Examples of Students Essays

Timothy Allen – How He Learned Vietnamese by Translating a Vietnamese Classic

Learning a language can sometimes go by unexpectedly, thus not the way you’re expecting it to. You don’t always have to devour grammar manuals in order to excel in a language. Timothy Allen has experienced this himself when he was able to improve his Vietnamese language by translating a popular Vietnamese literary creation.

After traveling to Ho Chi Minh city back in 1999, the writer was able to find a Vietnamese classic work that would teach him a lot about the culture and language of the country. As such, he translated it and ended up getting better at his own Vietnamese skills. It’s a story with a nice conclusion, so here’s how Tim Allen had the ability to learn a language through translation.

Who Is Timothy Allen?

Tim Allen is a poet and translator who became known especially for translating “Kieu: A New Lament for a Broken Heart”, a Vietnamese verse-novel. Born in Liverpool in 1960, Tim has worked in many parts of the world, including Albania, Uganda, Liberia, Mozambique, as well as Vietnam and many others. Not to mention, he has translated works for multiple languages, such as Spanish, Vietnamese and many others.

In 2008, he was awarded a prize thanks to his translation of the opening lines of the popular Vietnamese novel, as well as a Hawthornden Fellowship later on. The latter allowed him to continue and, ultimately, complete translating and reworking the poem.

How He Learned Vietnamese through Translation

Timothy arrived in Vietnam in late November 1999, being his first time visiting the country. He was there to look for some projects, for which he had funds from the NGO. After being picked up from the airport by his Vietnamese counterparts, he started telling them about how he’s interested in learning more about their culture and language.

When asking about literature, one of the counterparts told him about a book that Timothy would definitely love, and which would be a life-changing experience for him. Of course, upon hearing the name “Truyen Kieu, the Tale of Kieu”, it didn’t mean much to him, so he couldn’t know how much of an impact it would have on his life. The tale was written by Nguyen Du, a diplomat-poet, and published in 1920.

During his time in Vietnam, Timothy Allen spent enough time analyzing the life of Vietnamese people and was impressed. They had a special sense of family and solidarity.

One evening at the restaurant, Timothy engaged in conversation with one of his new colleagues and asked her to tell him about the “Truyen Kieu” book.

It was revealed that the story takes place in China and is about a Chinese girl who falls in love with a boy. However, the boy has to move away due to a family business, after which she is somehow tricked into working in a brothel. She doesn’t stay there forever – she manages to escape and has plenty of adventures. But one thing is sure – she never forgets her first love.

The story is known by all Vietnamese people, and some even use it as a fortune teller – you open the book and put the finger on a verse, and that’s what future has in store. So, Tim Allen traveled the country and asked locals about the story. Many were eager to share their knowledge about it, and he was even lucky enough to find a bilingual version of it. Therefore, he started deciphering it.

He was impressed by the message of the story. The story told you to keep going despite the difficulties life is throwing at you, and stay true to yourself. It also tells you that bad people will fade away too.

At the end of the trip, when Timothy had to leave Vietnam, he brought the book with him, together with a dictionary. He only wanted to maintain his knowledge of the language, not make a proper translation. But little did he know that reworking the book will develop his own Vietnamese skills.

Apparently, what Allen was aiming for was capturing the essence of the story and being able to deliver the same magic as Nguyen Du was able to. He wanted to maintain the lyricism, as well as the characters and the flow of the story while translating it properly. Now that he translated it, he wishes that many people will be in awe stumbling upon the wonderful story of Kieu.

Final Thoughts

A language can be learned through other methods, rather than simply reading grammar books and dictionaries. As the story of Timothy Allen has proven, you can start translating something out of pure fascination, and before realizing it, your skills have improved.

If you’ve been impressed by this story and now you’re curious about Vietnamese literature, yet you don’t find translated one, don’t hesitate to seek Vietnamese translation services.

Examples of Students Essays

Best Research Paper Writing Services to Choose From

Students can have it tough at times. Schoolwork can be stressful, and the amount of homework they carry can require a lot of time.

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Why Hiring the Right Paper Writing Service Is Important

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Examples of Students Essays

Risk Assessment and Young People Essay Example

Risk Assessment and Young People Essay

If you care for children of mixed age range you may need to section of certain areas or have activities – Risk Assessment and Young People Essay introduction. This would prevent, for example, a child who is crawling from getting access to a climbing frame or unsupervised water-play. Special needs Some children and young people have special needs related to a physical condition, disability, sensory impairment or a learning difficulty. Keeping these children safe while providing them with equal opportunities to play, explore and be active is an additional challenge that requires careful thought.

You may need to adapt play equipment or find suitable enabling or protective aids. Consider also how to make sure children understand safety instructions and can follow them sufficiently Specific risks There may be particular risks to bear in mind. For example, if you are working with colleague who is pregnant, or individuals with a sensory impairment, you will to make allowances. There may also be specific risks associated with particular activities, so you have to make sure to use the relevant safety equipment and give appropriate safety instructions in preparation.

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For example, if you are starting a baking session, don’t begin without making sure that aprons and oven gloves are available, that children know how who may use matches and how to use them safely, that only open the oven when an adult is present, and understand the importance of personal hygiene while cooking 1. 2 Explain how health and safety is monitored and maintained and how people in your work setting are aware of risk and hazards and encouraged to work safely All care settings must have systems in place so that each aspect of health and safety concerning the workplace and practice re checked regularly.

These should be itemized as part of a health and safety policy and include details about how often the checks should take place, who should make the checks and how information must be recorded and reported. Every member of staff has a right to have their health and safety protected and holds an equal responsibility to protect the health and safety of others. This includes the children and young people in your care, their families, your colleagues, visiting practitioners and Other visitors.

For example, a draftsperson such as an electrician might need to do repair or maintenance work during day of a playgroup. During the electrician’s visit children need to be kept safe from dangers such as tools and exposure to electricity, and the electrician must be kept safe from accidents and incidents, such as falling over a dropped toy or slipping in split juice. 1. 3. Identify sources of current guidance for planning healthy and safe environments and services. There are a number of different sources of information available to you.

Your place of work and your local library are good starting points, and a great deal of information can be found on the internet. People leagues – some of your colleagues may have specialist knowledge or wealth of experience from which you can benefit from visiting practitioners people who practice in other professions but come to your workplace as part of the service provision may be able to give you different insights Documents legislation documents explain ways in which health and safety relates to your work and your work role Policies describe under-running principles for safe working.

There will be specific health and safety policy, as well as other related policies, such as safeguarding and moving and handling procedures et detailed instructions about what must happen in particular circumstances, such as a fire alarm sounding, or if a building is to be evacuated, or in a event of a child or young person going missing other professions such as police, social services or healthcare can be contacted by letter to request specific relevant information Public information Health and Safety Executive (HOSE) is a national independent watchdog for work-related health, safety and illness.

Its role is enforce legislation, provide information and advice and run an advocacy service that supports individuals ho have been injured at work to go through a complaints procedure British Safety Council (BBS) is a UK charity offering information and guidance on health, safety and environmental Health Protection Agency (HAP) is an independent UK organization set up protect up to protect the public from infectious disease and environmental hazards. It others advice and information. 1. Explain how current health and safety legislation, policies and procedures are implemented in own work setting or service. Within my work setting we follow The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974. It is the employer’s duty to put leslies and procedures into place to ensure that the setting is meeting the standards of The Health and Safety at Work Act and the employee’s duty to make sure these are followed. We follow this act by making sure that the building and environment is well maintained, clean and safe.

Equipment is stored properly and is regularly checked to ensure it is safe. Hazardous materials and equipment is locked away and we follow the COACH act. We have systems in place to ensure the safety Of children at all times I. E. Fire procedure, accident and illness procedure. We provide adequate facilities to tit the needs and abilities of all children and young people and all members of staff are qualified, CRY checked and given regular training.

Gloves and aprons are worn at all times when dealing with bodily fluids to prevent cross- infection. All accidents and incidents are recorded are reported to the correct person. Practitioners are first aid qualified and are able to deal with minor injuries within the setting. First aid boxes and fire extinguishers are in every room along with a fire whistle to alert other rooms of a fire. We have a health and safety officer who oversees the running of the setting and ensures that sis assessments are regularly carried out and updated.

Staff members are given guidance on how to protect themselves throughout day to day activities and also regarding manual handling. Risk assessments also have to be signed by each practitioner otherwise they are void because the practitioner can say that they haven’t read them, maybe attend courses on health and safety, food hygiene, manual handling etc. Staff meetings to update health and safety requirements. Display the health and safety poster and make sure it is up to date (recently new updated version in our area). 2. Undertake a health and safety assessment in own work setting or service illustrating how its implantation will reduce risk A health and safety risk assessment is a careful examination of any hazards or situations that could cause harm to people or damage to buildings or equipment. In carrying risk assessments you have the opportunity to recognize potential risk before harm occurs and to take measures to avoid or minimize the impact. You can carry out informal risk assessments many times, often without thinking such every time you cross the road or drive a car.

A formal risk assessment process uses structure to identify and assess the risk and find ways to avoid or reduce it to an acceptable level. The five steps of risk assessment that undertake are, l: [1] 1. Identify the hazards[2] 2. Decide who might be harmed and how[3] 3. Evaluate the risks and decide on precaution[4] 4. Record my findings and implement them[5] 5. Review my assessment and update if necessary 2. 4 Explain how health and safety risk assessments are monitored and reviewed Risk assessment is an ongoing process that needs continuous review until the risk is over.

The law does not expect you to eliminate all risk, UT you are required to protect people as far is reasonably practicable and this means monitoring risk and keeping them under review When you work with children and young people the workplace does not usually stay the same from day to day. Different people are around at different times and each individual will have different needs on different occasions. Also over the weeks, new equipment and new activities will be probably be introduced. This means once for all risk assessment.

Regular monitoring and reviewing keeps up with changes, allowing risk assessments to be adjusted and adapted as necessary. When considering how risk assessment might need to changed, I usually think about: The children and young people taking part The staff members who are going to be involved Other people who are around, such as family members, visitors or strangers The weather conditions Time of day The previous activity and how it may impact on this one Any potential hazard that have arisen will also ask the opinion and advice of others, who may spot things that I may have overlook, or have a different viewpoint.

I will also check what has worked well on other occasions and always learn from previous mistakes. . 1 Explain why it is important to take a balanced approach to risk management As practitioners, our main concern is to keep children safe from harm. Doing this can be very hard, as at the same time we need to encourage them to experience risk and challenges. If we try to remove all risks from children’s lives we could be risking restricting their learning experiences. It is very important that We teach children skills that will help those managing dangers and risk for themselves.

Giving children the opportunity to experience a certain level of risky experiences will help them o develop confidence and competence to make their own balance approach is taken in risk taking, so children are not over protected. Children are allowed to play and explore in safe environment and make right decision about risk with the help of adult. Children need to learn how to control risk themselves; by learning what is a safe boundary are with the help of adult, and showing the children how to recognize the risk and dangers in the safest way possible.

When you do any new activity it does create dilemma and conflict at some point between the duty and care and children rights. The activities we do with children, make they are right age for them, and extra care of children during the activity, because if is any things goes wrong then we have to make balance decision between the risk and child right. 32 Explain the dilemma between the rights and choices of children and people and health and safety requirements: Children learn by trying out new experiences and making choices.

But they do not have the skills and judgment always to make safe choices. Careers have the responsibility to identify potential hazards in any situation and to judge hen it is safe to allow a child to undertake an activity or make a choice. Some children need this freedom to explore risk even more than others. For example a disabled child may be restricted in play at home because of parental concern that the child could hurt themselves. In a well-controlled setting the child can be encouraged to explore and try out new skills. Children are usually very good at deciding what is safe or not.

Using large play equipment is a good example of how children assess and manage risk. In the Outdoor area in Foundation Stage there is a climbing wall where I believe that he children should use with caution but also given the chance to decide whether they can get over without hurting themselves or not, thus they are assessing and managing their own risk. This is a choice that they should make themselves, if they are not happy they will get down. However parents and cares who are being over cautious about children may stop a child trying new things out. 3. Give examples from own practice of supporting children or young people to assess and manage risk All children and people are different, but many do exercise a natural caution when trying a new experience or challenge. This can be seen as a self-protective instinct. Risky behavior often comes about when a child has been over protected and not exposed to any risk, so has not learnt how to asses risk Learning how about risk assessment and risk management is a gradual process in which there should be an increasing number of min-steps along the route to independence.

If a child is allowed to get it wrong sometimes, as long as it within a controlled environment where they cannot come too much harm, they will learn from their mistakes. There are a number of ways that I can help to support a child or young person to asses and manage risks safely Be present to physically support a young child physically as they try out new skills, for example, standing behind a very child to give confidence as they negotiate stairs and to be there if they fall Be positive role model, for example holding a safety rail/wearing a bike helmet/ using safety belts and explaining why these precautions re necessary.

Be encouraging by praising effort and highlighting competence and achievement Create opportunities to practice decision-making such as when crossing a road, suggested a child tells when they think it is safe to do so Talk over the recess of accessing ask as you carrying out task, for example, I’ll use an oven glove so don’t burn myself on the cooker Allow enough time for process of risk assessment to take properly Support parents to let go as they allow children to more independent choices Increase opportunities for independent decision making for children and young people as they get older 4. Explain the policies and procedures of the settings or service in response to accidents, incidents, emergencies and illness In my setting there several policies and procedures that I adhere to which include first aid, fire and accident and emergency. I refer to them at all times. 4. Identify the correct procedures or recording and reporting accidents, incidents emergencies and illness As an early years setting we have policies and procedures in place for how we respond to accidents, incidents, emergencies and illness and procedures for reporting and recording Sickness and illness: The settings policy for the exclusion of children with sick or infectious children is displayed in our waiting room; these include the period of time we require a child to stay home following a bout of sickness or diarrhea or other infectious illness such a chicken pox.

When infectious illness is discovered, such as head lice, parents are notified by signs being put up. If a child, following consultation with a qualified medical professional has an infectious disease which is on the modifiable diseases list then Offset are informed. If a child becomes ill whilst at the setting there parent/career are called, if they are not available we have a list of authorized emergency contacts who can come and collect the child, until such time the child is cared for in an appropriate area of the setting.

If a child becomes unwell and is a cause for serious once then an ambulance would be called. Certain illnesses as Meningitis need rapid action, there are posters in our waiting room to advice people on what to do should meningitis be suspected, age specific symptom lists and aids to diagnose such as the glass test. We have procedures and specific cleaning kit for use on spilled bodily fluids. Accident/First Aid: We have a qualified first eider in the setting or on an outing at any one time.

The first eiders are listed on a notice for everyone to see should they require help. If a child has an accident at the setting and requires first aid then the elevate qualified person will use the settings first aid kit which is easily accessible and regularly checked. When an accident occurs we fill out or accident book which details; where, when, how and what treatment was administered. The parents/career is then informed and asked to sign it at the end of the session.

If the injury is more severe and requires further medical attention then the parent/career or authorized is contacted and informed or following signed consent on the settings registration form the child can be taken to the nearest Accident and Emergency unit. We have a duty to inform Offset and the Health and Safety Executive of any injury that requires treatment by a medical professional or in the event of the death. Reviewing the accident book half termed allows us to identify any potential or actual hazards.

We have an Evacuation Bag which is taken out with us whenever we go outside of the premises or on off site visits/trips the contents of our evacuation bag include: First Aid Kit, Cold Compress, Accident Book, Fire Alarm Whistle, Individual child’s medication in own container, tissues, anti-bacterial hand gel, mobile phones, daily signing in/out sheets, contact details of parents/careers and emergency contacts. Incidents: When an incident occurs at the setting we record it in our Incident book which is kept in the office filing cabinet.

An incident could be a break in or theft, vandalism, dangerous occurrence, injury or fatality. In the incident book we record the date and time of the incident, nature of the event, who was affected, what was done about it – or if it was reported to the police, and if so a crime number. Any follow up, or insurance claim made, should also be recorded. We comply with current HOSE Regulations and report to the Health ND Safety executive.

Risk Assessment and Young People Essay

Support Children and Young People’s Health and Safety – Risk Assessment and Young People Essay introduction. 1 Understand how to plan and provide environments and services that support children and young people’s health and safety. 1. 3 Identify sources of current guidance for planning healthy and safe environments and services. The Health & safety executive: HSE is the national independent watchdog for work-related health, safety and illness. They are an independent regulator and act in the public interest to reduce work-related death and serious injury across Great Britain’s workplaces

Child accident prevention trust: They are committed to reducing the number of children and young people killed, disabled or seriously injured in accidents. Department for schools and families The Department for Education is committed to creating a world-class state education system. They will work to improve the opportunities and experiences available to children and the education workforce by focusing on the following priorities:  Giving greater autonomy to schools Improving parental choice Offering more support for the poorest Whole system improvement

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Great quality provision for children A Workplace’s policies and procedures: Risk Assessment: Risk Assessments are a legal requirement mainly under the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999, although most health and safety legislation requires a risk assessment approach. 1. 4 Explain how current health and safety legislation, policies and procedures are implemented in own work setting or service. We have folders with all the policies and procedures for the whole school in them so if we aren’t sure about something we can go to the folder and find out.

Also when we get new staff they are given a hand book with all the policies and procedures in it which they have to read through before they start. Also we as a team make sure we are following policies and procedures on a day to day basis by reminding each other and supporting each other. For example we have two different policies for personal care in the school in my class the policy is one person to attend to a child’s personal care with the door open, whereas in all the other classes they have to have two people with a child but can close the door.

Examples of Students Essays

Unit Assignment Brief Essay Example

Unit Assignment Brief Essay – Part 2

You will also have to take part in the interview and perform the post-interview activities – Unit Assignment Brief Essay introduction. As this is your first interview the HER manager has asked you to analyses and evaluate your experience so that you can improve in future. Tasks You have to produce the interview pack for the interview panel to use. This must include: Shortlist Tasks and test for the interview Interview questions (ensuring they are within the legislation and ethical constraints) Procedure for interview decisions Job offer to the successful candidates

Informing unsuccessful candidates Using your interview pack you must take part in the selection process both as an interviewer and an interviewee You have been asked to write a report to analyses your contribution to the process, and evaluate your experience of planning and participating both as an interviewer and an interviewee. Evidence you must produce for this task Interview pack Report Criteria covered by this task: To achieve the criteria you must show that you are able to: Unit Criterion reference

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Plan to take part in a selection interview 13 L 04. Up Take part in a selection interview ALL. UP Analyses your contribution to the selection process in a given situation 13 ALL. MM Evaluate your experience of planning and participation in the recruitment and selection process 13 ALL. DO Sources of information www. Biked. AC. UK Educational website www. Hallucinogens. AC. UK corporate website vim. Tutor. Co. UK Educational website.

Examples of Students Essays

Health and Safety in a Clinical Laboratory Essay Example

Health and Safety in a Clinical Laboratory Essay

HEALTH AND SAFETY IN CLINICAL LABORITORIES Health and safety at work act (1974) show that it is a duty of every employer to ensure as far as reasonably practice to health safety and welfare at work of all of its employees – Health and Safety in a Clinical Laboratory Essay introduction. Risks assessments must be carried out when more than 5 people are employed and implement changes as necessary. Risk assessment is a carefully recorded examination of what might cause harm and accidents to people in work places e. g. staff, visitors, patients, clients and contractors. Many activities are undertaken in clinical laboratories therefore anyone entering is at risk at pathological specimen.

Staff must observe important precautions to protect both themselves and others. The degree of risk will depend upon the sort of work they do and how well they observe the safety rules. Infection control is very important in laboratories because infections may be acquired by breathing in airborne droplets or dust containing infectious micro-organisms and others may be through abrasions wounds or liquid splashing onto mucous membranes into eyes. Any form of cuts or dermatitis should be covered by waterproof dressing before start of work. The cover must be enough to prevent contamination and if in doubt ask the line manager.

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Personal protection equipment [PPE] is very important from reducing the spread of infections. In laboratories always wear a protective gown or coat to protect own clothing from acting as transmitter for infection. Gowns should be changed at least twice per week and neither should personal things such as pencils, combs, brushes taken into the laboratory. Essential items are always provided. Gloves should be worn when handling specimen. If gloves become perforated you should stop work immediately and dispose of into appropriate bin. Wash hands thoroughly and put new gloves.

When gowns are contaminated they should be changed and placed in appropriate container and hands should be washed and put new clean coat. Food, drink, cigarettes are not allowed into the laboratory. Eating, chewing, smoking and applying cosmetics in laboratory are forbidden. All that may bring hands into contact with face and mucosae [eyes, nose and mouth] must be avoided as this spread infections. Hands should be washed thoroughly when leaving the laboratory. Reporting Of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulation 1995 [RIDDOR] was introduced to report any injuries or disease within the workplace

In clinical laboratories if any cuts occur the wound should be encouraged to bleed by washing with running water. This should not be scrubbed as this may encourage infection. Proper treatment dressing is very important and no matter how small the cut is this should be reported to the line manager. If u become ill this should be reported and the doctor should be told where you work by showing medical contact card in case of further information if required. Do not take unnecessary risks always follow the rule. Handling of specimen in the laboratory is the main focus of the job.

Always observe all the requirements and regulations. Gloves should be used to handle specimen which include saliva, blood and urine . Always wear disposable gloves if u are to get in contact with blood or body fluids. The use of protective clothing and equipment [gloves, aprons, full-face visors] will minimise the risk of infection Any spillage which would be infectious should be reported and make sure that the spillage is properly cleaned to prevent accidents which can cause injuries or death if someone slips [shattered lives]. Broken equipment should be placed in containers provided to avoid cuts.

Used materials should be placed in appropriate marked bins and dispose of manner accordingly. Control of Substance Hazardous to Health 2002[COSSH] this was amended to control exposure to chemicals and protect workers. In laboratories activities such as autoclaving and cleaning must only be performed according to instructions and must be followed at all times unless in circumstances to meet special needs. Avoid practices of splashing or releasing of droplets into atmosphere as this causes infections. Pathological material should be carried in a microbiological safety cabinet e. . transport screen . Always protect yourself by putting on full-face visor, gloves and disposable plastic apron over your gown or coat. Mouth pipetting is forbidden always use provided pipetting devices. Protective clothing should be removed on completing the job and place various items in the designated places for disinfection, autoclaving or disposal . Always wash hands at the end of each job. Minimise the use of sharp objects as these can cause cuts, when using them use with extreme condition or whenever possible use plastic. Clear spillages and clutter.

Use racks or trays to contain specimen. Items must be disinfected properly and disposed safely. Labels should be correctly done and never to be licked Do not enter any room which has` Danger of Infection` sign on the door unless you are told it’s safe to do so by your manager. Clinical waste should be properly bagged or safely contained according to local rules. Fire awareness is very important in any form of employment. Employees should be trained and be familiar with surroundings in case of fire. In laboratory the causes of fire could be electrical faults or chemical reaction.

In case of fire staff needs not to panic but to move away from affected area but on the same floor [horizontal evacuation]. This reduce evacuation time by moving to a short distance helps in not moving outside unless absolutely necessary . Regular training is advised [triangle of fire] When collapses it is an individual responsibility to risk assess to the rescuer during resuscitation Firstly u have to approach safely and don’t panic them. Check for response and shout for help. Open airway to make sure it is clear there is no vomit or dentures.

Apply 30 chest compressions and keep checking for normal breathing by looking and feeling . This is very important for every employee to be trained [Basic life support]. When faced with aggressive behaviour one should remain calm, communication, posture, should be considered. We need to use common sense in all what we do. REFERENCES ? HSE. Health Services Advisory Committee. (2003), Safety in Health service Laboratories, HSE Books, UK. ? HSE, (2006), Essentials of Health Safety at work, ? www. hse. gov. uk/biosafety/information. htm

Examples of Students Essays

Managers employees and organizational cultures Example

Managers employees and organizational cultures

The technical part is having eight training knowledge and tools so the business can be productive and effective in making sure the customers are happy and return consistently – Managers employees and organizational cultures introduction. Social technical systems theory was started being used by Japanese companies which integrated technical systems and management to achieve high performance. Large U. S. Automakers like Ford and Chrysler also started to look this way. They wanted to understand how the Japanese were applying these tactics to make their business and their products achieves. The second approach is called quantitative management.

This approach helps analysis the decisions and problems of the manager. This helps them to develop formal mathematical models of whatever the problem is. This is the use of science. This started during the World War II around sass. Private companies started to use this theory to get a grip of more complex issues they were having. They use computers to develop certain quantitative methods. This would include techniques such as queuing theory, inventory modeling and simulation. The companies would use these techniques in areas like marketing, planning and human resources.

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Many managers aren’t trained in this area and do not apply this as their primary approach. They might use this approach as a tool in the process off decision. Many managers will use the result that are up to their judgment and beliefs. Overall manager decisions are unpredictable and cannot be expressed in a mathematical form. Organizational behavior is a contemporary approach in which researches and understands management in which will make employees effective by focusing on the hard nature that a certain group utilizes and works together successfully.

Organizational behavior focuses mainly on the behavior of employees which analysis the psychology and the sociology. This approach The fourth approach is called the systems theory. This is the classic approach where everyone involved is criticized as a whole. This theory depended on what the outside world had to say such as human resources and raw materials. Instead of focusing on the external they would use the input as a whole to make OUtpUt needs meet the desires of consumers for what services and goods they needed as the external part.

This then caused people to talk which then caused others to make the next process of the company better. Which then turned into cause and effect. This cause was great for the company who was following through with this because it did wonders for them, who were spreading greatness all around for those who asked and then received. Every association or organizations rely on the input from their consumers to make their goods and services what they demand so they can be the best they can. This is an open system and how they work.

Regarding environments there are a few tepees to consider in an organization. For instance there are macro environment, internal and competitive. Macro environment is about the elements the external business includes that can influence them on strategic decisions they can make. As a whole the technology, demographics, economy and social values all include these regulations and laws are considered. Second environment is called internal. This is where the inside of a certain firm refers to any resources they have and uses them such as manager’s employees and organizational cultures.

The third environment is called competitive. This is extremely important because they need and keep track of other competitors in their line of company and other companies that may cause harm to them. I believe all the approaches go hand and hand with the environments. I believe they all individually have their purpose but each is much needed in the environments. I believe if you use all of the approaches with the environments in the proper times, any business or organization would be extremely successful.

Unit Assignment Essay

Windows Vista was the removable media policies – Unit Assignment Essay introduction. It allowed for the use of USB drives, flash memory cards, external USB hard drives, and CD/DVD writers. These however posed a huge security problem for companies because it allowed the users to easily copy data from their systems, or even place unwanted viruses or mallard onto their neuron. This lead to a lot of companies removing or just destroying these devices so that they wouldn’t work on their workstations. Vista also addressed the power management settings that weren’t available by default in Windows operation systems beforehand.

There were third party software that was used before this release, but companies would prefer if it were built into Windows to reduce costs. Power management policies allowed the companies to save money on electricity, and run at lower temperatures. Hard disk settings were added which allowed the hard drive to be set to turn on or off at specific times. For example when the computer is on battery power, then the hard drive would power down. The other policy that was added for this is for when the computer is plugged in. These allowed for set time values to be set after inactivity or other events happen which would rower down the hard drives.

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There were also settings for the displays which worked the same way as the hard drives. A very useful policy that is called “Require a password when a computer wakes” was added. This made it easier for companies to keep their networks secure. Everyone knows that not all employees and other users log off or lock their computers before walking away to go on break or something. With this setting, after the computer went into a sleep state then when it wakes, the user will have to input their credentials again to verify that they are who they say they are.

Examples of Students Essays

Carl Rogers – Person-Centred Therapy Essay Example

Carl Rogers – Person-Centred Therapy Essay

Describe Rogers’ theory with attention to the following four areas: * General theory/philosophy * Theory of personality * Acquisition of dysfunction * “Treatment” of dysfunction This essay will begin by introducing Carl Rogers, with a brief description of his upbringing and career background and will go on to discuss the main areas of his theory – Carl Rogers – Person-Centred Therapy Essay introduction. The humanistic philosophy will be explained briefly and will lead on to Carl Rogers’ own humanistic beliefs and the birth of client-centred therapy.

Carl Rogers’ theory of the human personality will be explored, mainly Rogers’ idea of self and the self-concept and a person’s natural actualising tendency. This will lead on to his beliefs around the acquisition of human dysfunction, primarily being the imposed conditions of worth present from birth and a person’s internal locus of evaluation becoming external. This will then be brought to Rogers’ main theories of the “treatments” for these dysfunctions, concentrating on his six necessary and sufficient conditions within a therapeutic relationship and the positive effects these have on the client.

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The essay will then be brought to a conclusion, drawing together the main points and ideas from the essay. Carl Ransom Rogers was born on January 8th 1902 in Chicago, USA. He was one of six children who grew up in a fundamentalist Christian family. While he once felt he was called to become a Christian minister he eventually went on to embark on a career as a clinical psychologist. Rogers found it increasingly difficult to adapt to the ideas of behaviourism and psychoanalysis so he began to formulate his own ideas from his personal experience with clients and thus created client-centred therapy (Thorne, 2003).

The person-centred approach is a part of the group of approaches referred to as ‘humanistic psychology. ’ Humanistic psychology takes a phenomenological approach to the person. It is concerned with the human as an organic being and values human nature above the more scientific theories. It focuses on how the person experiences and perceives themselves and the world around them, whilst also believing the person to be continually in a process of growth.

It also takes an existential view of life, valuing the person’s autonomy and personal responsibility (Merry, 2002). According to Richard Gross, humanistic theories are concerned with characteristics that are distinctly and uniquely human. He describes how we have first-hand experience of ourselves as people and therefore are the experts on understanding our own behaviour. He also explains that Rogers himself saw human nature in a very optimistic light and believed that people are generally good and healthy (Gross, 2010).

A main humanistic belief is that of the actualizing tendency. Rogers himself believed this was a natural part of every human and that it was the single motivation present in every human being to maintain itself, grow, improve and move towards their full potential (Mearns and Thorne, 2007). He also described it as “…the tendency of the organism to maintain itself – to assimilate food, to behave defensively in the face of threat, to achieve the goal of self-maintenance even when the usual pathway to that goal is blocked.

We are speaking of the tendency of the organism to move in the direction of maturation, as maturation is defined for each species” (Rogers, 1951 cited in Mearns and Thorne, 2007). It is clear that he believed it was the fundamental force that drives the person towards fulfilment and development. Rogers’ also had many beliefs around the human personality. Lawrence A. Pervin explains that the main concept in Rogers’ theory of personality is that of the self and the self-concept.

Rogers believed that the individual perceives experiences and objects in the world around them and attaches meaning and value to them. The complete system of these perceptions is known as the person’s phenomenal field. Pervin then goes on to explain “Those parts of the phenomenal field seen by the individual as ‘self,’ ‘me,’ or ‘I,’ make up the self” (Pervin, 1993:174). The self-concept describes how a person views him or herself and is developed over time. It is dependent on the attitudes of the significant people around them, how they relate to the world and their own perceptions of themselves.

The person may trust other people’s ideas of reality and incorporate them in to their self-concept as though they were their own. (Thorne, no date, online) Another main concept within Rogers’ personality theory, as discussed earlier is that of the actualizing tendency. A person’s self-actualization, in an ideal world where it would not be hindered in any way would naturally lead the person towards reaching their full potential and becoming a fully functioning person (Mearns and Thorne, 2007). Rogers’ himself describes this as a process and a direction rather than a fixed destination (Rogers, 1961).

While a person moves naturally towards self-actualization this can be seriously hindered by what Rogers described as conditions of worth. In simple terms this can be described as the shaping of a child’s self-concept dependant on what is deemed acceptable behaviour to the child’s parents. This concept will be explored fully later in this essay. In an ideal world where parents were unconditional in their love for their child, the child would not have to adapt to suit their parents, therefore self-actualizing and growing in to a fully functioning person without any conditions of worth (Merry, 2002).

John Mcleod (2009) explains that from a very early age a child has a strong need to be loved and valued, usually by the significant people in their life, particularly their parents. However the love or approval from parents is not always unconditional and the child may find it difficult to grow with an acceptance of themselves and will begin to mould themselves, their behaviours and feelings in the way that is acceptable and approved of by their parents. Rogers described these as conditions of worth. He describes the self-concept of the child being shaped by their parent’s influences.

Tony Merry explains that babies begin to learn that some things are acceptable and some are not. Behaviour that their parents find acceptable will be rewarded and anything they do not believe is acceptable will be less rewarded or looked upon with negativity. Because of this the child will grow up wanting certain types of experiences, generally those that create positive reactions in people (Merry 2002). Richard Nelson-Jones describes this as a learned need for positive regard from others that will remain throughout childhood and continue in to adulthood.

This can become confusing then, if for instance the child is conditioned to believe that his/her natural behaviour is unacceptable. For example if a child is rewarded for apparent ‘tough’ behaviour and not rewarded, or even disapproved of for a soft nature, the child will begin to value themselves based on others perceptions and ideas rather that their own organismic valuing process. The child’s self-worth will become dependent on the positive regard shown to them by others by behaving in ways that others believe is worthy of respect and love.

The child’s self-concept would become distorted and as they grow in to adulthood they would believe fully that these behaviours are a part of their natural, true self (Nelson-Jones, 2010). Merry describes that someone who has acquired many conditions of worth and whose self-concept is distorted would become incongruent, this means that their conditioned self and their natural, organismic self would not match up. They would search for positive regard from others and have little faith in their own judgments and opinions; they would trust others evaluations and ideas above their own.

Rogers describes this as having an external locus of evaluation rather than an internal locus of evaluation. The person looks for confirmation from outside sources rather than themselves. This would ultimately cause very low self-esteem and self-confidence. Furthermore, if the persons conditioned self and organismic self are un-matching this may cause increasing confusion, tension, anxiety and depression in adult life. Rogers believed that the necessary treatment for these dysfunctions was for the person to experience the correct conditions within a therapeutic relationship.

The person would then be able to dissolve these conditions of worth and gradually their organismic and conditioned selves would merge. The self and self-concept would become one and they would be in a state of congruence. The person would be able to over-come issues such as anxiety and depression and live a more contented life. They would possess an internal locus of evaluation, trusting in their own judgements rather than depending on the opinions of others and would truly accept and understand themselves as individuals (Merry, 2002).

Carl Rogers describes six conditions that he believed to be necessary for therapeutic change. He stated that “No other conditions are necessary. If these six conditions exist and continue over a period of time, this is sufficient. The process of constructive personality change will follow. ” (Rogers, 1957a, cited in Merry, 2002:49). Although most attention were later given to three of the six conditions of which have become known as the core conditions, six were originally described by Rogers as necessary and sufficient for therapeutic change.

The three core conditions are all employed by the counsellor and are attitudinal qualities and values that are more about the counsellor’s beliefs than counselling techniques (Casemore, 2011). The first of the six necessary and sufficient conditions states a need for the client and therapist to be in psychological contact. Rogers believed that significant change in the client could not occur unless they are in relationship. He stated that all that is intended for the first condition is that the two people are in contact and that “each makes some erceived difference in the experiential field of the other. ” (Rogers, 1957 cited in Kirschenbaum 1990:221). The second of the six conditions states that the client should be in a state of incongruence, being vulnerable or anxious. This incongruence, as described earlier in this essay is an un-matching of the person’s self-concept and organismic self. When a person is unaware of the incongruence in them, they can become vulnerable to such things as anxiety and depression (Rogers, 1957 cited in Kirschenbaum 1990). The third condition as Brian Thorne explains states that the therapist should be congruent.

This means that the therapist would be completely themselves, completely transparent and not hiding behind a professional facade. It is the matching of what the therapist feels on the inside with what is portrayed on the outside. This however is dependent on the therapist maintaining a high level of self-awareness in order for them to be constantly in touch with their own feelings so that they are available to communicate this with the client when it is appropriate. Rogers came to believe that congruence was the most fundamental of the attitudinal qualities of the therapist that promotes growth in the client.

The fourth condition requires the therapist to experience unconditional positive regard for the client. This is an unconditional acceptance and caring of the person without any judgement or evaluation. Rogers liked to use the term ‘prizing. ’ Thorne goes on to explain the fifth condition which is that of the therapist experiencing an empathic understanding of the client’s internal frame of reference. Rogers described an ‘as if’ quality that stated the importance of the therapist entering the world of the client, thinking and feeling as if they were the client, without losing the ‘as if’ quality.

It is also of fundamental importance here to communicate this empathic understanding with the client in order for the client to experience this empathy (Thorne, 2003) The importance Rogers placed on the communication of empathy with the client is reflected in the last of the six conditions which states that the client perceives, to a minimal degree the therapist’s empathic understanding and unconditional acceptance for them. Rogers believed that if these conditions were not perceived by the client then they did not exist in the relationship and the therapeutic process would be hindered (Rogers, 1957 cited in Kirschenbaum 1990).

Although Rogers specified that these six conditions together were necessary and sufficient, most attention has been paid to the conditions of congruence, unconditional positive regard and empathy. These became known in the late 1960’s as ‘the core conditions. ’ These three conditions describe attitudes or qualities present in the counsellor and do not describe a technique used by the therapist but are a part of the therapist’s person (Merry, 2002).

Rogers’ (1964) states “If I can create the proper climate, the proper relationship, the proper conditions a process of therapeutic movement will almost inevitably occur in my client. ” Rogers’ then goes on to describe this therapeutic change in more detail, stating that if these conditions were present, a variety of things are likely to happen. He explains that the client may begin to explore their feelings more deeply and begin to discover hidden aspects of themselves that were not previously known.

If a client is prized by him they may begin to prize themselves and if they sense realness from him they may begin to be more real with themselves. Furthermore, if the client feels a deep understanding and acceptance from him, they may be more willing to listen to their own feelings and move towards an acceptance of themselves. Finally, he believes the client would move from having an external locus of evaluation to an internal locus of evaluation, trusting in their own judgments and opinions.

On reflection, this essay introduced Carl Rogers with a brief over-view of his upbringing and career background and lead on to describe and explore his theory of person-centred therapy, paying close attention to four main areas; general person-centred theory, Rogers’ theory of personality, his ideas about the acquisition of human dysfunction and what he believed to be the necessary “treatment” of these dysfunctions. While explaining the general theory of person-centred therapy, humanistic psychology, of which person-centred theory is a part, was explored paying attention to how it views the person.

Generally speaking humanistic theory values the human being and believes the person to be an organic, continually growing being while focusing on how the person experiences and perceives themselves and the world around them. Carl Rogers’ himself was optimistic in his view of the person and believed that humans are generally good and healthy. This then lead on to Rogers’ theory of the actualizing tendency that he believes is present in every human being giving a natural need to grow and develop and become a fully functioning person.

The essay then moved on to describing Rogers’ theory of personality where the self and the self-concept were described. Rogers believed that the individual perceives experiences and objects in the world around them and attaches meaning and value to them. He also believed that a person can unknowingly take on board another’s views and opinions and this can become a part of their self-concept, however distorted. The acquisition of human dysfunction was then described, looking at Rogers’ theory of conditions of worth. Rogers’ believed that a child is conditioned by their parents depending on what they find acceptable.

This can then cause the child’s self-concept to become distorted and for them in later life to possess an external locus of evaluation. The “treatment” of dysfunction was explained in detail looking at Rogers’ six original therapeutic conditions of which he believed were necessary and sufficient for therapeutic change in the client, whilst pointing out the three conditions; congruence, unconditional positive regard and empathy that later became known as the ‘core conditions. ’ The essay then explained finally the positive affects these conditions have on the client within a therapeutic relationship.

Word count: 2,568 References Casemore, R. (2011) Person-centred counselling in a nutshell. 2nd edn. London: SAGE. Gross, R. D. (2010) Psychology : the science of mind and behaviour. 4th edn. London: Hodder Education. Kirschenbaum, H. (ed. ) (1990) The Carl Rogers Reader. London: Vintage McLeod, J. (2009) An introduction to counselling. 4th edn. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Mearns, D. and Thorne, B. (2007) Person-centred counselling in action. 3rd edn. London: SAGE. (Counselling in action). Merry, T. (2002) Learning and being in person centred counselling. nd edn. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books. Nelson-Jones, R. (2010) Theory and practice of counselling and therapy. 5th edn. London: SAGE. Pervin, L. (1993) Personality: Theory and Research. 6e edn. Chichester: Wiley. Rogers, C. R. (1961) On becoming a person: a therapists view of psychotherapy. London: Vintage. Rogers, C. (1964) – http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=ZBkUqcqRChg Thorne, B. Article – http://www. elementsuk. com/libraryofarticles/personcentred. pdf Thorne, B. (2003) Carl Rogers. 2nd edn. London: SAGE. (Key figures in counselling and psychotherapy).

Examples of Students Essays

The Causes and Effects of Growing Up in an Abusive Home Essay Example

The Causes and Effects of Growing Up in an Abusive Home Essay

Coming from an abusive home myself I personally know what the uncalled for causes and the dramatic effects of abuse are – The Causes and Effects of Growing Up in an Abusive Home Essay introduction. During the ages of 5 until I was 16 my stepfather physically abused me almost daily. I get beat with a belt, a wire hanger, extension cords, wooden spoons or anything else he could get his hands on. I was 4 or 5 the first time it happened, he told me to clean my room and when he came to check on me I was not yet done. He then began to count to 10 and when he got there if I was not done he beat me. This would continue until my room was clean which seemed like an eternity but was more like 10 minutes.

As I grew the beatings also grew and at some point when I was 13 or 14 he slapped me so hard across my face that he broke my nose and I had a bright green bruise on my cheek for a week. I was so embarrassed about it that I tried to cover it with make-up every day until it was gone. Finally, it all stopped one night at the age of 16 when he kicked me out of the house for sticking up for my friend who he had threatened to hit. I was so happy to be out of that house but I was terrified at the same time. The one thing I think that bothered me the most was that while all of this was going on my mom just stood by and let it happen. The causes of abuse are numerous and the effects are significantly higher in number. My stepfather blamed his rage on stress and my being defiant. What he did not realize is that I was only defiant because of his anger towards me which is just one of the effects of abuse, another would be low self-esteem. These effects can last long after the abuse stops and can ruin future relationships for the rest of ones life. Many different stressors including work issues, money problems and even sleep deprivation might bring on abuse.

More Essay Examples on Family Rubric

My stepfather and mom ran an auto body business and on the days when things did not go well at the shop my stepfather would take it out on me. It almost seemed like he would try to pick a fight with me just so he could beat me and make himself feel better. One time when I was 12 or 13 my granddad was in he hospital dying and we had driven 8 hours in the middle of the night to be with him. He was like a father to me and I loved him very much so I asked my grandma if I could stay at the hospital with her. My stepfather told me no and I was very upset by this so I began to cry.

When my family got out to the parking lot my stepfather told me I should feel like the smallest piece of s*** on the planet. This made me very angry so I threw my things on the ground and began running away from him. As he chased me I screamed at the top of my lungs for someone to help me because I knew if he caught me that he would beat me. My grandma came out of the hospital room to see what the problem was and I was hiding behind a food cart crying hysterically as my stepfather tried to get at me. He later apologized and blamed his anger on being tired from the long drive.

Financial problems seem to be a big cause of stress among families and mine was no different. Even though we had our own business we were still very poor. This was probably because my stepfather had an expensive hobby of driving modified midget racecars. Every weekend in the summer we would go to the track and spend hundreds of dollars on food, drinks, gas, and parts for the racecar. Then there were the many trips across the country for the state and national races, which cost thousands of dollars. This went on for 9 years so one could imagine the kind of money that was put into this hobby.

Needless to say my stepfather was stressed out all of the time and I was the one that usually got the ugly end of the deal. In my case I was a very defiant child for a variety of reasons. I went from being the younger of 2 kids to being the middle of 7 in a matter of 3 years. No longer was the attention on me because it was on my 3 new stepbrothers and my new stepsister. Then 2 days before my 7th birthday my mom had my little sister, which meant that I would have to share my birthday with her now. I was very resentful towards my little sister for many years after that.

So yes, I was a defiant child and then the beatings started and I got worse. All I wanted was attention and I really did not care how I got it. I would back talk my mom; totally disrespect my stepfather, beat up on my sisters and lied to everyone regularly. When I would ask my mom if I could have a friend over, my stepfather would answer for her and that irritated me. When he would do that I simply looked at him and would say, “Is your name mom! ” and then I would ask my mom again. She usually would say the same thing my stepfather said but I did not care. I know that on several ccasions I threatened both my mom and my stepfather with violence and showed no remorse for it. Skipping school became a regular thing for me in high school and I rarely go caught. When I did though I would get very aggressive when my mom or stepfather would punish me. They later admitted to me that they were afraid of me but I already knew that. I could see how it would be hard to handle a kid like that but still it is no reason to abuse them. The effects of abuse, however, are much more severe in my eyes. Being a defiant child may not last forever but the long-term effects can include low self-esteem.

I can recall my stepfather telling me that I was fat, stupid, ugly and several other things when he would beat me. I began to believe this as some point in my life because the kids at school began to say the same things to me. I felt like an outcast and like no one would ever be my friend or love me at all. I don’t remember ever hearing my mom tell me she loved me but I heard her say it to my sisters all the time. Still to this day she never says it to me but does to my sisters and I don’t know why that is. I do not think very highly of myself now as an adult, though I try not to show it.

Deep down inside I feel ugly, fat and stupid just like my stepfather use to say to me so many years ago. No matter how hard I have tried to forget the past or tell myself that I am good enough to be loved, the thought will not leave my head. It follows me in my everyday life and I fear that it will for the rest of my life. Just because someone is stressed because of financial issues or tired from lack of sleep does not make it okay for them to take it out on their kids. What we as parents need to keep in mind is how our actions towards our kids are going to effect them later in life as well as right now.

We should try to put ourselves in their shoes and think of how what we are doing would make us feel. By doing this we could come up with alternative ways of disciplining our kids that do not include intimidation or fear. Now that I am 30 years old and have 2 wonderful kids of my own I make sure to tell them everyday how much I love them. I do not ever want them to feel the way I did growing up. I would never do to them what was done to me because I know what it felt like not only physically but also emotionally.

Examples of Students Essays

Person-centred approach differs to cognitive bahavioural approaches Essay Example

Person-centred approach differs to cognitive bahavioural approaches Essay

In order to be able to say what the differences are between PCT, CBT and Psychodynamic approaches to counselling I have first of all set out below a brief summary of all three; Person centred therapy concentrates mainly on the subjective experience of the client and on how they might lose touch with their own organismic experiencing through taking on board the evaluations of others and treating them as if their own – Person-centred approach differs to cognitive bahavioural approaches Essay introduction. Therapy puts importance on a relationship built on empathy; respect and non-possessive warmth. Cognitive therapy works on the assumption that clients become distressed because of faulty processors of information leading them to jump to unwarranted conclusions. Therapy involves educating clients to test the reality of their thinking and by making use of a style of questioning which helps the client to become more aware of how he thinks. Real life experiments might also be used. Psychodynamic approaches pays attention to unconscious factors which have caused neurosis. The treatment consists of working through transference where the client regards the therapist as an important figure from their past. Also the interpretation of dreams may be used. (Nelson-Jones, 2011).

It appears that some of the ways that the PCT approach differs from CBT and psychodynamic approaches is that PCT relies on the relationship that is built between therapist and client and also makes a point of not directing the client. This is what makes PCT so unique from other approaches. PCT was developed by Carl Rogers, an American psychotherapist, researcher and academic. Rogers and his colleagues developed the person centred techniques from about 1940 onwards. At the time it was considered to be a very radical way of working with people because it sharply moved away from Freudian and cognitive-behavioural approaches that were so dominant at the time. PCT moved away from the need and belief of a diagnostic assessment and labelling, instead it concentrated on building a relationship between client and therapist. (Sanders, 2012).

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Roger’s developments of the conditions which are non-directive are

1. That two persons are in psychological contract;

2. The client is in a state of incongruence;

3. The therapist is congruent;

4. The therapist experiences unconditional regard towards the client;

5. The therapist is experiencing an empathic understanding of the client’s internal frame of reference (and endeavours to show it to the client);

6. That the client perceives conditions 4 and 5, the unconditional positive regard of the therapist for him/her, as well as the empathic understanding of the therapist. The above conditions are thought to be all that is needed to achieve a constructive personality change. This highlights that the fact that one of the key differences between PCT and cognitive/psychodynamic approaches is that it is the relationship between therapist and client which is the agent for change. Because PCT declared no other conditions were necessary to bring about change it created a direct challenge to the other approaches that were based on the theoretical knowledge or expertise of the therapist, including a diagnosis of symptoms followed by the application of specific techniques. In fact Rogers believed that each individual had the capacity to heal himself if the correct conditions are in place, i.e. the client merely needs to be at the centre of a self-directed process facilitated by another, (the therapist) and ‘experts’ were not needed. (Sanders, 2012). Roger’s was of the belief that the 6 conditions could be demonstrated by anyone who acquired experiential training, as opposed to special intellectual professional knowledge, whether it be psychological, psychiatric or medical. A fundamental difference therefore, is that PCT works on the assumption that the client has the capacity for self-determination and the counsellor guides the client into doing something about her/himself. The counsellor might help the client to move towards self-growth and development by recognizing obstacles. Special techniques are not used to enable the client; it is merely the practising successfully the core conditions of congruence, empathy and unconditional regard; i.e. truly being able to place yourself into client’s shoes so to speak; not judging and being able to be real in the relationship. The main concept always being that the client has a natural urge towards growth and is also the expert on how to achieve it. This above approach is in direct opposition to the psychodynamic approach which assumes it is the counsellor that is the expert in knowing how to alleviate distress in the client because he/she has the knowledge of how the

unconscious mind works. There is the belief that problems are caused as a result of links between past experience and the present state of mind. (Bond, 2000). Cognitive Therapy differs again, not only in a reliance on expert knowledge, but also in the fact that there are no reservations about advice giving, and will also employ methods that include undertaking special exercise or activities regarded as homework between sessions. Albert Ellis, whose work was developed by cognitive therapists, was very critical of counsellors who avoid challenging inappropriate or self-destructive beliefs and he argued that the timidity of the counsellor is colluding with the clients own destructive urges. (Dryden, 1997). Cognitive therapy was further developed in the early 1960’s by Dr Aaron Beck who was of the opinion that during client’s cognitive development they learn incorrect habits of processing and interpreting information. The therapist helps the client to become aware of distortions and then to learn different and more realistic ways of processing and reality-testing information. This is achieved by observing the client; interpreting his observations and then using methods of interventions. The client is basically taught how to think about their thinking and in so doing correcting dysfunctions. Therapy is usually time-based and goals are enforced with a definition of problems. Generally therapy ends when goals are achieved. (Nelson-Jones, 2011).

Finally, in considering the differences of the approaches discussed, I think the most important thing to keep in mind is that Roger’s believed that individuals have within themselves their own capacity to develop their potential as a human being, but sometimes they may need the help of a person-centred approach to help them to tap into the resources they already have in order to create full realisation. Rogers did believe, like other theorists, that early childhood influences the kind of person we might become. The difference is that unlike many approaches to personality, PCT believes that significant changes to personality are possible later in life but sometimes need to be helped to tap into their own innate resources, this is in opposition to a belief that expertise might be needed or that the client needs to be taught.

Examples of Students Essays

NVQ level 5 Lead person centred practice Essay Example

NVQ level 5 Lead person centred practice Essay

1.1, EXPLAIN PERSON-CENTRED PRACTICE.

Person centred practice are ways of commissioning, providing and organising services rooted in listening to what people want, to help them live in their communities as they choose – NVQ level 5 Lead person centred practice Essay introduction. These approaches work to use resource flexibly designed around what is important to an individual from their own perspective and work to remove any cultural and organisational barriers. People are not simply placed in pre-existing services and expected to adjust, rather the service strives to adjust to the person. Person – centred practice is treatment and care and considers the needs of the individual. Person centred practice:

Persons perspective is listened to and honoured.

Individuals have a role in planning the supports they receive and the staff that are hired. Regularly look at peoples lives to see what is working and not working. Employees know their roles and responsibilities in supporting people. Staff are matched with people based on skill and common interests. Person-centred practice is treating patients as they want to be treated.

More Essay Examples on Decision making Rubric

This involves: GETTING TO KNOW THE PATIENT AS A PERSON- health care workers need to get to know the person beyond the diagnosis and build relationships with patients and carers. SHARING OF POWER AND RESPONSIBILITY – respecting preferences and treating patients as partners in setting goals, planning care and making decisions about care, treatment or outcomes. ACCESSIBILITY AND FLEXIBILITY – meeting patients individual needs by being sensitive to values, preferences and expressed needs. Giving patients choice by providing timely, complete and accurate information they can understand, so they can make choices about their care. COORDINATION AND INTEGRATION – working as a team to minimise duplication and provide each patient with a key contact at the health service. Teamwork allows service providers and systems working behind the scenes to maximise patient outcomes and provide positive experiences. ENVIRONMENTS – physical and organisational or cultural environments are important, enabling staff to be person centred in the way they work.

1.4, EXPLAIN HOW PERSON CENTRED PRACTICE INFORMS THE WAY IN WHICH CONSENT IS ESTABLISHED WITH INDIVIDUALS. Person-centred care has been defined as treating people as individuals and ensuring they are fully involved in the planning process. By being involving, discussing and consulting with the individual regards their care plans, it can be deemed that verbal consent has been given to the care provider. By enabling the individual to make choices and contribute in the decision making process the individual has consented to the care to be administered. Choice involves providing the person with alternatives from which to choose and respecting the decision that is made, as far as possible. Consent means giving permission, an informed decision, permit, approve or agree. A persons capacity to consent is considered to be affected by three main processes: comprehension ( ability to understand and retain information ) decision making ( ability to weigh up information and reach a decision) and communication ( ability to communicate the decision made ) A person may be unable to give consent for several reasons including: Mental health problems

Brain injuries

Learning disabilities

Coma

Legally a competent adult can either give or refuse consent to care, even if that refusal may result in harm to harm to them. You must respect their refusal just as much as they would their consent. It is important that the person is fully informed with regards the consequences of their refusal EG: medication has been refused. If an individual refuses to give consent a record should be made. If an individual lacks the Mental Capacity to give consent to care. The Mental Capacity Act 2005 allows people over the age of 16 to appoint a proxy decision maker. The MCA has been in force since 2007 and applies to England and Wales. The primary purpose of the MCA is to promote and safeguard decision making within a legal framework. It does this in two ways: By empowering people to make decisions for themselves wherever possible and by protecting people who lack capacity by providing a flexible framework that places individuals at the heart of the decision making process. By allowing people to look ahead for a time in the future when they might lack the capacity for any number of reasons.

1.5, EXPLAIN HOW PERSON CENTRED PRACTICE CAN RESULT IN POSITIVE CHANGES IN INDIVIDUALS LIVES. Person centred planning can be a life changing, enriching experience and is now evidenced based practice. Recent research ( Robertson et al, 2005 ) has shown that person centred planning is associated with benefits for individuals and led to significant changes in the areas of social networks, contact with family, contact with friends, community based activities, scheduled day activities and levels of choice. Results:

30% increase in size of social networks

2.4 times more contact with family

41% increased contact with friends

35% increase in activities

2.8 times more choice making.

3.1, EVALUATE HOW ACTIVE PARTICIPATION ENHANCES THE WELLBEING AND QUALITY OF LIFE OF INDIVIDUALS. Wellbeing and quality of life for most people is enhanced through meaningful involvement and activity. It is crucial that individuals are involved in decisions that affect them. There are many ways in which such involvement can be facilitated and encouraged. Services should recognise the importance of social contact and companionship and on-going links with social networks. Your organisation should support continued community involvement, easy access to transport and the opportunity to participate in social and leisure activities. Maintaining social contact is also important to social identity and fulfilment. Active support is a proven model of support that encourages people with learning disabilities to plan the best use of their time, with the correct level of support to engage or participate in all activities that make day -to-day living. It empowers and motivates, changing the focus of support from caring for to supporting and working with. Active support underpins all areas of health and social care as it is so person-centred values into action. Services are changing their approach to support from the “hotel” model to the active support model. Active participation is an approach that enables individuals to be included in their care and have a greater say in how they live their life in ways that matter to them. The benefits of active participation can be divided into primary benefits and secondary benefits.

Primary benefits include:

Physical benefits including greater activity levels.

Increased independence and autonomy in what people do.

An opportunity for individuals in health and social care settings to have a say in matters of direct concern to their lives. Increased opportunities for social contact and interpersonal relationships. Encouraging involvement and self-awareness. Individuals become more involved in the community and more aware of opportunities and what they can hope for themselves. Increased opportunities for learning and development of important skills, knowledge, education and employment. Enhanced wellbeing with increases in self-confidence, self-esteem and self-belief. The benefits of active participation included the above primary benefits where the individual gains from its application in real world of health and social care practice but there are also some secondary benefits.

The secondary benefits: can be described as benefits that occur as a result of active participation but are not a direct aim of active participation. These included: Decreasing the likelihood of abuse. As the individual engages positively by actively participating is area of their life, such as in personal care, the scope for abuse by others is reduced. Decreasing vulnerability. As individuals gain in their self-confidence and self-esteem they are less prone to exploitation and harm from others.

Conclusion:

Active participation is an approach that empowers individuals in the activities and relationships of everyday life leading to them living as independently as possible. The importance to the individual as an active partner in their own care or support is that it brings physical, psychological, relational and over all wellbeing benefits. Service user participation has resulted in an impact upon the service users, themselves, the organisation and also what the organisation does. For individual service users, the benefits of participation may include increased confidence and self-esteem, the chance to acquire new skills and improved material resources if, for example it helps them to acquire paid employment.

Participation leads to greater satisfaction and improved quality of life for instance, older people mental health service users and people with disabilities who have had greater control in decisions about the support they receive, report greater satisfaction and better health than those who have not. LISA GOTTS.

513 (M3) MANAGE HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE PRACTICE TO ENSURE POSITIVE OUTCOMES FOR INDIVIDUALS. KNOWLEDGE:

1.1, EXPLAIN OUTCOME BASED PRACTICE.

Today caregivers are adopting outcomes based practice methods to achieve desired patient care goals. Outcomes based practice ( sometimes called outcomes management ) involves a combination of teamwork, continuous quality improvement and process and outcome measurement. Outcome based care is about putting the person at the centre of the care service and not prescribing a standard service to everyone. It is about delivering meaningful outcomes to every individual and helping people to lead more fulfilling lives. Outcome based care requires careful planning which involves working with the people who use our services to help them identify and achieve the things they want to do. Delivered well, outcome based care increases interest and motivation and creates the enthusiasm needed to support people to lead a more fulfilling life. Key benefits of outcome based care:

The service users desires, aspirations, abilities and talents are explored and utilised to help ensure they lead a more fulfilling life. It empowers care workers to work more closely with service users to understand how best to enable their independence. The service can respond more easily to changing needs and preferences. It contributes to maintaining a service users independence.

It enables service users to exercise more choice and have more flexibility in the day-to-day delivery of their service. It encourages partnership working between all stakeholders involved in the delivery and management of an individuals care. It uses resources such as funding and time to gather effect. It provides a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of services. A fundamental part of outcome based care is looking for opportunities to

support people in activity throughout the day. This means thinking about the activities that need to be completed- key tasks such as personal care, travel or meal preparation. The practice of outcome based care ensures that service users are involved in their daily living choices, no matter what their physical or mental ability. Of course not everyone using our support services can undertake all tasks independently, people need different levels of support. The role of the care worker is to provide enough support to enable the service users successful participation. A key principle of outcome based care is helping service users to engage little and often so that they build up experiences of success and increase their motivation.

1.2, DESCRIBE HOW YOU CRITICALLY REVIEW APPROACHES TO OUTCOME BASED PRACTICE. Outcome based practice was introduced as a new way of working. Instead of, a needs based approach to care and the support offered, it became outcomes/results based accountability. A ‘needs’ based delivery of care was difficult to measure in terms of success or failure where as an ‘outcome’ based delivery was more focused on achievement. Outcomes in a social care context are concerned with quality of life rather than simply levels of ability, health, employment or housing status. At a community level this can be about people feeling safer, people being healthier, communities being stronger. At an individual level outcomes can be framed in terms of the steps a person needs to take in order to improve aspects of their lives relating to their own safety and security. For instance: Outome based practice is a disciplined way of thinking and moving from ‘talk to action’ quickly- from strategy to implementation. It is about re-focusing on the difference you are making to peoples lives, meeting their goals- knowing where you/re heading helps you change what your doing. Outcome based practice:

Offers a framework for strategic planning and enables all stakeholders, commissioners, service providers and communities alike, to improve the lives of children, young people, families and adults. Helps identify the activities that will make the most difference to individuals and communities. Can be used to improve the improve the performance of programmes, agencies and service systems through compelling links between

service activity and outcomes for users. Can dramatically improve partnership working by creating a common language, shared ownership and maximising the contribution of all stakeholders.

Outcome based practice focuses on the individuals goals and steers the carer away from a needs based care delivery. It also has measurable aims and objectives where needs based care has not. The work becomes driven and specific because there is a goal in mind. When outcomes were first introduced into care some care professionals had difficulties seeing the differences between an ‘outcome’ and a ‘need’. some professionals felt their role had been reduced because the individual became the ‘expert’ in their own care and the centre of the planning. This meant the care professional needed to come to terms with this new way of delivering services.

PROGRAM PLANNING/MANAGEMENT TOOLS

Program planning or management tools are outcome models that assist in an efforts proposal, funding and implementation phases. They illustrate the logic, theory of change and anticipated flow of an intervention, providing markers against which both incremental and ultimate progress may be measured Models:

1, The logic model: the most widely used of these models, providing a graphic overview of a program, outlining the outcomes to be accomplished along with how they are to be achieved and for what groups. A logic model generally includes the target group, the resources to be used activities and objectives. Best used for describing a program in the broadest strokes, it can be an extremely useful tool particularly at the earliest stages of a project.

2, Outcome funding framework: stresses key shifts in the thinking that traditionally has influenced human service programs. It encourages funders to think like investors and encourages programs to shift from emphasizing service activities to focusing on performance targets, defined in terms of client changes gained. The model also uses milestones, or sequential steps toward achieving ultimate targets, to allow for ongoing assessment and

mid-course program corrections.

3, Results based accountability ( RBA): Starts with the desired ends and works backward toward the means to achieve them. RBA first describes what a desired result would look like, then defines that result in measurable terms and finally uses those measures to gauge success or failure. RBA asks and answers three basic questions, what do we want, how will we recognize it, what will it take to get there. This model distinguishes between population accountability and program accountability. Its inclusion of the crosswalk, a tool for matching RBA with other outcome models, is a unique and useful aspect of the framework.

4, Targeting outcomes of programs (TOP ): based on a hierarchy of sequential steps in planning, implementing and evaluating programs. It helps answer four basic questions: why have a program, how should it be conducted, has the program design been implemented, what are the benefits delivered.

1.4, EXPLAIN HOW OUTCOME BASED PRACTICE CAN RESULT IN POSITIVE CHANGES IN INDIVIDUALS LIVES. Health and social care is increasingly moving towards outcomes-based services. An outcome describes the measurable impact of the service on a persons life. Every individual has different needs and goals and an outcomes-based service places these at the heart of its delivery rather than using a ‘one sixe fits all’ approach. This represents a major shift in the way services are designed, commissioned, delivered and evaluated. The importance of outcomes in social care has been widely recognized for many years. A focus on outcomes which encourages service users to express the outcomes they want for themselves provides scope for user empowerment and choice. It involves moving from a traditional activity-based approach to serve planning and delivery to a more flexible and responsive model where new thinking is needed about how to measure success. Outcomes based approach is used as a means of improving performance, accountability and consistency in service provision which can only result in positive changes in individuals lives. Outcomes refer to the impacts and end results of services on service users. They may be general EG: improve the health of older people or individualized and person-centred

where they based on the priorities and aspirations of individuals. Whether or not outcomes are perceived as successful may depend not just on the activities and skills of service providers and care managers but also on the goals and expectations of service users. By involving people in thinking and planning for their own services it also creates a more responsive service which is able to respond to users changing needs and preferences. Outcomes will be monitored and reviewed regularly to ensure the service is continuing to meet the service users wishes and needs. EG: whilst the overarching outcome might be for an individual to regain independence and control over his own life, progress may be better monitored if there are a series of bite-sized outcomes such as being able to: Make a simple meal

Dress and undress without help

Wash or shower on their own

Organise own shopping needs

And so on for the whole range of other activities of daily living. This is likely to give the individual a more rapid sense of achievement as areas of independence and regained. Benefits of outcome focused care planning:

Promotes independence and responsibility (empowerment )

Improves use of key social work skills- communication, negotiation, partnership working, task or goal centred planning ect. Enables people to exercise some choice and control which will hopefully lead to an improved quality of life. Treating people as individuals- feeling valued and respected. Compatibility with and respect for cultural and religious preferences. Puts the service user at the centre of the assessment- having ‘a say‘- takes account of preferences. Raises expectations within the community about what can be achieved and promotes the use of the community as a resource. Prompts you to consider different ways of meeting need and achieving outcomes.

2.1 EXPLAIN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL BASIS FOR WELL-BEING

Psychological health is important with respect to how we function and adapt and with respect to whether our lives are satisfying and productive. As manager this applies to both your staff and the people in our care. General

well-being does simply mean that you are free from anxiety and depression. People with long-term physical health conditions will often have psychological and emotional needs resulting from the burden of illness-related symptoms, the disability associated with the physical illness and the impact of living with more than one physical condition at any time. The links between physical and mental health are clear. There are shared risk factors for illness: illness regularly presents with both psychological and physical symptoms and being physically ill, particularly on a chronic basis, often has an impact on mental health and psychological wellbeing. The concept of holistic health and well-being incorporates several different facets including physical, intellectual, emotional and social.

Theories relating to the psychological basis for well-being: Well-being is a dynamic cincept that includes subjective, social and psychological dimensions as well as health related behaviours. The Ryff Scales of psychological well-being is a theoretically grounded instrument that specifically focuses on measuring multiple facets of psychological well-being. Definitions of Theory-Guided Dimensions of well-being:

Self-acceptance

High scorer: possesses a positive attitude towards the self acknowledges and accepts multiple aspects of self, including good and bad qualities, feels positive about past life. Lower scorer: feels dissatisfied with self, is disappointed with what has occurred with past life. Is troubled about certain personal qualities, wishes to be different than what he or she is. Positive relations with others

High scorer: has warm, satisfying, trusting relationships with others, is concerned about the welfare of others, capable of strong empathy, affection, and intimacy, understands give and take of human relationships. Low scorer: has few close, trusting relationships with others, finds it difficult to be warm, open and concerned about others, is isolated and frustrated in interpersonal relationships, not willing to make compromises to sustain important ties with others. Autonomy

High scorer: is self-determining and independent, able to resist social pressures to think and act in certain ways, regulates behaviour from within, evaluates self by personal standards. Lower scorer: is concerned about the expectations and evaluations of others, relies on judgments of others to make important decisions, conforms to social pressures to think and act in certain ways. Environmental mastery

High scorer: has a sense of mastery and competence in managing the environment, controls complex array of external activities, makes effective use of surrounding opportunities, able to choose or create contexts suitable to personal needs and values. Low scorer: has difficulty managing everyday affairs, feels unable to change or improving surrounding context, is unaware of surrounding opportunities, lacks sense of control over external world. Purpose in life

High scorer: has goals in life and a sense of directedness, feels there is meaning to present and past life, holds beliefs that give life purpose, has aims and objectives for living. Low scorer: lacks a sense of meaning in life, has few goals or aims, lacks sense of direction, does not see purpose of past life, has no outlook or beliefs that give life meaning. Personal growth

High scorer: has a feeling of continued development, sees self as growing and expanding, is open to new experiences, has sense of realizing his or her potential, sees improvement in self and behaviour over time, is changing in ways that reflect more self-knowledge and effectiveness. Low scorer: has a sense of personal stagnation, lacks sense of improvement or expansion over time, feels bored and uninterested with life, feels unable to develop new attitudes or behaviours.

4.1 EXPLAIN THE NECESSARY STEPS IN ORDER FOR INDIVIDUALS TO HAVE CHOICE AND CONTROL OVER DECISIONS. An informed choice means that a person has the information and support to think the choice through and to understand what the reasonably expected consequences may be of making that choice. It is

important to remember that too much information is presented to them. Professionals and organisations must be able to demonstrate that they have taken these individual needs into account. Enabling people to make informed choices does not mean the local authority or provider organisation should abdicate its responsibility to ensure people have a good quality of life. EG: if a person chooses to stay in bed all day, every day, the local authority or provider organisation has a responsibility to explore what is happening and respond to this appropriately, working to ensure that the individual fully understands the consequences of their decision. It is not acceptable to simply accept such a decision at face value if this would put the individual at significant risk, as acts of omission can be considered to be abusive. It is important to involve people in decisions even when they do not use speech as their main means of communication. Person centred planning techniques point us towards many ways of listening to people in different ways other than relying on what they actually say, using tools such as learning logs, communication charts and supported decision making agreements and these should all be utilised if we are to demonstrate that we have truly attempted to communicate effectively with an individual. It is also imperative that professionals and organisations ensure that the views of others who know and care about the person are invited and taken into account in any decision making process, without these taking precedence over the individuals views and wishes. Where we are supporting people who have complex communication needs, person centred approaches are essential to ensure peoples involement in decisions which affect their lives. The steps to follow to ensure the individual has choice and control over decisions, when discussing outcomes they wish to achieve should be: Step 1

Ensure who the individual wishes to be present and involved in any discussions and meetings. Step 2

Ensure the individual understands the process as you proceed and can communicate their wishes. Step 3

Seek consent from the individual to access information from others such as social worker, hospital. Never break confidentiality with others. Step 4

Record everything discussed and check the individual agrees with your records by asking them to sign an agreement. Step 5

Be open to feedback and regular evaluation and review of the plan to ensure it is working. Individuals needs and preferences constantly change.

5.3 USE APPROPRIATE APPROACHES TO ADDRESS CONFLICTS AND DILEMMAS THAT MAY ARISE BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS, STAFF AND CARERS, FAMILIES AND SIGNIFICANT OTHERS. A typical day probably involves a race to coordinate resources, provide care, perform procedures, gather data, integrate information, respond to emergencies, solve problems and interact with diverse groups of people. In your role as health care professional you probably face more conflict and greater complexity than any other profession. The challenges of balancing competing interests, philosophies, training backgrounds, the endless quest for adequate resources and the emotional quality of the work you do, means conflicts and dilemmas are bound to occur during the courses of your practice. It is important to evaluate, manage and intervene by mediating when conflicts may and do impact upon the lives and outcomes of people within the provision. There are various appropriate approaches which can be used to address conflicts and dilemmas. Depending on the circumstances this could take the form of: One to one discussion

Group discussion

Using contracts

Providing information to inform choices

Mentoring for conflict resolution.

First you must evaluate your own value systems, beliefs and attitudes in relation to the specific conflicts and dilemmas between people, workers and parents/carers, families and significant others to identify those: a) you can deal with objectively and fairly

b) where expert advice and guidance is required

Once this has been established it as a conflict you are able to deal with objectively and fairly you need to support and ensure that workers and relevant others are aware of the provisions systems, procedures and practices for addressing ethical dilemmas and conflicts and also negotiating agreed boundaries on behaviour. Part of your role is to develop effective systems and approaches to handle conflicts and dilemmas.

5.4 EXPLAIN HOW LEGISLATION AND REGULATION INFLUENCE WORKING RELATIONSHIPS WITH CARERS, FAMILIES AND SIGNIFICANT OTHERS In your working setting there are numerous legislations and regulations which influence your working relationship with carers, families and significant others. Your own provision will have its own regulations, code of practice and conduct, standards and guidance for both employers and employees which will dictate your own roles, responsibilities and accountability when leading others and also when managing working with the individuals family. There are also local, national, UK European and international legislation, standards, guidance and organisational requirements for the leadership and management of work with individuals, families, carers and significant others, which include: The need to achieve positive outcomes for people.

The need to safeguard and protect people from all forms of danger, harm and abuse. Employment practices for the provision and service.

Data protection, recording and reporting.

Making and dealing with comments and complaints to improve services. Whistle blowing.

Health & safety.

Equality and diversity.

These all affect the way you work with individuals and their families. The CQC regulates, inspects and reviews all adult social care services in the public, private and voluntary sectors in England. THE ESSENTIAL STANDARDS FOR QUALITY AND SAFETY- From 1st October 2010, every health and adult social care service in England is legally responsible for making sure it meets new essential standards as part of a new registration system which focuses on people rather than policies, on outcomes rather than systems. The essential standards relate to important aspects of care such as involvement and information for people, personalised care and treatment, safety and safeguarding. The CQC will continuously monitor compliance with essential standards as part of a more dynamic, responsive, robust system of regulation accompanied by new enforcement powers.

Standards an individual can expect from their care provider: THE ESSENTIAL STANDARDS:

1) YOU CAN EXPECT TO BE INVOLVED AND TOLD WHATS HAPPENING AT EVERY STAGE OF YOUR CARE. You will always be involved in discussions about your care and treatment and your privacy and dignity will be respected by all staff. You will be given opportunities, encouragement and support to promote your independence. You will be able to agree or reject any type of examination, care, treatment or support before you receive it. 2) YOU CAN EXPECT CARE, TREATMENT AND SUPPORT THAT MEETS YOUR NEEDS. Your personal needs will be assessed to make sure you get care that is safe and supports your rights. You will get the food and drink you need to meet your dietary needs. You get the treatment that that you and your health or care professional agree will make a difference to your health and wellbeing. You will get safe and co-ordinated care where more than one care provider is involved or if you are moved between services. 3) YOU CAN EXPECT TO BE SAFE.

You will be protected from abuse or the risk of abuse and staff will respect your human rights. You will be cared for in a clean environment where you are protected from infection. You will get the medication you need, when you need them and in a safe way. You will be cared for in a safe and accessible place that will help you as you recover. You will not be harmed by unsafe or unsuitable equipment.

4) YOU CAN EXPECT TO BE CARED FOR BY QUALIFIED STAFF.

Your health and welfare needs are met by staff who are properly qualified. There will always be enough members of staff available to keep you safe and meet your health and welfare needs. You will be looked after by staff who are well managed and have the chance to develop and improve their skills. 5) YOU CAN EXPECT YOUR CARE PROVIDER TO CONSTANTLY CHECK THE QUALITY OF ITS SERVICES. Your care provider will continuously monitor the quality of its services to make sure you are safe. If you or someone acting on your behalf makes a complaint, you will be listened to and it will be acted upon properly. Your personal records including medical records, will be accurate and kept safe and confidential. LISA GOTTS

514 SAFEGUARDING AND PROTECTION OF VULNERABLE ADULTS.

1.2 EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF POLICY DEVELOPMENTS ON APPROACHES TO SAFEGUARDING VULNERABLE ADULTS IN OWN SERVICE SETTING. Our health, our care, our say.

A new direction for community services ( June 2006 ) the Government white paper identifies four goals to implement effective care and support for disadvantaged people: Better prevention services

More choice and a louder voice

Tackling inequalities and improving access to community service More support for people with long term needs.

Our health, our choice, our say set out to ensure a more personalised service and to ensure service users had a voice regards needed improvements to services.

In safe hands

Established the national framework for development of local policies, procedures and guidance for the protection of vulnerable adults. ‘In safe hands’ provides for social services departments to take a co-ordinating lead with a range of other local partners including the NHS and the policy to develop and implement local arrangements to prevent, identify, respond to and ameliorate abuse of vulnerable adults in all settings and to take appropriate action against perpetrators of abuse.

Putting people first

‘a shared vision and commitment to the transformation of Adult Social Care ( 2007) department of health. In the UK the government policy ‘putting people first’ stated that person centred planning must become maainstream. Putting people first recognises that person-centred planning and self-directed support are central to delivering personalisation and maximising choice and control. In 2010 guidance was issued to help councils use person centred thinking and planning to deliver the personalisation agenda. Putting people first is a public service reform programme which is co-produced, co-developed and will be co-evaluated. It recognises that to achieve real change, users and carers must participate at every stage. This marks a change in status of people who use services from consumers to co-producers,

set out four areas on which councils and their partners should focus in order to personalise services. These areas are:

Universal services- transport, leisure, health, education, housing and access to information and advice. Choice and control- shaping services to meet peoples needs rather than shaping people to fit in with the services on offer. Social capital- care and support that individuals and their carers can get from their local community ( friends, family, neighbours or community groups ) Early intervention and prevention- support that is available for people who need help to stay independent for as long as possible to keep their home or garden tidy, or to start taking regular exercise.

No secrets

In march 2000 the government issued a guidance document, No secrets which gave social services departments a co-ordinating role in developing local policies and procedures for protecting vulnerable adults from abuse. It came about in response to the media coverage of adult abuse. It required all agencies: police, probation services, social services and health services, to work collaboratively to protect vulnerable adults. The no secrets created a framework for action within which all responsible agencies work together to ensure a coherent policy for the safeguarding of vulnerable adults at risk of abuse and a consistent effective response to any circumstances giving ground for concern or formal complaints or expressions of anxiety. As a result, the protection of vulnerable adults ( POVA) was established. POVA’s remit was to provide help and support to adults experiencing abuse, investigate cases where appropriate and protect people from further abuse. In 2007 more emphasis was placed on early intervention and prevention, reflected in a change of name to safeguarding of vulnerable adults from abuse ( SOVA). The SOVA register replaced the POVA register.

Vetting and barring scheme/independent safeguarding authority The Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006 provides the legal framework for the new vetting and barring scheme, which came into full force in October 2009. Background: The safeguarding vulnerable groups act is a major element of a

wide-ranging and ambitious program of work established across government to address the systemic failures identified by the Bichard inquiry into Soham murders. The act was created in response to recommendation 19 of the Bichard Inquiry Report, which states: New arrangements have been introduced requiring those who wish to work with children or vulnerable adults, to be registered. The register would confirm that there is no known reason why an individual should not work with these clients. In March 2005 Sir Michael Bichard endorsed department for education and skills and department of healths proposal to implement recommendation 19 through the development of a central scheme whereby unsuitable people would be barred from working with children and/or vulnerable adults. The safeguarding vulnerable groups act recognises that any adult receiving any form of healthcare is vulnerable. There is no formal definition of vulnerability within health care although some people receiving health care may be at greater risk from harm than others, sometimes as a complication of their presenting condition and their individual circumstances. The risks that increase a persons vulnerability should be appropriately assessed and identified by the health care professional at first contact and continue throughout the care pathway. The independent safeguarding authority’s ( ISA ) role is to help prevent unsuitable people from working with children and vulnerable adults. Referrals are made to the ISA when an employer or an organisation, EG: a regulatory body has concerns that a person has caused harm or poses a future risk of harm to children or vulnerable adults.

Local safeguarding adults boards

Councils are responsible for ensuring they have in place safeguarding adults boards which have a critical role to play in terms of leadership and the management of safeguarding services across partners. Members of the board will include staff from a full rage of partners: Adult social care and other council departments, representation from district councils in two tier areas, NHS trusts and primary care providers the police, crown prosecution service and courts and key service providers. Representatives should be at a senior enough level to represent their organisation, influence its practice and consistently “ get things done “ The membership should be coherent even where some members will have remits that are either larger or smaller than

the local authority area. Membership may also include key or reprehensive third sector organisations. Boards should have mechanisms to ensure that the views of people who have used ( or might need to use ) safeguarding services are central to the work of the board.

1.3, EXPLAIN THE LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR SAFEGUARDING VULNERABLE ADULTS. There have always been laws which provide guidance with the rights of service users and the requirements of those providing their care. Disability Discrimination Act 1995

NHS Community Care Act 1990

National Assistance Act 1948

Mental Health Act 1983

Chronically sick and Disabled Person Act 1986

The first Act to be aimed specifically at the protection of vulnerable adults was the Care Standards Act 2000. The care standards act has had an enormous impact on everyone working in the social care sector. It created a new regulatory framework for all regulated social care and independent health care services. The act has two fundamental aims: Protect vulnerable people from abuse and neglect.

Protect the highest standards of quality in the care that people receive. The aim is to ensure that children in care are protected from abuse and neglect, older people and people with disability who rely on care services get appropriate standards of care and the protection they deserve. Private hospitals and clinics provide modern standards of healthcare and patients who use child minders or day care can be assured that their children are in safe hands. The General Social Care Council ( GSCC ) was set up under the Care Standards Act 2000, along with the National Care Standards Commission ( NCSC ) and the Social Services Inspectorate ( SSI ). NCSE and SSI merged in April 2004 to become the Commission for Social Care Inspection ( CSCI ) which is now the Care Quality Commission ( CQC ).

The Human Rights Act means that residents of the United Kingdom will now be able to seek help from the courts if they believe that their human rights

have been infringed. It is likely that anyone working within health and social care will be working within the provision of the Human Rights Act, which guarantees the following rights: The right to life

The right to freedom from torture and inhuman or degrading punishment The right to freedom from slavery, servitude and forced or compulsory labour The right to liberty and security of person

The right to a fair and public trail within a reasonable time The right to freedom from retrospective criminal law and no punishment without law The right to respect for private and family life, home and correspondence The right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion

The right to freedom of expression

The right to freedom of assembly and association

The right to marry and found a family

The prohibition of discrimination in the enjoyment of convention rights The right to peaceful enjoyment of possessions and protection of property The right to access to an education

The right to free elections

The right not to be subjected to the death penalty

With the introduction of the Human Rights Act the government had to show commitment to protecting the most vulnerable adults as well as children. In the past some people had not always been able to access their rights, this will now be regarded as violation of an individuals human rights.

The Safeguarding of Vulnerable Groups ( SVG ) Act 2006

Is in response to the Bichard Inquiry 2005, into the failings around Ian Huntley case. The SVG act is intended to prevent unsuitable people from working with vulnerable people and to reform current vetting and barring practices. The act sets out legal framework for the Independent Safeguarding Authority ( ISA ) scheme which was to be introduced in 2009 (but currently under review as a result of the 2010 General Election)

Mental Capacity Act 2005 ( MCA)

The MCA has been in force since 2007 and applies to England and Wales. The

primary purpose of the MCA is to promote and safeguard decision-making within a legal framework. It does this in two ways: By empowering people to make decisions for themselves wherever possible and by protecting people who lack capacity by providing a flexible framework that places individuals at the heart of the decision making process. By allowing people to plan ahead for a time in the future when they might lack the capacity for any number of reasons. FIVE KEY PRINCIPLES

1) A presumption of capacity-every adult has the right to make his or her own decisions and must be assumed to have capacity to do so unless it is proved otherwise. This means that you cannot assume that someone cannot make a decision for themselves just because they have a particular medical condition or disability. 2) Individuals being supported to make their own decisions-a person must be given all practicable help before anyone treats them as not being able to make their own decisions. This means you should make every effort to encourage and support people to make the decision for themselves. If lack of capacity is established it is still important that you involve the person as far as possible in making decisions. 3) unwise decisions-people have the right to make decisions that others might regard as unwise or eccentric. You cannot treat someone as lacking capacity for this reason. Everyone has their own values, beliefs and preferences which may not be the same as those of other people. 4) Best interests-anything done for or on behalf of a person who lacks mental capacity must be done in their best interests. 5) Less restrictive option-someone making a decision or acting on behalf of a person who lacks capacity must consider whether it is possible to decide or act in a way that would refer less with the persons rights and freedoms of action or whether there is a need to decide or act at all. Any intervention should be weighed up in the particular circumstances of the case.

1.4, EVALUATE HOW SERIOUS CASE REVIEWS OR INQUIRIES HAVE INFLUENCED QUALITY ASSURANCE, REGULATION AND INSPECTION RELATING TO THE SAFEGUARDING OF VULNERABLE ADULTS. The Purpose of Serious Case Review or inquiries is not to reinvestigate or to apportion blame, but rather:

To establish whether there are lessons to be learnt from the circumstances of the case about the way in which local professionals and agencies work together to safeguard vulnerable adults and to learn from past experience. To review the effectiveness of procedures ( both multi-agency and those of individual organisations ) and to improve future practice by acting on the learning. To inform and improve local inter-agency practice and improve multi agency working. To improve practice by acting on learning ( developing best practice ). To prepare or commission an overview report which brings together and analyses the findings of the various reports from agencies in order to make recommendations for future action and to review safeguarding adults procedures. Adult abuse pervades the lives of many people around the world today. The current definition of adult abuse used health and social care today states abuse-may consist of a single or repeated act. It may be physical, verbal or psychological, it may be an act of neglect or failure to act or it may occur when a vulnerable person is persuaded to enter into a financial or sexual transaction to which he/she has not consented or cannot give consent. ( Department of Health 2000 ). Adult abuse has received increasing recognition over the past 40 years at national and international level. Initial focus has been on the abuse of older people, however there is now an awareness of the vulnerability of other groups of adults to abuse including those with learning difficulties and mental health problems. There have been several high profile cases of abuse in recent years resulting in serious case reviews. Two examples where serious case reviews or inquires have influenced quality assurance, regulation and inspection relating to the safeguarding of vulnerable adults. THE BIRCHARD INQUIRY: following the case of Ian Huntley and the Soham murders. Although the abuse which took place was involving children, the report had far reaching affects on all areas of protection for both children and adult care. The Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups act is a major element of a wide-ranging and ambitious programme of work established across government to address the systemic failures identified by the inquiry. It introduced a requirement for those who wish to work with children or vulnerable adults, to be registered. This would confirm that there was no known reason why an individual should not work with these clients. The Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998 or ‘Whistlblowing’ is officially defined as ‘making a disclosure that is in the

public interest’. it will usually occur when an employee discloses to a public body, usually the police or a regulatory commission that their employer is partaking in unlawful practices. A series of disasters, crimes and scandals in the late 1980s and early 1990s resulted in a number of public inquiries. These inquiries found that often people within the organisations knew of the potential dangers or malpractice and for a variety of reasons either were unwilling to raise the alarm or if they did raise it, did so with the wrong person or in the wrong way. An example is the drowning of four children at Lyme Bay. Before the canoe disaster at Lyme Bay an instructor had been so concerned about the safety standards at the activity centre that she had written to the managing director. In her letter she stated that if safety standards were not improved ‘you might find yourself trying to explain why someone’s child will not be coming home’, shortly after four schoolchildren drowned. Because he had ignored such graphic warning, the managing director was jailed for two years for manslaughter. Had whistle blowing policies been in place at the time, the instructor could have reported this by following the correct processes and their employment rights would have been protected. If you decide to blow the whistle on an organisation you are protected and your employer cannot victimise you. Whislleblowers are protected for public interest to encourage people to speak out if they find malpractice illegal or negligent behaviour by anyone in an organisation or workplace. MISUSE OF DRUGS ACT 1971

The CQC providing external scrutiny on how other regulators and agencies work together, following the Governments response on the management of controlled drugs, after the fourth report of the Shipman inquiry. The CQC publishing their fifth annual report on safer management of controlled drugs in July 2012. Under statutory arrangements introduced as a result of the Shipman inquiry, the CQC is responsible for assuring that all providers of health and social care and regulatory bodies and agencies work together to create a safe environment for the management of controlled drugs. Recommendations in the report included the need for organisations to notify the CQC when the controlled drugs accountable officer changes, for the officers to have systems in place to assure the safe prescribing and administration of controlled drugs in all possible situations and the need to encourage the

use of the Controlled Drug Requisition Form.

1.5, EXPLAIN THE PROTOCOLS AND REFERRAL PROCEDURES WHEN HARM OR ABUSE IS ALLEGED OR SUSPECTED. All persons have the right to live their lives free from violence and abuse. This right is underpinned by the duty on public agencies under the Human Rights Act 1998 to intervene proportionately to protect the rights of citizens. These rights include Article 2: the Right to life, 3: freedom from torture ( including humiliating and degrading treatment ) and Article 8: rights to family life ( one that sustains the individual ). When an allegation of abuse is made the receiving agency must always notify the appropriate regulatory body within any stipulated time limits and also any other authority who may be using the service provider. Residential care homes are required under the Registered Homes Act 1984 ( as amended in 1991 ) ‘to notify the Registration Authority not later than 24 hrs from the time of its occurrence of any event in the home which affects the well-being of any resident’ and specifically of: Any serious injury to any person residing in the home ( Regulation 14 (1) (b). Any event in the home which affects the well-being of any resident ( Regulation 14 (1) (d). RESPONDING TO ABUSE AND NEGLECT

Standards 6,7,8 and 9

The primary responsibility of the ‘safeguarding adults’ partnership is to enable all adults who is or may be eligible for community care services to access appropriate services if they need support to live a life that is free from abuse and neglect. The framework for enabling adults to access such support is referred to as the ‘safeguarding adults’ procedures. They should ensure that those adults who is or may be eligible for community care services and who may be experiencing abuse or neglect, receive an assessment of the risk they are facing. Where they face a critical or substantial risk to their independence and wellbeing, community care services should be considered as part of a safeguarding plan. Where the assessment does not lead to community care services being provided or purchased other appropriate services should be signposted. The procedures should be based on the presumption of mental capacity and on the consequent right of such adults to make their own choices in relation to safety from abuse and

neglect-except where the rights of others would be compromised. For people who are eligible for community care services and who have mental capacity. ‘safeguarding adults procedures should enable them access to mainstream services that will support them to live safer lives as well as providing specific services to meet additional needs. EG: some adults have impairments which mean that they need assistance to overcome current barriers to existing services in order to choose how to achieve a safer life.

Standards 9.1 the multi-agency ‘safeguarding adults’ procedures detail the following stages: ALERT-Reporting concerns of abuse or neglect which are received or noticed within a partner organisation. Any immediate protection needs are addressed. REFERRAL -Placing information about that concern into a multiagency context. DECISION-Deciding whether the ‘safeguarding adults’ procedures are appropriate to address the concern. SAFEGUARDING ASSESSMENT STRATEGY-Formulating a multi-agency plan for assessing the risk and addressing any immediate protection needs. SAFEGUARDING ASSESSMENT-Co-ordinating the collection of the information about abuse or neglect that has occurred or might occur. This may include an investigation EG: a criminal or disciplinary investigation. SAFEGUARDING PLAN-Co-ordinating a multi-agency response to the risk of abuse that has been identified. REVIEW-The review of that plan.

RECORDING AND MONITORING-Recording and monitoring the ‘safeguarding adults’ process and its outcomes.

GOOD PRACTICE

Based within the community care assessment time frame.

Maximum time frame:

ALERT- Immediate action to safeguard anyone at immediate risk. REFERRAL – Within the same working day.

DECISION – By the end of the working day following the one on which the safeguarding referral was made. SAFEGUARDING ASSESSMENT STRATEGY – Within five working days. SAFEGUARDING ASSESSMENT – Within four weeks of the safeguarding referral. SAFEGUARDING PLAN – Within four weeks of the safeguarding assessment being completed. REVIEW – Within six months for

first review and thereafter yearly.

GOOD PRACTICE

Receivers of alerts and referrals should respond by:

Reassure the person.

Remaining calm and not showing shock or disbelief.

Listening carefully to what is being said.

Not asking detailed or probing questions.

Demonstrating a sympathetic approach by acknowledging regret and concern that what has been reported has happened. Ensuring that any emergency action needed has been taken.

Confirming that the information will be treated seriously.

Giving them information about the steps that will be taken.

Informing them that they will receive feedback as to the result of the concerns they have raised and from whom. Giving the person contact details so that they can report any further issues or ask any questions that may arise.

2.3, WHAT ARE THE POLICY AND PROCEDURES IN YOUR OWN WORK SETTING THAT CONTRIBUTE TOWARDS SAFEGUARDING AND THE PREVENTION OF ABUSE.

4.2, EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES TO PROTECT VULNERABLE ADULTS IN YOUR OWN SETTING. Periodic audits of individual adult protection case records will enable strengths and weaknesses in current practice to be identified. Accurate and consistent monitoring of vulnerable adult data will enable you to base your workplace policy and practice on sound and relevant evidence, highlighting trends and assisting in the planning process. By monitoring and auditing the individuals complaints and by listening to members of staff, you should be able to determine and evaluate if the systems and procedures in your own work setting are effective in protecting vulnerable adults.