(Belarus), is a country in East
Europe. The area of 207.6 thousand km2. The population
10.32 million people (2003). Capital — Minsk.
Other large cities: Gomel, Mogilev,
The Commonwealth of independent States
(CIS). From 1996 signed “the Agreement on education
Community” about the beginning of the integration
process with Russia. Permanent
the Union body (the Executive Committee) is
The head of state and Executive
power — the President. Legislative
power is a bicameral Parliament.
division of Belarus.
6 areas, 117
areas. 102 city, 109 urban settlements
population — Belarusians, 13.2 percent Russian, 4.1 percent —
poles, 2.9% of Ukrainians. The urban population
71,1%. Official languages — Belarusian and
Russian. 70% of believers are Orthodox
Christians, 20% Catholics, the rest
— Uniates and Jews.
the situation in Belarus. Climatic
the conditions of Belarus.
A large part
the territory is flat, with numerous
traces of glacial activity. On
North-West — a system of moraine ridges
(Sunzensky, Braslav and Osveysky),
part of the Baltic moraine
ridge. Between the moraine ridges —
wetlands (Neman, Polotsk
etc.). From the West. to the East stretches
Belarusian ridge (height up to 345 m —
the highest point of Belarus). In the South
the lowlands of the Belarusian Polesye.
The climate is temperate
continental. Main rivers: the Dnieper
(with tributaries Berezina, Pripyat, Sozh),
Western Dvina, the Neman (tributary of the Neris),
Western Bug. More than 10 thousand lakes (Naroch,
Osveysky, Lukoml, Drisvyaty, etc.).
More than 1/3 of the territory. occupy marshes, the main
way common in Polesie.
Reservoir (Vileika, Zaslavskoe
etc.). Mixed forests occupy approx. 1/3
the territory of the Republic. Almost 2/3
the forested area consists of coniferous
species (pine, spruce); in the South rasprostranena
oak, hornbeam, maple, ash. On-site
Belarus — Belovezhskaya Pushcha,
Berezinsky and Pripyatsky nature reserves.
OK. 1/4 of the area
Belarus — in the zone of radioactive
contamination in the accident at
The Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986.
Industrial and agricultural
country, one of the most developed among
republics of the former USSR. GDP per capita of us.
$ 6,100 (2003). Retains a strong
complex manufacturing industries
industry: auto and tractor
(Minsk, Zhodino, and Mogilev), instrumentation,
equipment (including refrigerators “Atlant”)
(Minsk, Vitebsk, Gomel, Mozyr, Brest,
Lida, etc.), machine building (Minsk,
Vitebsk, Gomel, Pinsk, Orsha, Molodechno).
Developed light including knitted,
linen, leather and footwear, food
(meat, dairy, butter and cheese,
canning, etc.). forestry and woodworking
In a diversified
agriculture uses 30.5% of
the territory of the country, meadows and pastures
is 14.1 percent. Grow potatoes
(the first place among CIS countries
production per capita, 1056 kg
1996), cereals (rye, barley,
wheat, oats, buckwheat; 2nd place in the CIS
after Kazakhstan’s wheat production
per capita, 562 kg in 1996), flax,
sugar beet etc. well Developed milk and meat
cattle, pigs, poultry.
unit of the Belarusian rouble (rubel).
outline of Belarus.
Belarus Slavic settlements appeared
in 6-8 centuries was the largest tribes
Drevlyans, Krivichi, Radimichi and Dregovichi.
Between the 8th and 9th century was founded the city
Polotsk, Turov, Minsk and Slutsk. 10.
12 centuries of the Principality of Polotsk, Turov-Pinsk
etc. was submitted to the Grand Duke
Kiev. After the Mongol
the invasion of their territory gradually
went to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania,
from 1569 — to the Commonwealth. Large
part of the population kept Orthodox
faith, the piece took the Uniate Church
(Greek Catholicism). After joining
Poland increased the Jewish population.
With con. 18th century after the partitions of Poland
the Belarusian lands in the Russian
Empire, then (from 1922) in the USSR. Western
Belarus according to Riga Treaty of 1921
went to Poland. In November 1939 the Western
Belarus was reunited with the Byelorussian
In 1941 Belarus
occupied by German troops. Here
with the support of the centre there was a strong
the guerrilla movement, but the Republic
lost more than 2.2 million people, a significant
many of whom are Jews. In July 1944
liberated by Soviet troops. In July
1991 the Supreme Soviet of the BSSR adopted the Declaration
on the state independence. In 1994
established the post of President. First
became President Alexander Lukashenko. In November
1996 by the majority of votes adopted
the presidential draft of the Constitution
of the country. In October 2004 a referendum,
where the majority of the population
supported the project of the abolition of restrictions
to run for the presidency
more than two terms. Results
a referendum has caused sharp rejection
holiday — July 3 (Day of the Republic;
is the day of liberation of Belarus
from the Nazis).