Examples of Students Essays

50th gate Essay Example

50th gate Essay

History and Memory are complex representations of the past influenced by different perspectives – 50th gate Essay introduction. History is based on documented facts, historical research and formalised written records of past events. Memory is based on personal recollection, it is subjective and experiential. When considered together, history and memory combine to give a more complete picture of the past than is possible when considering either one independently. History and memory are complementary. History validates memory, while memory adds depth to history. These complex notions are effectively portrayed in the award winning non-fiction text ‘The Fiftieth Gate’ by Mark Raphael Baker. Similarly, these notions are also explored in the film ‘Schindler’s List’ directed by Steven Spielberg. History and memory lead to cultural knowledge and appreciation. In ‘The Fiftieth Gate’, a sense of resolution is reached. Both history and memory work together to reconstruct the past in a way that affects our present. Baker deliberately emphasises this through his documentation of his parents’ memories and this allows him to resolve his identity as a second generation Australian Holocaust survivor.

This is highlighted in the appropriation of Descartes’s quote “He remembers, therefore I am”. Likewise, the ‘fifty’ gates symbolise Baker’s journey through his parents’ stories and synthesise the narrative. All of the forty nine gates expose a personal discovery at a particular moment during Baker’s journey, however the fiftieth gate represents the enlightenment and knowledge gained as a result of Baker’s quest. The Roman numerals at the start of each chapter give the text a historical tone and authenticity. Furthermore, Genia is representative of individual memory as for her “there are no witnesses to interview” and all she possesses is “Memories. Just memories. Nothing more”. Baker doubts her personal testimonies in their interviews and the validity of her childhood experiences which are reliant on her own memory.

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Sympathy for Genia is enforced within the reader through the rhetorical question “you read. Books, books, everywhere. But do you know how it feels?” and this emphasises the power of individual experiences and the difficulty in expressing such horrors in contrast to archival documentation. Genia’s testimony in Gate 18 highlights how the most traumatic and painful memories are never forgotten, as seen through the short emphatic sentences and the aural dialogue imprinted on her memory, which is evident in “Juden Raus! Jews get out!”. It is clear that these painful memories affect Genia in the present, as seen through her phobias, depression and the quote “I’m still afraid of the darkness”. In addition, Yossl, is the embodiment of collective and communal memory, as his is a “past written on a page shared by other survivors”. Yossl is a ‘Buchenwald Boy’ and as such, collective memory helps the survivors cope with their experiences. Yossl’s memory is inaccurate, which portrays the fragmentation and distortion of memory that is also highlighted through the novel’s non-linear narrative. Yossl fails to remember where he was when the war started, and Baker justifies him by showing Yossl his report card, which further implicates the representation of history in that it can validate memory.

However, Baker makes clear to the reader that “The final moments can never be retrieved by history. Nor by memories”, which shows the limitations of history and memory, and how even the most extensive research and various perspectives cannot reveal all the details of a historical event.

Similar to Fiftieth Gate, Schindler’s List utilises historical data and both collective and individual memory to represent the events of the Holocaust, thus showing how one can learn about the past through the memories of others. The closing scene of the film fades from black and white to colour, symbolising a fusion of past and present, history and reality, which reveals how history teaches people about the past so they can gain a better understanding of the present. The actors who play as the Schindler Jews in the film accompany their real life counterparts laying stones on Schindler’s grave, which is a symbolic act of collective memory. This is similar to Yossl’s attendance at the Buchenwald Ball. In conclusion, it is seen how the relationship of history and memory in the non-fiction text ‘The Fiftieth Gate’ by Mark Raphael Baker results in Baker’s realisation that history and memory are complex and dependent on one another, thus allowing us to gain a complete, holistic and accurate representation of a historical event. Likewise, the film ‘Schindler’s List’ directed by Steven Spielberg also intertwines historical research with survivors’ stories in order to create a clear representation of the Holocaust. Overall, it is made evident that when history and memory are used together they are unstoppable.

Examples of Students Essays

Rhino Capture in Kruger National Park Essay Example

Rhino Capture in Kruger National Park Essay

Poaching is a very touchy subject to many – Rhino Capture in Kruger National Park Essay introduction. Being an animal lover myself I couldn’t imagine enduring that kind of pain on an innocent animal just to make a large sum of money. It is not ethical and although many would love for it to end, poaching seems to be a continuous issue. With the creation of Kruger National Park, their intentions were to protect the nation’s fast and dwindling wildlife areas in South Africa. With their intentions only being good at the start of this assignment in 1898, they have managed to make progress with a few mishaps.

It seems as if money will really make people do stupid things. Mentioned in the article, two employed staff members poached two rhinos in an area of what is considered to be the best antipoaching unit in South Africa as well. In a perfect world, being an animal lover myself as I previously mentioned I would love to take all of these endangered animals under my wing and create an area where they were shielded off from all harm here in the world. However, the world we live is no-where near perfect, so that is unfortunately out of the question.

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All we can do is create more facilities for these animals and have more security to insure the safety of these innocent animals. Possibly even have air security that allowed a clear view of what was going on in the ground below them. At the same time it is just very hard to pull something off like this, especially when such a large area is being watched and poachers are good at what they do because they act so quickly. Hence, why so few get caught. So, for now the hopes for a perfect world is really all we have to end the constant poaching issue.

Examples of Students Essays

Cloud Gate- an Analysis Essay Example

Cloud Gate- an Analysis Essay

Department: Communication Design Course: Contemporary Art in Context Artist: Anish Kapoor Title: Cloud Gate Year: Built 2004-2006 Location: Millennium Park, Chicago, Illinois, United States Dimensions: 10 m ? – Cloud Gate- an Analysis Essay introduction ?? 13 m ? 20 m (33 ft ? 42 ft ? 66 ft) Medium: Stainless steel About the artist: Anish Kapoor, one of the world’s most distinguished and significant contemporary artists, was born in Mumbai to a Punjabi-Hindu father and an Iraqi-Jewish mother. He has studied art at the Hornsey College of Art and Chelsea School of Art Design.

In the 1980s he surfaced as one of the several British sculptors working in an innovative style and gaining global recognition for their work, like Tony Cragg, Richard Deacon, Anthony Gormley, and Bill Woodrow. Kapoor’s pieces are usually simple, curved forms, sometimes monochrome, and frequently bright and noticeable. An interesting characteristic is also that they are sometimes covered by powdered pigments or some of it is lying around them on the floor. Here the inspiration comes from the coloured powders used in India as Kapoor saw on his visits.

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His later works are constructed of solid, pitted stone, a lot of which have carved orifices and cavities. The translucent quality of resin, the brightness of pigment and the liquefied reflections of stainless steel and water all express his fascination with darkness and light that is apparent throughout his sculptures. Through this play between form and light, Kapoor evokes sublime experiences for the viewer. Kapoor says, ‘One of the phenomena that I’ve worked with over many years is darkness.

Darkness is an idea that we all know about, in a way an idea about the absence of light. Very simple. ’ In the 1990 Kapoor represented Britain at the Venice Biennale, where he received the award of Premio Duemila. The subsequent year he won the esteemed Turner Prize. Solo exhibitions of his work have been held in the Tate and Hayward Gallery in London, Kunsthalle Basel in Switzerland, Reina Sofia in Madrid, the National Gallery in Ottawa, and the CAPC Museum of Contemporary Art in Bordeaux. In 2004, Cloud Gate was inaugurated at Millennium Park in Chicago. Cloud Gate:

Introduction: Sculpture cannot continue without originality and creativity. For sculptors it is difficult to come up with a great idea that no one has done before. Anish Kapoor is one of those talented artists who succeed in this with Cloud Gate being his famous masterwork. Cloud Gate is this Kapoor’s first public outdoor work installed in the United States. Inspired by the likeness of liquid mercury, it is made of a 168 seamless series of highly polished stainless steel plates welded together, which reflect the Chicago’s famous skyline and the skies above.

A 12-foot-high arch-like structure provides an entrance to the concave chamber beneath the sculpture, called the “omphalos”, inviting visitors to feel its highly reflective surface and see their image dramatically warped and reflected back from a multiplicity of perspectives. The sculpture reflects many of Kapoor’s imaginative themes although many tourists simply take the sculpture and its unique reflective properties to be a great photo taking prospect. History:

In 1999, Millennium Park officials and a group of art collectors, curators and architects met to review the proposed sculpture designs by 30 different artists from all over the world. The committee finally selected Kapoor’s proposed sculpture over artist Jeff Koons’s proposal to erect a permanent 150-foot (46 m) slide at the park. Kapoor’s contract also states that the constructed piece was expected to survive for 1000 years. This design, ultimately named Cloud Gate, was inspired by the silver reflective quality of liquid mercury and intended to reflect Chicago’s skyline.

This sculpture was originally envisioned at the southeast corner of the Lurie Garden, but park officials finally decided to locate it at AT&T Plaza, which is where it currently stands. The sculpture was first affectionately nicknamed “The Bean” by the public and media outlets, and then officially named “Cloud Gate” by Kapoor months later. The name came from the fact that three-quarters of the sculpture’s external surface reflects the sky and that the sculpture is sort of a gate into the sky. Design and construction: The structure created several design dilemmas.

It was feared that it might maintain and convey hot and cold temperatures in such a way that made it too hot to touch during the summer and so cold during the winter. It was also suggested that the extreme temperature variation might weaken the structure. Graffiti by the visitors, bird droppings and fingerprints were probable problems as well, as they would affect the aesthetics of the flawless sculpture and kill the idea of seamless reflection, since the most pressing issue was the desire to create a single seamless structure.

Various experts that were consulted, including Norman Foster thought such a plan was probably impossible. One other issue was that the sculpture was originally approximated to weigh 60 short tons, because it was impossible to estimate the thickness of the steel compatible with the desired aesthetics at that time. However, the completed piece weighs 110 short tons and thus additional care was required to support it. Luckily, all the problems were resolve in the end. On the inside of its shell are several steel structures that keep the sculpture standing.

At first two stainless steel rings, were put into place in February 2004. During the construction, crisscrossing pipe trusses were assembled between the two rings. The trusses and supporting structures were only present for the construction phases and now it has no inner bracing. The frame can also expand and contract with the sculpture as temperatures fluctuate. The American Welding Society awarded Cloud Gate, MTH Industries and PSI with the group’s Extraordinary Welding Award. The sculpture contributed to Millennium Park being named among the 10 best architectural achievements of 2004 in Time.

Display: Cloud Gate soon after its installation became an icon of the city of Chicago. The public took an instant liking to it, affectionately naming it “The Bean. ” It has incredible drawing power, attracting locals, tourists and art enthusiasts alike, and is now mostly the piece by which Kapoor is identified. It is one of the most photographed attractions in the city too. Anish Kapoor himself says, What I wanted to do in Millennium Park is make something that would engage the Chicago skyline … o that one will see the clouds kind of floating in, with those very tall buildings reflected in the work. And then, since it is in the form of a gate, the participant, the viewer, will be able to enter into this very deep chamber that does, in a way, the same thing to one’s reflection as the exterior of the piece is doing to the reflection of the city around. Artist’s premise: Kapoor’s artworks often aim to stir up immateriality and the spiritual, a result he achieves either by carving dark voids into stone pieces, or through the sheer shine and reflectivity of his objects.

Cloud Gate limits its viewers to partial understanding at any time. The interaction with the viewer who moves to create his own vision in the art piece itself gives it a spiritual dimension. It is also labelled as one of the most provocative structures in the world since it represents both the male and female in one entity by symbolizing both the vagina and testicles. Thus, it represents the tension between the masculine and the feminine; although a hundred people can take a hundred interpretations out of it.

A visitor describes, ‘It’s unique. It’s Beautiful. It’s a messenger. The message I could read from the bean is. “I am the seed, who want to accommodate the whole earth, who want to come closer to me and shadow the Willingness of being together and reflect the beauty in that togetherness” Artistic Study: I chose to discuss this work because it immediately appealed to my interest in reflections and shiny surfaces, which also makes me a great fan of Kapoor’s ideology itself. On study, I could not find a pattern in Kapoor’s work.

The is no real relation to the world around him, but rather his art is an attempt to make people slow down, stare and expand their minds away from the status quo they typically occupy psychologically. I really like the fact that there is a gate to the centre of the Cloud Gate which gives the viewer the liberty to move around the whole thing and experience how it feels around him, truly incorporating himself into it. Upon entering this gate, solid is transformed into fluid in a disorienting multiplicative manner that exaggerates the experience.

Also as soon as I see it, I desire to reach out and feel the smoothness of the metal surface because of its seamless exterior. The perfection of this piece calls for immediate attention and makes it feel like it has magically landed here from a fantasy world and makes the viewer wonder what and how. When the light is right, you can’t see where the sculpture ends and the sky begins, which gives it a whole new surreal feeling creating a unique experience.

Also, the construction of this gigantic structure required immaculate skill on the craftsmen part, so while you experience the glassy feel of the metal you also wonder how such a smooth finish has been achieved. To me, like the rest of the world, this piece is beyond successful, both from design and construction points of view. From a layman to an art expert, Cloud Gate appeals alike. To sum up, Kapoor’s art is always forward moving. His unique style and approach to sculpture inspires one to think-outside-the-box and push the limits of creativity, like he has done in Cloud Gate.

Bibliography: * Baume, Nicholas (2008). Anish Kapoor: Past Present Future. The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-02659-8. * Gilfoyle, Timothy J. (2006). Millennium Park: Creating a Chicago Landmark. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-29349-3. *  “The Bean Unveiled”. Chicago Tonight. Chicago. May 15, 2006. * Jodidio, Philip (2005). Architecture: Art. Prestel. ISBN 3-7913-3279-1. * “Cloud Gate”. Chicago Architecture Info. Retrieved June 1, 2008. * Sharoff, Robert (2004). Better than Perfect: The Making of Chicago’s Millennium Park. Walsh Construction Company. Becker, Lynn. “A photo essay on the making of Anish Kapoor’s Cloud Gate sculpture in Chicago’s Millennium Park”. * Thomas, Neil and Chadwick, Aran (2009). Liquid Threshold. Atelier One. ISBN 978-0-9562563-0-0. ——————————————– [ 1 ]. Tusa, John. “Transcript of the John Tusa Interview with the sculptor Anish Kapoor. ” BBC Radio. British Broadcasting Company. n. d. Web. 31 Jan. 2010. [ 2 ]. Wadhwani, Sita (2009-09-14). “Anish Kapoor”. CNNGo. com. [ 3 ]. “Crain’s List Largest Tourist Attractions (Sightseeing): Ranked by 2007 attendance”.

Crain’s Chicago Business (Crain Communications Inc. ): p. 22. June 23, 2008. [ 4 ]. Anish Kapoor: Sky Mirror, September 19 – October 27, 2006 Public Art Fund. [ 5 ]. Nance, Kevin (July 14, 2004). “The Bean’s bone of contention”. Chicago Sun-Times(Newsbank). [ 6 ]. Steele, Jeffrey. “Special Project – Chicago’s Millennium Park Project”. McGraw-Hill Construction. [ 7 ]. “Making Metal Gleam”. USGlass 42 (4). April 2007. [ 8 ]. “Cloud Gate on the AT&T Plaza”. Millennium Park. Archived from the original on May 19, 2008. [ 9 ]. Lalit Suryawanshi – Tuesday, October 9th, 2007 @ 12:39am

Examples of Students Essays

Japanese Friendship Garden in Balboa Park Essay Example

Japanese Friendship Garden in Balboa Park Essay

            Japanese Friendship Garden is one of the eight distinct gardens located in Balboa Park in San Diego, California  (McCormick 2000) – Japanese Friendship Garden in Balboa Park Essay introduction. Originally, the Japanese Garden was built as a Japanese Tea House just south of Casa del Prado for the Panama-California Exposition in 1915 (2008). In Plaza de Panama, Foreign Arts Building and San Joaquin Valley Building are located. However, the San Joaquin Valley Building was demolished because it was unstable and in 1991 the Japanese Friendship Garden was built on the site (Marshall 2007). The Garden was developed with winding paths, Zen garden, koi-stocked ponds, and an elegant Japanese-style pavilion (Schulte-Peevers, Benson et al. 2006).

            The name of the Japanese Friendship Garden was coined from San-Kei-En which means “three Scene Garden” or the Water, Pastoral, and Mountain as a tribute to the San-Kei-En Garden in Yokohama. This signifies the ties and the blending of two cultures of the people of San Diego and Yokohama. Its design reflects the original principles of the Japanese Garden and a combination from the local regional landscape and culture. Also, it follows the Japanese principles of landscape design focusing on the people, natural environment, and the culture. The Japanese Friendship Garden is a development and extension of Japanese and culture from the home country of Japan and is always in a state of transition where people develop respect both for the environment and the cultural arts (Travaglini 2008).

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            The Garden showcases, a Fujidana (wisteria arbor) an exhibit house, bonsai exhibit, a ceremonial gate, and the perfect balance of the Zen garden with its manicures landscapes, winding pathways, tranquil waterfall, and ancient lanterns (2008). Traditional Japanese foods and beverages are served such as Japanese green tea, herbal teas, Japanese noodles, sushi, rice bowls, miso soup, snacks, and salads both in indoor and outdoor dining. The Garden has also been the venue for special events such as wedding ceremonies in its five major spectacular areas: the Koi Pond and moon viewing deck, the Ceremonial Gate, the Courtyard, the Exhibit House, and the Ceremonial Plaza (2008).

The Koi Pond is located underneath the Fujidana (wisteria arbor), surrounded by serene sounds of waterfall and is one of the favorite venues for ceremonies. The Ceremonial Gate, on the other hand, overlooks the neighboring building of Organ Pavilion’s Corinthian-style columns. At the front of the Garden, the magnificent courtyard is located with views of the Balboa Park and the Organ Pavilion. Guests can further view Japanese arts, crafts, and collections in the Exhibit House which reflects the traditional Japanese sukiya style. Moreover, receptions are held in the Ceremonial Plaza where the Ceremonial Gate serves as a background (2008).

              Figure 1 Monumental Stone Lantern from Miyanoshita

                                                                            (Tierney)

The Japanese term for the Japanese Garden is niwa which means “pure place” which reflects the purity of Eden before man sins. The principles in the Garden are related to the Zen philosophy where the Garden represents the universe and its elements namely fire, earth, water, air, plant, and animal life. A stone or the iron lantern stands for the fire while the stone also represents the earth and the water, air, plant, and animal life stand in their true form. The Zen Principles applied in the niwa are fukinsei (asymmetry/dissymmetry), kanso (simplicity), koko (austerity/maturity), shizen (absence of pretense), yugen (subtly profound), datsuzoku (unworldliness), and seijaku (calm). The principle of fukinsei refers to the Eastern concept of asymmetrical composition of balance where there is an irregular division. In the Western concept, this is described as disorganized or askew The Monumental Lantern Stone (Fig. 1) has height, width, and depth that are arranged asymmetrically or irregularity (Tierney).

  Figure 2 Moon window (Tierney)

The principle of kanso, on the other hand, presents basic simplicity without complexity and flamboyance. In the Eastern sense, kanso expresses cleanliness, freshness, neatness, natural truthfulness and reserved. The moon window (Fig. 2), for example, is just a simple endless circle window with a simple Ikebana. Also, the simplicity portrayed in kanso might as well be different from the Western counterpart. Koko principle reflects austerity and maturity at the same time of subjects in their bare bones such as The Silhouette of Izumo Shrine (Fog. 3). The visual elements show age, venerability with weathered, stern, and forbidding appearance. It may as well be difficult for the Westerners to appreciate koko since the East and the West have different concepts. Most of the koko principle are evident in ancient stones and weathered surfaces (Tierney).

     Figure 3 The Garden of Chishaku (Tierney)                              Figure 4 The Silhouette of Izumo Shrine (Tierney)

The fourth Zen principle, shizen, portrays the ‘true naturalness’ particularly from raw nature such as The Garden of Chishaku (Fig. 3) which is composed of creative arrangements of nature elements to rather express nature and not ‘occupy’ it. Shizen is described as naturalness, absence of artificiality, and a sense of artlessness but creative in intent. Datsuzoku, on the other hand, involves the immediate effect of expression–surprise. The ultimate surprise in the Japanese Garden is the ability of creating a niwa from the nature’s raw materials and portrays the ‘essence of natural things’. Tori from Miyajima (Fig. 4), for example, is a surprise since it is built in the water (Tierney).

     Figure 5 Tori from Miyajima (Tierney)                          Figure 3 View fat Tofuku-ji Temple (Tierney)

Seijaku is the Zen principle responsible for the silence, calmness, and stillness that visitors would feel upon entering a Japanese Garden. Disturbances and noises are totally absent. Seijaku is often portrayed in the stillness of water reflections. This principle is also related to the late autumn and early spring or dawn and dusk which have timely and seasonal characteristics (Tierney). In Tofuku-ji temple (Fig. 5), the principle of quietness is reflected (Tierney). A Japanese Garden is not a typical garden where numerous flowers and plants are planted. The stones, the ponds, the trees, and the paths all have symbolic representations reflecting the Zen philosophy and other subjects or aspirations. The seven principles of Zen philosophy do not have a definite meaning and are correlated with other principles (Tierney).

References

(2008). “Japanese Friendship Garden.”   Retrieved 9 June 2008, 2008, from            http://www.balboapark.org/in-the-park/detail.php?OrgID=8.

(2008). “Special Events.”   Retrieved 9 June, 2008, from    http://www.niwa.org/display/SpecialEvents.asp.

Marshall, D. (2007). San Diego’s Balboa Park, Arcadia Publishing.

McCormick, K. (2000). The Garden Lover’s Guide to the West, Princeton Architectural Press.

Schulte-Peevers, A., S. Benson, et al. (2006). California, Lonely Planet.

Tierney, L. “Zen Principles which relate to the Niwa.”   Retrieved 9 June, 2008, from            http://www.niwa.org/display/RelatedTopics.asp.

Travaglini, M. (2008). “Tour.”   Retrieved 9 June, 2008, from         http://www.niwa.org/display/Approach.asp?parentID=145.

 

Examples of Students Essays

Golden Gate Bridge Essay Example

Golden Gate Bridge Essay

The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening of the San Francisco bay into the Pacific Ocean – Golden Gate Bridge Essay introduction. The Golden Gate Bridge was the longest suspension bridge span in the world when it was completed in 1937, and has become one of the most internationally recognized symbols of San Francisco, California, and of the United States, San Francisco’s city engineer estimated the cost at $100 million, impractical for the time, and fielded the question to bridge engineers of whether it could be built for less.

One who responded, Joseph Strauss, was ambitious but dreamy engineer and poet who had, for his graduate thesis, designed a 55 mile long railroad bridge across the Bering Strait. At the time, Strauss had completed some 400 drawbridges- most of which were inland- and nothing on the scale of the new project. Strauss spent more than a decade drumming up support in Northern California. The bridge faced opposition, including litigation, for many sources.

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The Department of War was concerned that the bridge would interfere with ship traffic; The Navy feared that a ship collision or sabotage to the bridge could block the entrance to one of it’s main harbors. In May 1924, Colonel Herbert Deakyne held the second hearing on the bridge on behalf of the Secretary of war in a request to use Federal land for construction. The bridges name was first used when the project was initially discussed in 1917 by M. M O’Shaughnessy, city engineer of San Francisco, and Strauss.

The name became official with the passage of the Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District Act by the State Legislature in 1923. On June 12, the Santa Rosa chamber voted to endorse the actions of the “Bridging the Golden Gate Association” by attending the meeting of the Boards of Supervisors in San Francisco on June 23 and by requesting that the Board of Supervisors of Sonoma County also attend. By 1925, the Santa Rosa camber had assumed responsibility for circulating ridge petitions as the next step for the formation of the Golden Gate Bridge. Iring Morrow, a relatively unknown residential architect, designed the overall shape of the bridge towers, the lighting scheme, and Art Deco elements such as the streetlights, railing, and walkways. The famous International orange color was originally used as a Sealand for the bridge. Senior Engineer Charles Alton Ellis, collaborating remotely with famed bridge designer Leon Moisseiff , was the principle engineer of the project.

Although the Golden Gate Bridge designer has porved sound , a later Moisseiff design , the original Tacoma Narrow Bridge, collapsed in a strong windstorm soon after it was completed, because of an unexpected aeroelastic flutter. He became an expert in strural design, writing the standard textbook of the time. Ellis did much of the technical and theoretical work that built the bridge, but he received none of the credit in his lifetime.

In November 1931, Strauss fired Ellis and replaced him with a former subordinate, Clifford Paine, ostensibly for wasting too much money sending telegrams back and forth to Moisseiff. Only much later were the contributions of the others on design team properly appreciated. In May 2007, the Golden Gate Bridge District issued a formal report on 70 years of stewardshipof the famous bridge and decided to give Ellis major credit for the design of the bridge. Before the bridge was built, the only practical short route between San Francisco and what is now Marin County was by boat across a section of San Francisco Bay.

The Sausalito Land Ferry Company service, launched in 1867, eventually became the Golden Gate Bridge Ferry Company, a southern Pacific Railroad subsidiary, the largest ferry operation in the world by the late 1920s. The ferry crossing between the Hyde Street Pier in sane Francisco and Sausalito in Martin County took approximately 20 minutes and cost US $1. 00 per vehicle, a price later reduced to compete with the new bridge. Many wanted to build a bridge to connect San Francisco to Martin County. San Francisco was the largest American city still served primarily by ferry boats.

Because it did not have a permanent link with communities around the bay, the city’s growth rate was below the national average. Many experts said that a bridge couldn’t be built across the 6,700 ft [2,042 m] strait. It was going to be painted with black and yellow stripes by the US Navy to ensure visibility to passing ships. The Golden Gate Bridge and highway District, authorized by an act of the California Legislature, was incorporated in 1928 as the official entity to design, construct, and finance the Golden Gate Bridge.

Examples of Students Essays

Rizal Park Essay Example

Rizal Park Essay

Rizal or Luneta Park should make it to the top 5 tourist spots in Manila-Philippines – Rizal Park Essay introduction. It was where the national hero, Jose Rizal, was martyred through a military musketry when Spain occupied the country in the 19th century. It is also among the places in the country known the world over since early times. Rizal Park includes the Chinese and Japanese Gardens, Manila Planetarium, Quirino Grandstand, Ocean Adventure, Part of Manila Bay, and the giant map of the Philippines. Fort Santiago Visitors and tourists often have Fort Santiago next in their Manila itinerary after visiting Rizal Park.

It is just adjacent to it, so this makes it among the top 5 tourist spots in Manila-Philippines. Moreover, Fort Santiago is as historical as Luneta and also had to do with the last moments of Jose Rizalhe was imprisoned there for some time before being shot at Luneta. In fact, metallic footsteps can be seen today from the prison cell of Rizal in Fort Santiago to Luneta to mark where the hero was said to have walked during that fateful morning. Fort Santiago also features dungeons, cells, ruins, and a museum for Rizal, among many others.

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Fort Santiago was used by the Spaniards, Americans, and Japanese. Intramuros After visiting Fort Santiago, tourists might as well tour Intramuros or the Walled City, where Fort Santiago is located. It is just one among many forts located around the walls. Visit also old century-old buildings like the Manila Cathedral and the San Agustin Church, all within Intramuros. There are colorful horse-drawn calesas or carts reminiscent of the Spanish time that bring tourists around the restored walls and stop at each historic spot.

The calesa drivers prove to be expert tourist guides. Bay Walk Area The long stretch of national highway from the US Embassy to a portion just before the Coastal Road to Cavite offers a panoramic view of Manila Bay. It is most picturesque in the afternoon as the dying sun emits golden rays and lends golden tones especially to the towering hotels and office buildings nearby. The renovated bay wall is now a tourist-class promenade known as Bay Walk Area where stylish benches are propped up for frolicking and where people roam around for fresh air or jog in early mornings.

Being now a popular sightseeing destination, it is among the top 5 tourist spots in Manila-Philippines. Quiapo Church Most tourists in Manila never miss the old Quiapo Church. It is located in Plaza Miranda, the historical center in Manila where so-called parliaments of the streets congregate and boldly air their political agenda or grievances against the government. Quiapo Church is home to the Black Nazarene which is paraded each year with crowds of the faithful escorting it in a very emotional procession.

Examples of Students Essays

Evaluate the Significance of Socilogy To Understand Social Work Practice Essay Example

Evaluate the Significance of Socilogy To Understand Social Work Practice Essay

Sociology comes from the Latin word ‘socius’, which means people and the Greek word ‘logos’, that means study of – Evaluate the Significance of Socilogy To Understand Social Work Practice Essay introduction. Macaronis and Plummer (cited in Cree 2001:1) describe sociology as “the systematic, sceptical study of human sociology. ” By studying sociology we can gain an insight into why people have social problems and make sense of them by not necessarily blaming the individual. We can achieve this by looking at the societies that people live in and the roles that they play in that community. I will briefly describe the three main sociological perspectives and some more recent contemporary ones.

I will also evaluate the significance of sociology to social work practice, in particular to older people and discuss ageism as a social problem. Sociology covers many subjects such as religion, class, ethnicity, sex, race, education and crime to name but a few. Society is made up of social institutions such as the family, law and peer groups. These institutions are made up of different and diverse cultures that may share common values. Cultures are made up of values, norms, customs and each having their role and status in society. People are born into society and go through a process called socialisation.

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This is where cultures are taught and norms and values learned and become internalised, or taken for granted. Primary socialisation is the early years of learning, normally taught by parents or older siblings. Secondary socialisation is learned at school, though media, and peer groups and continues throughout life. Secondary socialisation is the process through which people develop their social identity and learn the roles they play in society. These roles are forever changing throughout life, such as daughter to wife and worker to retiree.

There are many sociological perspectives, the main three being the functionalist perspective, the Marxist perspective and the social action theory. Each theory or perspective is a different way of viewing society and individuals within society. However, a social worker needs to be aware that in some cases one generic theory cannot always be applied. I will explain briefly the three main classic perspectives and how each views society, I am aware that each perspective has its criticisms but due to a limited word count, it is not an area I can discuss in detail. “Functionalism is a structuralist theory.

This means that it sees the individual as less important than the social structure or organisations of society. ” Moore et al (2001:6) Functionalists study society at the macro level. They view society as a system whose parts are interrelated and form a whole and that the individual is a product of society. People are influenced by social institutions, such as their family and peer groups and usually act accordingly to established norms and rules. Order and stability are essential for the survival of the social system as a whole. Social systems have their functions- hence functionalism that maintain the stability of the whole system.

Cree (2000) Emile Durkeim, Auguste Comte, who first termed the word sociology and Talcott Parsons were the most influential functionalists. Parsons thought that “socialisation is the key to understanding human behaviour patterns” Moore et al (2001:7) and is understood by the process of socialisation. Durkeims aim was to “create a new understanding of society” (Cree 200:11) and thought that behaviour may be comprehended by the social structures and not by the individuals personal preferences. For instance we are heavily influenced to act in certain ways due to laws, policies and religion.

Therefore our behaviour is governed by the rules of society and the roles that we assume throughout our lives. Parsons viewed the nuclear family as the ideal for children to be socialised into, with one instrumental leader, which was the male breadwinner for the family and an expressive leader, which was the term he used for the role of the housewife and mother. The family was the main instrument to socialisation and not just to maintain the health of the family but “met “the needs of society and industrial economy for a mobile and adaptable workforce”.

Moore et al (2001:41) His argument was that whilst the division of labour was split, family decisions are solved easier, without disagreement as each member of the family had their specific role in the structure of society. Marxism is based on the ideas of Karl Marx. It is a perspective that is based on a class system, split into two categories, the worker, which he called the proletariat, and the bosses, or employers as the bourgeoisie. He called the bourgeoisie the ruling class. Marxism, like functionalism is a structuralist theory and concentrates on the macro level.

Marxism sees the economic organisation of societies as responsible for the behaviour of individuals. This is because Marxism claims that individuals are the products of class relationships that characterise economic life”. Moore et al (2001:10). The Bourgeoisie were the owners of the means of production, therefore, controlling the major institutions of society. Marxists believe that the proletariats did not challenge the capitalist system as the ruling class governed the economy and institutions such as the family, religion and the education system, which all are responsible for the process of socialisation.

Marxists believe that society has unequal class systems and the bourgeoisie exploit the working class by pocketing the profits made by the proletariat and that society is a meritocratic society, however Karl Marx believed that in the future “the economic system will come under communal ownership and a more equal society than we know at present will be established. ” Giddens (1997:10) The social action theory has the opposing view from functionalists and Marxists in that it focuses on the individual in society and it looks at how people react to one another and have a more involved role in shaping social life.

The social action theory studies society at the micro level. “If structuralist theory is a ‘top-down’ theory, then the social action theory is a ‘bottom-up’ as it starts with people, rather than society. ” Moore et al (2001:14) Max Weber is one of the most famous sociologists in this field. He thought that individuals were free to choose their actions and roles. He suggested that they were also able to step out from one role to another and change them if they wanted and were not restricted by others in society into acting roles as directed by others in society. In Webers view, cultural ideas and values help shape society and shape our individual actions” (Giddens (1997:11). Weber thought that different forms of action could understand behaviour. * Traditional action occurs, when actors choose to do things because they’ve always done so. * Effective actions occur when actors cannot help but do something or other for emotional reasons. * Value-orientated action occurs when one principle or purpose overrides all others. * Rational action occurs when actors weigh up or “calculate”, the most efficient ways of achieving specific ends.

Bilton et al. (1996:89) Weber disagreed with the Marxist view that class conflict was the greatest influence on social change but values are of equal influence. Functionalism, Marxism and social action theory are the three main sociological perspectives, however more contemporary perspectives were developed in the latter half of the 20th Century, feminism, anti-racist and postmodern perspectives, each like the other perspectives have their own view of explaining behaviour, individuals and society.

Feminists believed that men and women are treated unequally in nearly every aspect of social institutions, including work and the home. There are several variations of feminism such as Marxist feminists, black feminists, liberal feminists and radical feminists, each having a slightly different perspective however each challenging conventional sociology and that women have been and are unfairly treated. A key term for most feminists is gender. Moore et al (2001:27) defines gender as “the expectations society places on males and females.

Gender expectations are transmitted to the next generation through gender role socialisation”. He goes on to explain that gender is a result of social construction, however there is a big difference in experiences between the sexes and the roles we play in society. For instance women are still expected to be the homemakers and the division of labour within the home is still very unequal. Anti racist or ‘black’ perspectives are concerned with the racist assumptions and experiences of ethnic minorities in Britain. The term ‘black feminism’ is concerned with the oppression that ‘black’ women face through sexism and racism.

This is often termed as a double jeopardy as ‘black’ women may be oppressed for being ‘black’ as well as being a woman. “Postmodernalists believe that we are living in a vastly different society that was predicted by the early sociological writers (Cree 2000) as we live in a multi racial and cultural society and believe that many sociological ideas are becoming irrelevant. “Postmodern culture is also about mixing and matching seemingly contradicting style” Moore et al (2001:19). Each sociological perspective has its uses in understanding behaviour and explaining social problems, however each has its criticisms.

Functionalists have been criticised for failing to explain conflicts and diversity and over emphasising social order. They have also been criticised for ignoring freedom of individual choices. Functionalists view the process of socialisation as never failing, which of course it can do. Some Marxists also ignore people’s freedom of choices and put too much importance and emphasis on conflict. Social action theory is criticised, as the theory does not explain in detail who is responsible for demonstrating norms and power. A social problem is a problem in society that affects many people rather than individuals.

A social workers role is to work in partnership with other organisations to alleviate these problems. The worker alone can’t solve social problems. By using the term our sociological imagination, we can see that individual’s problems; such as poverty are not necessarily that individuals’ fault, but a problem in society. This includes taking a holistic approach and looking at the issues as a whole to aid people to improve the quality of their lives.

This also involves recognising individuals cultural and lifestyle differences and addressing discrimination and helping people who are marginalized by intervening to achieve change. Social workers must be able to understand the connections between individuals problems and society, between personal troubles and the public issues of social structure (Mills 1959:8 cited in Cree 2000:5). It is also helpful to the client to be aware that their problem is not a result of their own misfortune or bad planning but a social problem, for instance, housing or poverty issues. Sociology provides an underpinning that enables social workers to look beyond the immediate problems and a quick solution and to see the broader picture from others’ viewpoint.

Social workers need to understand and be clear why they are following the actions they are taking and to be aware of what assumptions may underline these actions as social structures do not treat people individually or equally. In the client group that I work, which is older people, there are many sociological problems such as housing. Grouping people together in sheltered housing, tending to be in areas with no access to shops, public transport, public amenities and the community in general, often marginalizes people.

In this instance they become more dependent on services and are unable to do things for themselves because there is often no one around to assist, such as neighbours. Services are just too far away to access. However, the local authority that I work for has a scheme that has been established for some years. It is sheltered housing that is situated right in a town centre with ‘in house’ homecare. It is close to the shops, bus routes and is next door to the local community centre. People are able to remain members of society and the community without being excluded due to disabilities.

It is also common for older people not to have a voice to express their problems through strokes or illness. It is the social workers role to assist the client to communicate their needs and overcome their exclusion. Advocacy is a way of communicating and engaging with the client as well as promoting enabling clients to have their say. Another social problem that older people often experience is finding themselves not able to integrate into society because of social structures or their networks. In a town that is by the sea, older people retire to an area that they may have spent happier times whilst on holiday.

They leave their families behind and live in properties that they plan to spend the rest of their lives in. When and if it comes to a time that they become ‘incapacitated’ it is common that they are often left isolated from their communities with no support from families. Before the Care In The Community Act 1990 one of the solutions would be for the client to admit themselves into residential care. According to the Griffiths Report, it is the social workers responsibility to view moving to permanent residential care as a positive move and not as a last resort.

They must intervene and provide long term care packages to prevent the admission to residential care and to enable the client to be interdependent, rather than dependent. Some clients are state dependent on the retirement pension and income support, barely able to pay for the private services that are not provided by social services due to the eligibility criteria, as the retirement pension is about one third of the average income. “The key to ‘successful aging’ is limited by the low level of resources available to many older people” Gilleard & Higgs (2000:15). However, it must not be assumed that all older people live on the bread line.

There is very little literature from the traditional functionalist and Marxist perspective on aging as older people were in a minority, however the percentage of older people in Britain today has increased from the beginning of the 20th Century, due to quality of life and healthcare. “Now, for the very first time, the European population contains as many people over 60 as it does under 15” Talcott Parsons saw retirement as a “loss of role and therefore of integration into society. ” Gilleard & Higgs (2000:12) There are many sociological changes that older people have to go through in the latter part of their life.

The role of husband or wife may change from that to widow or widower and independent to dependent or interdependent. Some larger companies are introducing courses for people reaching retirement age as a way of making the transition a less stressful and manageable experience, however it is very common for people to retire at an earlier age due to private pension schemes and investments. “In the last two decades, income from occupational pensions has risen by more than 150 per cent for recently retired people. ” Gilleard & Higgs (2000:37)

All these role changes may cause major upheaval, not just to the individual, but to the family also. “Structured dependency theorists view retirement as a key element in the transition towards a less socially valued identity” Gilleard & Higgs (2000:32), which disadvantages older people. Older people are often viewed as a burden and a have a negative image. As an assistant care manager, I experience ageism even from other professionals. For instance, it is very common for an older person to visit their G. P. with a health problem to be told that the problem is “just their age” and nothing can be done for them.

Another example is if an older person has had a stroke and is waiting for a bed on a rehabilitation unit, when a bed comes up, priority may go to a younger person. Of course older people also experience positive discrimination such as enjoying discounts for bus passes and entry for certain attractions. Ageing is still seen as a negative experience in British society, where as some other cultures, older often equals wiser. Elders are respected and are authorative figures. Service providers and social services also can add to the negative images by labelling people into categories such as disabled or frail.

These terms are often used to determine what services the client is eligible for. The social worker should challenge marginalising by being cautious not to reinforce these negative labels by careful use of language and by concentrating on strengths, not just the clients needs. Workers will often have to work on clients’ self-esteem if they have been marginalized. Older people services are also often allocated lower budgets, therefore social workers may have to put their case to a panel to gain access to services that the clients need and deserve.

Older people are tagged onto the same policies that are used generically for all adult social services clients, having little policy to protect from abuse. Neil Thompson (2001) describes how discrimination and marginalizing of clients affect circumstances of clients. He uses the PCS model. “P refers to the personal or Psychological. ” Thompson (2001:21) This is personal feelings and emotions, he also refers the P to practice. “Individual workers interacting with individual clients” (Ibid) C refers to the “cultural level of shared ways of seeing, thinking and doing. ” (Ibid) This sis our social norms and values of the society we live in.

S refers to the structural level, the network of social divisions and the power relations that are so closely associated with them” Thompson (2001:22) It is also the way that discrimination is normalised in our society. This model can be used with all types of discrimination to illustrate the effects of discrimination not just on the individual but also on society. It can work back the other way as societies views and actions can affect the individual. As mentioned earlier, the social worker needs to be aware that their actions can add to marginalizing and discrimination and how others actions affects individuals and the community as a whole. PCS analysis shows the different levels at which discrimination operates and how these reinforce each other. Thompson (2001:24)

In conclusion, I have described the three main sociological perspectives and also briefly explained the more contemporary perspectives developed in the 20th century. I have demonstrated why applying theory is important to social work practice and discussed ageism as a social problem. I have outlined how discrimination affects individuals and the society as a whole and how social workers can assist to alleviate the problem.

Examples of Students Essays

?Explain why the Constitutional crisis happened during 1909-1911 Essay Example

?Explain why the Constitutional crisis happened during 1909-1911 Essay

Explain why the constitutional crisis happened during 1909-1911

A constitutional crisis is whereby the traditional principle of governance is broken – ?Explain why the Constitutional crisis happened during 1909-1911 Essay introduction. A constitutional crisis occurred in Britain during 1909 as the proposed ‘peoples budget’ was rejected by the House of Lords even though it had gained a huge majority of the House of Commons (379 to 149). The House of Lords did not traditionally veto any financial bill e.g. the budget; therefore the veto on the people’s budget put forward by Lloyd George caused tension between the two houses. The budget proposed to increase the tax on the rich with a ‘super tax’ and new land taxes.

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These proposals angered the conservatives because they were rich and most of their wealth was from land so the taxes seemed to be directed at them which seemed unfair toward them. Because of this conservatives were strongly against this bill and as they made up the majority in the House of Lords they rejected the bill which demonstrated a power struggle in the political system and was the trigger cause to the constitutional crisis. Furthermore, another reason why the constitutional crisis happened was because of the disagreements over the home rule of Ireland. This can be seen as a long term cause of the constitutional crisis as it been disputed between liberals and conservatives for a number of years prior to 1909. Since 1892 liberals wanted pass an Irish home rule bill which would give Ireland independence however conservatives disagreed to the proposed bill and vetoed it several times. Once again this dispute between the House of Lords and commons highlighted the power struggle. Moreover, the most significant cause of the constitutional crisis was the fact that the conservatives had the overall majority in the House of Lords.

After the liberal landslide in 1906 the house of commons was dominated by liberals so any bill the liberal party put forward would almost certainly pass the commons; however conservatives still had ‘real’ power as they could veto a bill which they done with several bills e.g.(home rule of Ireland and the peoples budget). There was an evident power struggle and liberals felt that the conservatives were vetoing bills because it was a show of power; however it could be argued that the liberals put these bills through deliberately as they knew the Lords would reject them and therefore this would lead to a crisis. In conclusion, the constitutional crisis happened due to various reasons but the most significant was the dominance that the conservatives had in the House of Lords.