The Treaty of Berlin—
an international agreement signed by
1 (13) July 1878 as a result of the Berlin
Congress. The treatise has changed the terms
previously signed the San Stefano
contract to the detriment of Russia and the Slavic
the peoples of the Balkan Peninsula.
was divided into three parts: vassal
the Principality of the Danube to the Balkans with the center
in Sofia; the Bulgarian lands South of the Balkans
formed the Autonomous province
The Ottoman Empire — Eastern Rumelia
centered in Philippopolis; Macedonia —
land to the Adriatic sea and the Aegean sea
back Turkey without any
change in the status.
with the center in Sofia was declared Autonomous
Principality, an elected head of which
it was claimed by the Sultan with the consent of the great
powers. Temporarily managing Bulgaria
before the introduction of its Constitution remained
the Russian Commissioner, however, the term
stay of the Russian troops in Bulgaria
was limited to 9 months. Turkish
the troops had no right to be in
the Principality, but it was obliged to pay
Turkey an annual tribute.
got the right to protect the border and
Eastern Rumelia forces only
regular troops, located in
the border garrisons.
and Albania remained in Turkey. In these
provinces, as well as in Crete and Turkish
Armenia, Turkey pledged to carry out
local government reform in
according to organic regulations
1868, equating the rights of Christians
refused to benefit from the rights of Persia
in the disputed border town
recognized the independence of Montenegro,
Serbia and Romania.
increment of Montenegro and Serbia,
under the San Stefano Treaty
received on the Adriatic sea port
Antivari, were denied the right to have a fleet, and
marine and sanitary control in these
waters was transferred to the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Serbia increased somewhat, but not
at the expense of Bosnia, but at the expense of the lands
claimed by Bulgaria.
received Northern Dobrogea (English).
and the Danube Delta.
won the right to the occupation of Bosnia and
Herzegovina, and to keep garrisons
between Serbia and Montenegro in
Novopazarsky the Sanjak, which
remained over Turkey.
the Greek-Turkish border has been granted
negotiations of the two countries in
the mediation of the European powers in
the event of their failure. The final decision
to increase the territory of Greece was
taken in 1880 by transfer Greece
Thessaly and part of Epirus.
freedom of navigation on the Danube from the Black
sea to the Iron Gates.
from Bayazet and Alashkert valley and
only acquired Ardahan, Kars and Batum,
pledging to introduce a regime
Porto-Franco (a free port of trade).
Russia takes over southern Bessarabia.
The Treaty of Berlin
remained in force until the Balkan wars
1912-1913, but some of his decisions
remained unfulfilled or were later
changed. So, it was not implemented
Turkey promised reforms of local
government in areas inhabited
Christians. Bulgaria and Eastern
Rumelia in 1885, merged into a single
Principality. In 1886 Russia canceled
Porto-Franco in Batum. In 1908
Bulgaria declared itself independent from
Turkey Kingdom, and Austria-Hungary
turned the occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
in the annexation.
According to the testimony of
British historian A. Taylor,
the Treaty of Berlin “was a kind of
the watershed”, which was preceded by
30 years of war, and after it was installed
time of peace for 34 years. However, this
visibility was hiding tense
diplomatic struggle and the threat of war
constantly hung over Europe. 
Foreign policy 1879-1894. / /
in the XIX century. A course of lectures. M., 1997.