Examples of Students Essays

The Treaty of Berlin – Abstract

The Treaty of Berlin
an international agreement signed by
1 (13) July 1878 as a result of the Berlin
Congress. The treatise has changed the terms
previously signed the San Stefano
contract to the detriment of Russia and the Slavic
the peoples of the Balkan Peninsula.


The results
treatise



  • Bulgaria
    was divided into three parts: vassal
    the Principality of the Danube to the Balkans with the center
    in Sofia; the Bulgarian lands South of the Balkans
    formed the Autonomous province
    The Ottoman Empire — Eastern Rumelia
    centered in Philippopolis; Macedonia —
    land to the Adriatic sea and the Aegean sea
    back Turkey without any
    change in the status.


  • Bulgaria
    with the center in Sofia was declared Autonomous
    Principality, an elected head of which
    it was claimed by the Sultan with the consent of the great
    powers. Temporarily managing Bulgaria
    before the introduction of its Constitution remained
    the Russian Commissioner, however, the term
    stay of the Russian troops in Bulgaria
    was limited to 9 months. Turkish
    the troops had no right to be in
    the Principality, but it was obliged to pay
    Turkey an annual tribute.


  • Turkey
    got the right to protect the border and
    Eastern Rumelia forces only
    regular troops, located in
    the border garrisons.


  • Thrace
    and Albania remained in Turkey. In these
    provinces, as well as in Crete and Turkish
    Armenia, Turkey pledged to carry out
    local government reform in
    according to organic regulations
    1868, equating the rights of Christians
    with Muslims.


  • Turkey
    refused to benefit from the rights of Persia
    in the disputed border town
    Hotur.

     

     


  • Was
    recognized the independence of Montenegro,
    Serbia and Romania.


  • Territorial
    increment of Montenegro and Serbia,
    under the San Stefano Treaty
    was curtailed.


  • Montenegro
    received on the Adriatic sea port
    Antivari, were denied the right to have a fleet, and
    marine and sanitary control in these
    waters was transferred to the Austro-Hungarian Empire.


  • Territory
    Serbia increased somewhat, but not
    at the expense of Bosnia, but at the expense of the lands
    claimed by Bulgaria.


  • Romania
    received Northern Dobrogea (English).
    and the Danube Delta.


  • Austria-Hungary
    won the right to the occupation of Bosnia and
    Herzegovina, and to keep garrisons
    between Serbia and Montenegro in
    Novopazarsky the Sanjak, which
    remained over Turkey.


  • The fix
    the Greek-Turkish border has been granted
    negotiations of the two countries in
    the mediation of the European powers in
    the event of their failure. The final decision
    to increase the territory of Greece was
    taken in 1880 by transfer Greece
    Thessaly and part of Epirus.


  • Guaranteed
    freedom of navigation on the Danube from the Black
    sea to the Iron Gates.


  • Russia refused
    from Bayazet and Alashkert valley and
    only acquired Ardahan, Kars and Batum,
    pledging to introduce a regime
    Porto-Franco (a free port of trade).
    Russia takes over southern Bessarabia.



The Treaty of Berlin
remained in force until the Balkan wars
1912-1913, but some of his decisions
remained unfulfilled or were later
changed. So, it was not implemented
Turkey promised reforms of local
government in areas inhabited
Christians. Bulgaria and Eastern
Rumelia in 1885, merged into a single
Principality. In 1886 Russia canceled
Porto-Franco in Batum. In 1908
Bulgaria declared itself independent from
Turkey Kingdom, and Austria-Hungary
turned the occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
in the annexation.


According to the testimony of
British historian A. Taylor,
the Treaty of Berlin “was a kind of
the watershed”, which was preceded by
30 years of war, and after it was installed
time of peace for 34 years. However, this
visibility was hiding tense
diplomatic struggle and the threat of war
constantly hung over Europe. [1]



List
literature:



  1. Nikolai Troitsky
    Foreign policy 1879-1894. / /
    in the XIX century. A course of lectures. M., 1997.



Source:
http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Берлинский_трактат_(1878)