APPROPRIATE APPROACHES TO ADDRESS CONFLICTS AND DILEMMAS THAT MAY ARISE BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS, STAFF AND CARERS, FAMILIES AND SIGNIFICANT OTHERS. A typical day probably involves a race to coordinate resources, provide care, perform procedures, gather data, integrate information, respond to emergencies, solve problems and interact with diverse groups of people. In your role as health care professional you probably face more conflict and greater complexity than any other profession. The challenges of balancing competing interests, philosophies, training backgrounds, the endless quest for adequate resources and the emotional quality of the work you do, means conflicts and dilemmas are bound to occur during the courses of your practice. It is important to evaluate, manage and intervene by mediating when conflicts may and do impact upon the lives and outcomes of people within the provision. There are various appropriate approaches which can be used to address conflicts and dilemmas. Depending on the circumstances this could take the form of: One to one discussion

Group discussion

Using contracts

Providing information to inform choices

Mentoring for conflict resolution.

First you must evaluate your own value systems, beliefs and attitudes in relation to the specific conflicts and dilemmas between people, workers and parents/carers, families and significant others to identify those: a) you can deal with objectively and fairly

b) where expert advice and guidance is required

Once this has been established it as a conflict you are able to deal with objectively and fairly you need to support and ensure that workers and relevant others are aware of the provisions systems, procedures and practices for addressing ethical dilemmas and conflicts and also negotiating agreed boundaries on behaviour. Part of your role is to develop effective systems and approaches to handle conflicts and dilemmas.

5.4 EXPLAIN HOW LEGISLATION AND REGULATION INFLUENCE WORKING RELATIONSHIPS WITH CARERS, FAMILIES AND SIGNIFICANT OTHERS In your working setting there are numerous legislations and regulations which influence your working relationship with carers, families and significant others. Your own provision will have its own regulations, code of practice and conduct, standards and guidance for both employers and employees which will dictate your own roles, responsibilities and accountability when leading others and also when managing working with the individuals family. There are also local, national, UK European and international legislation, standards, guidance and organisational requirements for the leadership and management of work with individuals, families, carers and significant others, which include: The need to achieve positive outcomes for people.

The need to safeguard and protect people from all forms of danger, harm and abuse. Employment practices for the provision and service.

Data protection, recording and reporting.

Making and dealing with comments and complaints to improve services. Whistle blowing.

Health & safety.

Equality and diversity.

These all affect the way you work with individuals and their families. The CQC regulates, inspects and reviews all adult social care services in the public, private and voluntary sectors in England. THE ESSENTIAL STANDARDS FOR QUALITY AND SAFETY- From 1st October 2010, every health and adult social care service in England is legally responsible for making sure it meets new essential standards as part of a new registration system which focuses on people rather than policies, on outcomes rather than systems. The essential standards relate to important aspects of care such as involvement and information for people, personalised care and treatment, safety and safeguarding. The CQC will continuously monitor compliance with essential standards as part of a more dynamic, responsive, robust system of regulation accompanied by new enforcement powers.

Standards an individual can expect from their care provider: THE ESSENTIAL STANDARDS:

1) YOU CAN EXPECT TO BE INVOLVED AND TOLD WHATS HAPPENING AT EVERY STAGE OF YOUR CARE. You will always be involved in discussions about your care and treatment and your privacy and dignity will be respected by all staff. You will be given opportunities, encouragement and support to promote your independence. You will be able to agree or reject any type of examination, care, treatment or support before you receive it. 2) YOU CAN EXPECT CARE, TREATMENT AND SUPPORT THAT MEETS YOUR NEEDS. Your personal needs will be assessed to make sure you get care that is safe and supports your rights. You will get the food and drink you need to meet your dietary needs. You get the treatment that that you and your health or care professional agree will make a difference to your health and wellbeing. You will get safe and co-ordinated care where more than one care provider is involved or if you are moved between services. 3) YOU CAN EXPECT TO BE SAFE.

You will be protected from abuse or the risk of abuse and staff will respect your human rights. You will be cared for in a clean environment where you are protected from infection. You will get the medication you need, when you need them and in a safe way. You will be cared for in a safe and accessible place that will help you as you recover. You will not be harmed by unsafe or unsuitable equipment.


Your health and welfare needs are met by staff who are properly qualified. There will always be enough members of staff available to keep you safe and meet your health and welfare needs. You will be looked after by staff who are well managed and have the chance to develop and improve their skills. 5) YOU CAN EXPECT YOUR CARE PROVIDER TO CONSTANTLY CHECK THE QUALITY OF ITS SERVICES. Your care provider will continuously monitor the quality of its services to make sure you are safe. If you or someone acting on your behalf makes a complaint, you will be listened to and it will be acted upon properly. Your personal records including medical records, will be accurate and kept safe and confidential. LISA GOTTS



A new direction for community services ( June 2006 ) the Government white paper identifies four goals to implement effective care and support for disadvantaged people: Better prevention services

More choice and a louder voice

Tackling inequalities and improving access to community service More support for people with long term needs.

Our health, our choice, our say set out to ensure a more personalised service and to ensure service users had a voice regards needed improvements to services.

In safe hands

Established the national framework for development of local policies, procedures and guidance for the protection of vulnerable adults. ‘In safe hands’ provides for social services departments to take a co-ordinating lead with a range of other local partners including the NHS and the policy to develop and implement local arrangements to prevent, identify, respond to and ameliorate abuse of vulnerable adults in all settings and to take appropriate action against perpetrators of abuse.

Putting people first

‘a shared vision and commitment to the transformation of Adult Social Care ( 2007) department of health. In the UK the government policy ‘putting people first’ stated that person centred planning must become maainstream. Putting people first recognises that person-centred planning and self-directed support are central to delivering personalisation and maximising choice and control. In 2010 guidance was issued to help councils use person centred thinking and planning to deliver the personalisation agenda. Putting people first is a public service reform programme which is co-produced, co-developed and will be co-evaluated. It recognises that to achieve real change, users and carers must participate at every stage. This marks a change in status of people who use services from consumers to co-producers,

set out four areas on which councils and their partners should focus in order to personalise services. These areas are:

Universal services- transport, leisure, health, education, housing and access to information and advice. Choice and control- shaping services to meet peoples needs rather than shaping people to fit in with the services on offer. Social capital- care and support that individuals and their carers can get from their local community ( friends, family, neighbours or community groups ) Early intervention and prevention- support that is available for people who need help to stay independent for as long as possible to keep their home or garden tidy, or to start taking regular exercise.

No secrets

In march 2000 the government issued a guidance document, No secrets which gave social services departments a co-ordinating role in developing local policies and procedures for protecting vulnerable adults from abuse. It came about in response to the media coverage of adult abuse. It required all agencies: police, probation services, social services and health services, to work collaboratively to protect vulnerable adults. The no secrets created a framework for action within which all responsible agencies work together to ensure a coherent policy for the safeguarding of vulnerable adults at risk of abuse and a consistent effective response to any circumstances giving ground for concern or formal complaints or expressions of anxiety. As a result, the protection of vulnerable adults ( POVA) was established. POVA’s remit was to provide help and support to adults experiencing abuse, investigate cases where appropriate and protect people from further abuse. In 2007 more emphasis was placed on early intervention and prevention, reflected in a change of name to safeguarding of vulnerable adults from abuse ( SOVA). The SOVA register replaced the POVA register.

Vetting and barring scheme/independent safeguarding authority The Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006 provides the legal framework for the new vetting and barring scheme, which came into full force in October 2009. Background: The safeguarding vulnerable groups act is a major element of a

wide-ranging and ambitious program of work established across government to address the systemic failures identified by the Bichard inquiry into Soham murders. The act was created in response to recommendation 19 of the Bichard Inquiry Report, which states: New arrangements have been introduced requiring those who wish to work with children or vulnerable adults, to be registered. The register would confirm that there is no known reason why an individual should not work with these clients. In March 2005 Sir Michael Bichard endorsed department for education and skills and department of healths proposal to implement recommendation 19 through the development of a central scheme whereby unsuitable people would be barred from working with children and/or vulnerable adults. The safeguarding vulnerable groups act recognises that any adult receiving any form of healthcare is vulnerable. There is no formal definition of vulnerability within health care although some people receiving health care may be at greater risk from harm than others, sometimes as a complication of their presenting condition and their individual circumstances. The risks that increase a persons vulnerability should be appropriately assessed and identified by the health care professional at first contact and continue throughout the care pathway. The independent safeguarding authority’s ( ISA ) role is to help prevent unsuitable people from working with children and vulnerable adults. Referrals are made to the ISA when an employer or an organisation, EG: a regulatory body has concerns that a person has caused harm or poses a future risk of harm to children or vulnerable adults.

Local safeguarding adults boards

Councils are responsible for ensuring they have in place safeguarding adults boards which have a critical role to play in terms of leadership and the management of safeguarding services across partners. Members of the board will include staff from a full rage of partners: Adult social care and other council departments, representation from district councils in two tier areas, NHS trusts and primary care providers the police, crown prosecution service and courts and key service providers. Representatives should be at a senior enough level to represent their organisation, influence its practice and consistently “ get things done “ The membership should be coherent even where some members will have remits that are either larger or smaller than

the local authority area. Membership may also include key or reprehensive third sector organisations. Boards should have mechanisms to ensure that the views of people who have used ( or might need to use ) safeguarding services are central to the work of the board.

1.3, EXPLAIN THE LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR SAFEGUARDING VULNERABLE ADULTS. There have always been laws which provide guidance with the rights of service users and the requirements of those providing their care. Disability Discrimination Act 1995

NHS Community Care Act 1990

National Assistance Act 1948

Mental Health Act 1983

Chronically sick and Disabled Person Act 1986

The first Act to be aimed specifically at the protection of vulnerable adults was the Care Standards Act 2000. The care standards act has had an enormous impact on everyone working in the social care sector. It created a new regulatory framework for all regulated social care and independent health care services. The act has two fundamental aims: Protect vulnerable people from abuse and neglect.

Protect the highest standards of quality in the care that people receive. The aim is to ensure that children in care are protected from abuse and neglect, older people and people with disability who rely on care services get appropriate standards of care and the protection they deserve. Private hospitals and clinics provide modern standards of healthcare and patients who use child minders or day care can be assured that their children are in safe hands. The General Social Care Council ( GSCC ) was set up under the Care Standards Act 2000, along with the National Care Standards Commission ( NCSC ) and the Social Services Inspectorate ( SSI ). NCSE and SSI merged in April 2004 to become the Commission for Social Care Inspection ( CSCI ) which is now the Care Quality Commission ( CQC ).

The Human Rights Act means that residents of the United Kingdom will now be able to seek help from the courts if they believe that their human rights

have been infringed. It is likely that anyone working within health and social care will be working within the provision of the Human Rights Act, which guarantees the following rights: The right to life

The right to freedom from torture and inhuman or degrading punishment The right to freedom from slavery, servitude and forced or compulsory labour The right to liberty and security of person

The right to a fair and public trail within a reasonable time The right to freedom from retrospective criminal law and no punishment without law The right to respect for private and family life, home and correspondence The right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion

The right to freedom of expression

The right to freedom of assembly and association

The right to marry and found a family

The prohibition of discrimination in the enjoyment of convention rights The right to peaceful enjoyment of possessions and protection of property The right to access to an education

The right to free elections

The right not to be subjected to the death penalty

With the introduction of the Human Rights Act the government had to show commitment to protecting the most vulnerable adults as well as children. In the past some people had not always been able to access their rights, this will now be regarded as violation of an individuals human rights.

The Safeguarding of Vulnerable Groups ( SVG ) Act 2006

Is in response to the Bichard Inquiry 2005, into the failings around Ian Huntley case. The SVG act is intended to prevent unsuitable people from working with vulnerable people and to reform current vetting and barring practices. The act sets out legal framework for the Independent Safeguarding Authority ( ISA ) scheme which was to be introduced in 2009 (but currently under review as a result of the 2010 General Election)

Mental Capacity Act 2005 ( MCA)

The MCA has been in force since 2007 and applies to England and Wales. The

primary purpose of the MCA is to promote and safeguard decision-making within a legal framework. It does this in two ways: By empowering people to make decisions for themselves wherever possible and by protecting people who lack capacity by providing a flexible framework that places individuals at the heart of the decision making process. By allowing people to plan ahead for a time in the future when they might lack the capacity for any number of reasons. FIVE KEY PRINCIPLES

1) A presumption of capacity-every adult has the right to make his or her own decisions and must be assumed to have capacity to do so unless it is proved otherwise. This means that you cannot assume that someone cannot make a decision for themselves just because they have a particular medical condition or disability. 2) Individuals being supported to make their own decisions-a person must be given all practicable help before anyone treats them as not being able to make their own decisions. This means you should make every effort to encourage and support people to make the decision for themselves. If lack of capacity is established it is still important that you involve the person as far as possible in making decisions. 3) unwise decisions-people have the right to make decisions that others might regard as unwise or eccentric. You cannot treat someone as lacking capacity for this reason. Everyone has their own values, beliefs and preferences which may not be the same as those of other people. 4) Best interests-anything done for or on behalf of a person who lacks mental capacity must be done in their best interests. 5) Less restrictive option-someone making a decision or acting on behalf of a person who lacks capacity must consider whether it is possible to decide or act in a way that would refer less with the persons rights and freedoms of action or whether there is a need to decide or act at all. Any intervention should be weighed up in the particular circumstances of the case.


To establish whether there are lessons to be learnt from the circumstances of the case about the way in which local professionals and agencies work together to safeguard vulnerable adults and to learn from past experience. To review the effectiveness of procedures ( both multi-agency and those of individual organisations ) and to improve future practice by acting on the learning. To inform and improve local inter-agency practice and improve multi agency working. To improve practice by acting on learning ( developing best practice ). To prepare or commission an overview report which brings together and analyses the findings of the various reports from agencies in order to make recommendations for future action and to review safeguarding adults procedures. Adult abuse pervades the lives of many people around the world today. The current definition of adult abuse used health and social care today states abuse-may consist of a single or repeated act. It may be physical, verbal or psychological, it may be an act of neglect or failure to act or it may occur when a vulnerable person is persuaded to enter into a financial or sexual transaction to which he/she has not consented or cannot give consent. ( Department of Health 2000 ). Adult abuse has received increasing recognition over the past 40 years at national and international level. Initial focus has been on the abuse of older people, however there is now an awareness of the vulnerability of other groups of adults to abuse including those with learning difficulties and mental health problems. There have been several high profile cases of abuse in recent years resulting in serious case reviews. Two examples where serious case reviews or inquires have influenced quality assurance, regulation and inspection relating to the safeguarding of vulnerable adults. THE BIRCHARD INQUIRY: following the case of Ian Huntley and the Soham murders. Although the abuse which took place was involving children, the report had far reaching affects on all areas of protection for both children and adult care. The Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups act is a major element of a wide-ranging and ambitious programme of work established across government to address the systemic failures identified by the inquiry. It introduced a requirement for those who wish to work with children or vulnerable adults, to be registered. This would confirm that there was no known reason why an individual should not work with these clients. The Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998 or ‘Whistlblowing’ is officially defined as ‘making a disclosure that is in the

public interest’. it will usually occur when an employee discloses to a public body, usually the police or a regulatory commission that their employer is partaking in unlawful practices. A series of disasters, crimes and scandals in the late 1980s and early 1990s resulted in a number of public inquiries. These inquiries found that often people within the organisations knew of the potential dangers or malpractice and for a variety of reasons either were unwilling to raise the alarm or if they did raise it, did so with the wrong person or in the wrong way. An example is the drowning of four children at Lyme Bay. Before the canoe disaster at Lyme Bay an instructor had been so concerned about the safety standards at the activity centre that she had written to the managing director. In her letter she stated that if safety standards were not improved ‘you might find yourself trying to explain why someone’s child will not be coming home’, shortly after four schoolchildren drowned. Because he had ignored such graphic warning, the managing director was jailed for two years for manslaughter. Had whistle blowing policies been in place at the time, the instructor could have reported this by following the correct processes and their employment rights would have been protected. If you decide to blow the whistle on an organisation you are protected and your employer cannot victimise you. Whislleblowers are protected for public interest to encourage people to speak out if they find malpractice illegal or negligent behaviour by anyone in an organisation or workplace. MISUSE OF DRUGS ACT 1971

The CQC providing external scrutiny on how other regulators and agencies work together, following the Governments response on the management of controlled drugs, after the fourth report of the Shipman inquiry. The CQC publishing their fifth annual report on safer management of controlled drugs in July 2012. Under statutory arrangements introduced as a result of the Shipman inquiry, the CQC is responsible for assuring that all providers of health and social care and regulatory bodies and agencies work together to create a safe environment for the management of controlled drugs. Recommendations in the report included the need for organisations to notify the CQC when the controlled drugs accountable officer changes, for the officers to have systems in place to assure the safe prescribing and administration of controlled drugs in all possible situations and the need to encourage the

use of the Controlled Drug Requisition Form.

1.5, EXPLAIN THE PROTOCOLS AND REFERRAL PROCEDURES WHEN HARM OR ABUSE IS ALLEGED OR SUSPECTED. All persons have the right to live their lives free from violence and abuse. This right is underpinned by the duty on public agencies under the Human Rights Act 1998 to intervene proportionately to protect the rights of citizens. These rights include Article 2: the Right to life, 3: freedom from torture ( including humiliating and degrading treatment ) and Article 8: rights to family life ( one that sustains the individual ). When an allegation of abuse is made the receiving agency must always notify the appropriate regulatory body within any stipulated time limits and also any other authority who may be using the service provider. Residential care homes are required under the Registered Homes Act 1984 ( as amended in 1991 ) ‘to notify the Registration Authority not later than 24 hrs from the time of its occurrence of any event in the home which affects the well-being of any resident’ and specifically of: Any serious injury to any person residing in the home ( Regulation 14 (1) (b). Any event in the home which affects the well-being of any resident ( Regulation 14 (1) (d). RESPONDING TO ABUSE AND NEGLECT

Standards 6,7,8 and 9

The primary responsibility of the ‘safeguarding adults’ partnership is to enable all adults who is or may be eligible for community care services to access appropriate services if they need support to live a life that is free from abuse and neglect. The framework for enabling adults to access such support is referred to as the ‘safeguarding adults’ procedures. They should ensure that those adults who is or may be eligible for community care services and who may be experiencing abuse or neglect, receive an assessment of the risk they are facing. Where they face a critical or substantial risk to their independence and wellbeing, community care services should be considered as part of a safeguarding plan. Where the assessment does not lead to community care services being provided or purchased other appropriate services should be signposted. The procedures should be based on the presumption of mental capacity and on the consequent right of such adults to make their own choices in relation to safety from abuse and

neglect-except where the rights of others would be compromised. For people who are eligible for community care services and who have mental capacity. ‘safeguarding adults procedures should enable them access to mainstream services that will support them to live safer lives as well as providing specific services to meet additional needs. EG: some adults have impairments which mean that they need assistance to overcome current barriers to existing services in order to choose how to achieve a safer life.

Standards 9.1 the multi-agency ‘safeguarding adults’ procedures detail the following stages: ALERT-Reporting concerns of abuse or neglect which are received or noticed within a partner organisation. Any immediate protection needs are addressed. REFERRAL -Placing information about that concern into a multiagency context. DECISION-Deciding whether the ‘safeguarding adults’ procedures are appropriate to address the concern. SAFEGUARDING ASSESSMENT STRATEGY-Formulating a multi-agency plan for assessing the risk and addressing any immediate protection needs. SAFEGUARDING ASSESSMENT-Co-ordinating the collection of the information about abuse or neglect that has occurred or might occur. This may include an investigation EG: a criminal or disciplinary investigation. SAFEGUARDING PLAN-Co-ordinating a multi-agency response to the risk of abuse that has been identified. REVIEW-The review of that plan.

RECORDING AND MONITORING-Recording and monitoring the ‘safeguarding adults’ process and its outcomes.


Based within the community care assessment time frame.

Maximum time frame:

ALERT- Immediate action to safeguard anyone at immediate risk. REFERRAL – Within the same working day.

DECISION – By the end of the working day following the one on which the safeguarding referral was made. SAFEGUARDING ASSESSMENT STRATEGY – Within five working days. SAFEGUARDING ASSESSMENT – Within four weeks of the safeguarding referral. SAFEGUARDING PLAN – Within four weeks of the safeguarding assessment being completed. REVIEW – Within six months for

first review and thereafter yearly.


Receivers of alerts and referrals should respond by:

Reassure the person.

Remaining calm and not showing shock or disbelief.

Listening carefully to what is being said.

Not asking detailed or probing questions.

Demonstrating a sympathetic approach by acknowledging regret and concern that what has been reported has happened. Ensuring that any emergency action needed has been taken.

Confirming that the information will be treated seriously.

Giving them information about the steps that will be taken.

Informing them that they will receive feedback as to the result of the concerns they have raised and from whom. Giving the person contact details so that they can report any further issues or ask any questions that may arise.


4.2, EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES TO PROTECT VULNERABLE ADULTS IN YOUR OWN SETTING. Periodic audits of individual adult protection case records will enable strengths and weaknesses in current practice to be identified. Accurate and consistent monitoring of vulnerable adult data will enable you to base your workplace policy and practice on sound and relevant evidence, highlighting trends and assisting in the planning process. By monitoring and auditing the individuals complaints and by listening to members of staff, you should be able to determine and evaluate if the systems and procedures in your own work setting are effective in protecting vulnerable adults.

Examples of Students Essays

Task Centred Approaches Essay Example

Task Centred Approaches Essay


Task centred approach has been found to be one of the ways in which service users can be empowered – Task Centred Approaches Essay introduction. This paper looks into the various ways in which service users can get to be empowered. In providing this analysis, this paper examines several ways by which service users can be empowered such as theory and practice, which is used for changing the institutional and social contexts in a way which permits people to achieve the goals and values for social work. Next the paper explores codes of conduct as well as the duties which are expected of the social workers. At the same time, the paper discussed the issue of poverty and how it can be eradicated before discussing the whole process of empowerment while illustrating the principles of the same. The paper equally examines the issue of knowledge and how it is important in the field of social work. In this regard the concept or research is mentioned and how it contributed to the generation of more knowledge and under standing of social work. Eventually the paper makes a conclusion. For instance the paper concludes by emphasising the need to adopt the task centred approaches in helping the service users in resolving the problems as a way of empowering them.

More Essay Examples on Planning Rubric


There is a lot of debate going on with respect to the best ways in which task centred approach can be used to empower service users. Before analysing how this can be done, it is important to understand some basic definitions. First task centred approach is a psychological approach of solving any problem more so in social work. This implies that social work involves several tasks. The rationale behind the task centred approach is to select problem solving technique which is relevant to the particular task that is being undertaken. It is drawn from both behavioural as well as cognitive psychotherapies which are concerned with the perceptions, learning and thoughts of individuals with regards to information (Sternberg, 1995). Task centred approach is highly structured and time limited approach which is usually focused on the problem. At the same time, service users are those people who are directly involved or the direct recipients of the services provided by the social work being undertaken. One way by which task centred approach is helpful to service users is by empowerment.

Theory and Practice

Theory and practice is one way that task-centred approach can be used to empower service users. Theory is used for changing the institutional and social contexts in order that people may achieve the goals and values for social work. The theories of social work are practice guidelines and are drawn from the sociology and psychology disciplines. The social work theories help in the construction of the human needs understanding. Social workers should identify the reasons of their social work practices. Theories are framework threads that are used in practice and therefore people need to construct the threads for the practice of the social work. Theories components are like tools and people need to select the component that is relevant to the work context of the social worker since the social work primary’s task is varied. Since there are various context of social work such as risk management, community education, policy development among others, social workers have many theories that go with the contexts (Healy 2005).

            Task centred approach are theories that show how people learn, perceive, think and remember the things that they see (Sternberg 1995). The approach is a structured highly, focused on problem and time-limited even though it can used in many other theories. This approach is used in many interventions of social service. In interventions that are short term, human beings tend to have a great progress than in long term interventions. There are various task centred practice principles. The principles include promoting structured approaches and systematic to intervention, planned briefness and adopting a practice evaluation scientific approach. The other principles include seeking mutual clarity with service users and aiming at achieving small changes. The other principles of the task centred practice include focusing on the things that are here and now, promoting collaboration that is between service users and social workers and lastly building client action capacities (Healy 2005).

            In seeking mutual clarity, social workers ensure that identify the simple gesture and visiting the people in need. In the mutual clarity, the social workers also ensure that they work out a plan that will be used for the treatment process of the service users. The social workers should also ensure that they achieve small things than achieving the large changes. An example of achieving small changes is shown when a social worker start by determining the problems that the client is facing and determining the medical assistance that is needed. The social worker should also focus on the present and not the future of the client and by this the social worker will be applying the focus on here and now principle. The social worker should also do the task together with their clients for the recovery process. By doing this the social worker will be applying the collaboration principle. The sessions of the social worker and the client should also be systematic, structured and brief. The social worker should apply the principle of using a scientific approach to ensure that he or she is evaluating the work outcomes and the strengths of the practice (Healy 2005, p.116).

            Task centred approaches are used for treating problems that have been accepted and acknowledged by the clients. The task centred approaches are also used for problems that have clearly defined by the clients and are resolved through actions. For example, when a client acknowledges that he or she is having a problem, the problem can be easily and immediately resolved by finding out the possible course of action that can be used. This process helps the resolving of the service user process easier. The social worker’s intervention strategy is to ensure that clients are first helped in the problems that are mostly concerned to them. In the second task, the social worker should help the clients in having a good experience while resolving the problem. This process is to help the clients in improving the future capacity of dealing with the problems. The clients are also helped in being willing to accept the problems that are facing them using this approach (Payne 1997).

            The social worker should be willing to work with the clients in the resolving of the problems. The social workers must be available in the provision of the services to the service users. The social workers should use the planned, systematic and the structured approach that will be used in giving the clients the experiences that will help the clients in problems solving capacities in the future. By doing this the service users will be empowered by the task centred approach which will encourage them in resolving their problems in the future. Task centred approaches are used by the social workers to achieve collaboration between the client and the social worker. The social workers need to work in conjunction with the service users in order to resolve the problems and this will therefore encourage the service users (Payne 1997).

The task centred approaches are also used in targeting the problems of the clients in order for the achievement of rehearsal and review of the task centred approaches. This means that the task centred approaches are theories such as the social learning, cognitive-behavioural and communication since the task centred approaches focus on learning the behaviours of human beings and resolving the problems that face people (Payne 1997, p. 108). Task centred approaches are a formal working ways. The task centred approaches aims at doing all the tasks in a formal way. The task centred approaches are not effective especially in crisis that are debilitating constantly. When crisis tend to weaken regularly, the task centred approaches can not be able to resolve the crisis. The task approaches are non effective in problems that are long-term psychological. The practices that are mostly used by the task centred approaches are focused, directive and time-restricted (Payne 1997, p.113).

The Codes of Conducts and Duties of the Social Workers

For the service users to be empowered by the task centred approaches, the social workers should ensure that they follow the codes of conducts such as treating every person as one. The social workers should also respect and maintain the service users’ privacy and dignity. The social workers should promote and ensure that every service user is given equal opportunity. The social workers should also ensure that the different and diverse service users’ values and cultures. The social workers are also supposed to prepare the work for the service users and thereafter work with the service users in the task centred approaches in resolving the issues that are affecting the community. The social workers are also supposed to plan the various task centred approaches and carry out while evaluating the task centred approaches of the social work. The social workers are also supposed to help the service users by demonstrating the task centred approaches of the social work (Cunningham & Cunningham 2007).

Poverty Eradication

Another task centred approach that can be used in the empowering of the service users is through poverty eradication since poverty is one of the defining characteristics of the social work service users’ lives. This can be done by identifying the poverty causes. The task centred approach is to identify the values and beliefs of the social work (Cunningham & Cunningham 2007). Since the service users are overwhelmed with the poverty levels that they are faced with, they have been discouraged and therefore by eradicating the poverty levels of the service users they will be empowered (Smale et al. 2000, p.18). The features that are identified with the poverty such as social isolation, unemployment and low incomes have enhanced the problems that are faced by the service users. The problems that have been caused by poverty include poor health, break ups of families and poor care for the children. The social workers should aim at dealing with the poverty problem so as empower the service users by reducing the chances of people going to social cares (Becker 1997).

            Social workers are encouraged to understand the factors that generate poverty so that they can empower the service users. This is because the social workers have been found not to understand the factors that produce the poverty. The social workers have also been found to have failed in the addressing the issues of the poverty in the social work (Becker 1997, p.114). Social workers should help in the poverty eradication by ensuring that they work on the individual service users than the structural levels (Becker 1997, p.116).

            The social workers should use task centred practices to address the poverty impacts on the lives of the service users since they are practical approaches that can deal with the problem of poverty (Doel and Marsh 1992; Reid and Shyne 1969). The task centred approaches are practical approaches that can help in dealing with problems affecting the service users such as debt, living problems and lack of housing. This is because task centred approaches are models that are practical and ensures that the service users are empowered since the problems that the service users need to be worked on are chosen. The task centred approaches are based on principle that the social worker work in conjunction with the service users. The process of the social worker working together with the service users ensures that the new methods of problems solving are learnt to ensure that the service users are equipped in problem solving in the future (Cunningham & Cunningham 2007).

            The task centred approaches can also be combined with other essential approaches such as the individualised approach to help in the poverty eradication to the service users to ensure that they are empowered (Cunningham & Cunningham 2007). To address the issue of poverty among the service users, there is need of the social workers to reduce inequality to help in the poverty eradication. It is also suggested that the social workers should adopt the mutuality approach so that people can be in a position to share the responsibilities and resources to help in the poverty eradication. The social workers should support the service users by changing the inequalities among the service users (Holman 1993, p. 71).


A task centred approach is of great importance because it can empower service users. There are different ways in which this approach can be expressed. One such way is through empowerment. Empowerment as a perception is comprehensive and gives information on different tasks in the communal employment together with features of hypothesis and rehearsal. Empowerment also assists in the understanding of different customs of societal work since it is a loom in its own accuracy (Payne 1997, p.266).

           It is therefore important to note that empowerment tries to offer support to the customers in order for them to increase influence. The authority to be gained through empowerment by the users is for both pronouncement and accomplishment over their own existence. This is by reducing the consequences of both collective and individual blocks in order for the existing power to be put into effect. This can all be achieved by making sure that the users have augmented their competence and self-confidence in order to make appropriate use of the power. The users can also move power from the atmosphere to the customers (Payne 1997, p.266).

            Empowerment is comprehensive with the shifting of authority and the importance. This is in the direction of congregating the requirements and privileges of the users who might be demoralized. Therefore, empowerment is the process of escalating individual authority. The escalation is aimed at assisting the individuals to acquire accomplishment for them to perk up their conditions (DuBois 1994, p.202 & Miley 2005, p.25). Authorizing is about the accomplishment of influence. Allowing can refer to a state of mind, for instance sentiment of value and capability. Empowerment can also be described as the reorganization of authority that results from shifting communal constructions (DuBois & Miley 2005).

Principles of empowerment

The essential sanctioning purpose is communal impartiality. This means that providing protection for individual users together with social equality through the mutual support and shared learning (Payne 1997). Therefore, authorizing, originates from the knowledge regarding the speculations of individual. Sanctioning can also be derived from both the fundamentals of political affairs and way of life. This can be in terms of the background since democratic organization is basically based on the authoritarian principle. This principle of inhabitants encourages the partaking of the resolutions which influence their wellbeing.

            The implication here is that the principle of empowerment dates back from long ago implying that it is quite difficult to exactly figure out its origin. That not withstanding, Payne (1997) argues that empowerment originates from such theories as community development or self help. Still it could originate from the ideology of political empowerment. What needs to be noted is that the main aim of empowerment is to achieve social justice. Social justice entails not only giving people more security but also giving the people more political and social equality by the use of mutual support as well as shared learning.  It is therefore evident that empowerment is informed by not only many knowledge bases but also many theoretical foundations.

            There are some of the essential principles of allowing which are drawn from the performance of enlightening. The principles include observing customers as knowledgeable and capable if they get access to the prospect and possessions. There is also achievement of proficiency through the practices of life which is an enhancement before being informed what to do. There is a requirement of users to involve themselves in their own authority regarding the objectives, ways and the description of effects (Payne 1997, DuBois & Miley 2005).

             Another approach requires that users gain and use proficiency since it can assist in the practice of freedom. The awareness level provides information which is essential for the happening of transformation (Payne 1997, DuBois & Miley 2005). The users are required to be inter-confidence of the performance and strategy. The elevation of awareness controls the lives, self-assurance in the user aptitude together with the informal representative recognition. Therefore, the achievement of sanction is accomplished through individual improvement.

            The principles inform empowerment practices in the social work in different ways. The ways include providing maintenance to the users in the process of making pronouncements which influence their lives. The users are very crucial in the elucidation discovery process since this has a force (Payne 1997). Communal employees contain acquaintance and skills which can be utilized and allocated by the users. There should be corporation between the users and the communal employees. There should be perspective focus on the indulgent of the users on their circumstances. The communal working ways and user experience connection is essential in connecting individual with diplomacy.

            The approach of empowerment is a very effective more so when dealing with women who have undergone domestic violence. Given the fact that empowerment entails a collaborative process between the clients and the practitioners working together. It therefore follows that those involved in social work appreciate the fact that clients are expertise regarding their personal problems, capacities as well as potential solutions.        The principle of working in collaboration is very appropriate in cases of domestic violence. This is because it reduces the aspects of social control existent in worker-client relationships. Besides it does not replicate the power imbalances usually experienced by women particularly with regards to domestic violence. Through working in collaboration, survivors are presented with an opportunity of experiencing shared power besides being considered as equals in the relationship. In particular, feminist empowerment seeks to achieve empathy, common experience as well as mutual respect (Worell & Remer, 1992).


One fundamental aspect of social work is carrying out research with the intentions of generating more knowledge. This is more so important in a situation in which more and more information is being produced but which is not being utilized towards knowledge and understanding. Marsh & Fisher (2005) while analyzing the need to support for research in social work borrow from Lewis’s work in trying to come up with a formula for determining knowledge. Their contribution is that knowledge as applicable in social work is a result of combined evidence with not only practice and wisdom but also the views of the users. Evidence in this case refers to research based evidence which is usually very vital in policy formulation in social work. This combined together with the views of the service users makes suggests how powerful and transformative knowledge is.

            It is however important to note that there are other ways in which knowledge can be polarized. This is informed by the fact that there exists several means of knowledge. Mode 1 knowledge for instance, is knowledge which is generated with the intention of ensuring that there is compliance with scientific practice. On the other hand, mode 2 knowledge is not only socially accountable but is equally transient and transdisciplinary (Gibbons et al 1994, p. 3). The second description is in tandem with what social work research seeks to achieve. The argument here is that when there is too much information, competence is not achieved by merely being in a position to generate more of the same. Rather emphasis should be laid on generating more insights by properly arranging what already exists (Gibbons et al 1994, p. 64).

                For a long time now, those in charge of policy formulation in the UK have emphasized on evidence based practice (EBP). This was brought about by the realization that there was an absence of a systematic evidence to prove that that social work intervention just like in other professions had any positive impacts. Evidence based practice has the central concern of decision making which are supposed to be based on the evidence of what actually works (Webb 2001, p. 61).  The only drawback with respect to knowledge is that assumptions vary about what planned results of social work interventions should be. This usually results from the disagreements which are bound to occur amongst professionals with regards to policy results. Still, these differences could result from the interpretations the policies which could be an indication of the expectations of then various people in the system.


             In conclusion, there is need of the social workers to ensure that they adopt the task centred approaches in helping the service users in resolving the problems so to empower the service users. The social workers should training and teach the service users on how to use the task centred approaches in the resolving of the problems that are affecting the service users so as to empower them in dealing with problems in the future (Campbell 2008, p. 9). The social workers should also use theories to help in the construction of the human needs understanding by identifying the reasons of their social work practices. Social workers should use theories since they are framework threads that are used in practice and therefore people need to construct the threads for the practice of the social work (Healy 2005).

Conclusively, for the service users to be empowered by the task centred approaches, the social workers should ensure that they follow the codes of conducts such as treating every person as one and also respect and maintain the service users’ privacy and dignity. The social workers should promote and ensure that every service user is given equal opportunity. The social workers should also ensure that the different and diverse service users’ values and cultures. The social workers should also address the issue of poverty since many service users are affected by poverty to ensure that they are empowered (Cunningham & Cunningham 2007).


Becker, S. 1997, Responding to poverty, the politics of cash and care, Longman, London.

Campbell, P. 2008, Good Practice Guide lines: Service User and Carer Involvement within Clinical Psychology Training, The British Psychological Society, Leicester. Available at: http://www.bps.org.uk/downloadfile.cfm?file_uuid=DE688754-1143-DFD0-7E15-0DEEB1F678F9&ext=pdf.

Cunningham, J. & Cunningham, S. 2007, Sociology and Social Work, Learning Matters, Southernhay East. Available at: http://www.learningmatters.co.uk/sampleChapters/Sociology.doc.

Doel, M. & Marsh, P. 1992, Task-centred social work, Aldershot, Ashgate.

Du Bois, B. & Miley, K. 2005, Social Work – An Empowering Profession,

5th Ed, Pearson, Sydney.

Gibbons, M., Limoges, C., Nowonty, H., Schwartzman, S., Scott, P. & M. Trow.

1994, The New Production of Knowledge: The dynamics of science and research in contemporary societies London: Sage

Healy, K. 2005, Social Work Theories in Context: Creating Frameworks for Practice, Palgrave Macmillan, Houndsmill

Holman, B. 1993, A new deal for social welfare, Lion Books, Oxford

Marsh, P. & M. Fisher. 2005, Developing the evidence base for social work and

social care practice. London, Scie.

Payne, M. 1997, Modern Social Work Theory, 2nd edn, Macmillan Press, Houndsmill

Reid, W. J. & Shyne, A. W. 1969, Brief and extended casework, Columbia University Press, New York

Smale, G., Tuson, G. & Statham, D. 2000, Social work and social problems, Palgrave, Basingstoke.

Sternberg, R. 1995, In search of the Human Mind, Harcourt Brace College Publishing, Sydney

Webb, S. 2001, ‘Some considerations on the validity of evidence bases practice in

social work’ in British Journal of Social Work 31(1): 57-79

Worell, J. & Remer, P. 1992, Feminist Perspectives in Therapy – An

Empowerment Model for Women, Wiley, Brisbane


Examples of Students Essays

Writing assignment history Essay Example

Writing assignment history Essay

You will produce a leaflet explaining both how infections are caused by different pathogens (Pl) and how pathogenic micro-organisms grow and spread (UP) – Writing assignment history Essay introduction. Task deadline – September 30th 2013 2. You will demonstrate (UP) standard precautions that would be used to prevent the spread of infection in a health and social care setting. This will be observed by your subject tutor within the skills lab. Task deadline – w/k commencing 7th October 2013 3. Your subject tutor will give you a case study about an outbreak of infection in a health and social care setting.

In small groups you will study these case studies and present the following to your peers; Explain (MI) how you would manage the outbreak of infection Identify (UP) key aspects of legislation and guidelines relevant to the prevention and control of infection Explain (MM) the role of organizational procedures in the prevention and control of infection. Task deadline – presentations w/k commencing 9th December 2013 To follow the presentation you will now complete a report that assesses (D 1) how the suggested measures meet legal requirements and guidelines for the prevention ND control of infection.

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Task deadline- 16th December 2013 4. In your placement competency portfolio complete the questionnaire to describe (AS) the roles and responsibilities of personnel in relation to infection control in your health and social care placement. Task deadline – 3rd February 2014 5. Your subject tutor will supply you with a risk assessment in relation to infection prevention and control undertaken at a health or social care setting. In small groups you will review (MM) the risk assessment which will be recorded by your tutor.

After the discussion you will complete a 500 word assignment that assesses (DO) how the risk assessment can contribute to reducing rates of infection the health and social care setting. Task deadline – Discussions w/k commencing 17th March 2014. Assignment (DO) 6th April 2014 Submission Policy Only work submitted by deadline or by previously agreed extension will be marked and returned within 3 weeks. You can only give work to your teacher in class or to the support office. Resubmission Policy Please see the department’s resubmission policy.

Examples of Students Essays

Example Assignment Essay Example

Example Assignment Essay

If you are not sure, check with your tutor – Example Assignment Essay introduction. Q Can I copy other people’s work? ANON. The work that you produce must be your own work and you may be asked to sign a declaration to say that the work is your own. You should never copy the work of other candidates or allow others to copy your work. Any information that you use from other sources, e. G. Books, newspapers, professional journals, the Internet, must be clearly identified and not presented as your own work. Q Can work in a group? Ayes. However, if you work in a group at any stage you must still produce work hat shows your individual contribution.

Q How should I present my work? A You can present your work in a variety of ways, egg hand-written, word- processed, on video. However, what you choose should be appropriate to the task(s). For some work, e. G. Presentations, coaching sessions, role-play, work experience, you will need to provide proof that you completed the task(s). A witness statement or observation sheet could be used for this. If you are unsure, check with your tutor. Q When I have finished, what do I need to hand in? A You need to hand in the work that you have completed for each task. Do not include any draft work or handouts unless these are asked for.

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When you hand in your work make sure that it is labeled, titled and in the correct order for assessing. Q How will my work be assessed? A Your work will be marked by an assessor in your centre. The assessor will mark the work using the assessment objectives and the grade descriptors in the qualification specification. Scenario Safety Matters As the Health and Safety Office for the Local Authority you have been asked to put on a training day for new care workers in your area. The following advert has been sent to all health and social care settings in your area.

You are to prepare for the training day by producing presentations, risk assessments and written reports to show to your group of trainees. A wide variety of professions are expected to be represented at the training day, so you will need to cover a selection of scenarios from various environments. Tasks Task 1: Potential hazards in health and social care Assessment Criteria Pl For the first part of your training day, you must prepare a presentation that explains the potential hazards and the harm that may arise from each hazard. You should choose a setting that you know well and refer to this throughout he presentation.

You may wish to include photographic evidence to highlight the hazard (be sure to obtain consent from your setting before doing this). A minimum of six potential hazards should be covered. The evidence for this will be: A set of presentation slides that explain potential hazards and the harm that may arise from each in a health or social care setting (Pl) Task 2: Legislation……. What’s the impact? Assessment Criterion UP, MI Now you have grabbed the attention of your audience you need to introduce them to legislation and policies and procedures. You must outline each piece of isolation etc. ND make it clear how it influences health and social care settings. Produce a descriptive table or poster which gives outline information about the legislation, polices etc. And how each relates to health safety and security within health and social care environments. Additionally, you must produce a written report that explains in detail the roles and responsibilities relating to the health, safety and security of individuals in a health and social care setting. Include a range of different roles and the responsibilities. The evidence for this task will be:

A table/poster that outlines how legislation, policies and procedures relating to health, safety and security influence health and social care settings (UP) A written report that describe the roles and responsibilities relating to the health, safety and security of individuals in a health and social care setting (MI) Task 3:Risk Assessment Assessment Criterion UP, MM, Del Now your group have a good understanding of the potential hazards and the legislation that settings adhere to, you need to demonstrate the correct way of carrying out a risk assessment in a health or social care setting.

To help you to accomplish this task, firstly read the advice from the Health and Safety Executive: http://www. Hose. Gob. UK/simple-health-safety/manage. HTML You need to carry out a risk assessment in a setting and use this to show the correct procedures to follow. Additionally you need to show your recommendations for controls that will minimize or remove the hazards you identified in your risk assessment. Finally, you should evaluate the effectiveness of the controls you have recommended in reducing the incidents or harm or injury. On the next page is an example of a risk assessment you could use.

You ay also wish to download a blank assessment form from the Health and Safety Executive: http://www. Hose. Gob. UK/risk/festivities. HTML A risk assessment that you have carried out in a health or social care setting (UP) A written account of the recommendations for controls that will minimize/ remove the hazards identified in the risk assessment (MM) A written evaluation of the effectiveness of the recommended controls in reducing the incidents or harm or injury (D 1) An example of a risk assessment in a health or social care setting Task 4: Dealing with incidents and emergencies Assessment Criterion UP, MM, DO

The last task on your training day is for you to demonstrate to your group the possible priorities and responses when dealing with incidents or emergencies in a health or social care setting. You can use the scenarios on the next page or you can discuss your own that you have either witnessed or heard about in your workplace setting. Firstly, you should choose two particular incidents or emergencies in a health or social care setting and explain the possible priorities and responses when dealing with each one.

Secondly, you should explain why it is important to maintain respect and dignity hen responding to incidents and emergencies. Use your examples from your chosen two incidents or emergencies to highlight specific points and include other examples where necessary Finally, you need to justify the need to review policies and procedures following critical incidents. Again, you can use examples from either your chosen two incidents or emergencies and include others where necessary.

An explanation of possible priorities and responses when dealing with two particular incidents or emergencies in a health or social care setting (UP) An explanation of why it is important to maintain respect and dignity when espousing to incidents and emergencies (MM) A written report that justifies the need to review policies and procedures following critical incidents (DO) It is highly recommended that you complete a first aid course as part of this task and include a copy of your certificate in your evidence.

Examples of incidents and emergencies within a health or social care setting A member of staff has tried to wash the kettle in the sink. She is lying on the floor and is not making any sound. What do you do? An elderly gentleman has been admitted for a hip replacement. He looks like he isn’t had a bath for days, has dark bags under his eyes and bruise marks on his wrists. What should you do? You are helping to serve lunch to the patients when the fire alarm sounds. You have no idea where the fire is or how bad it is. What do you do?