Examples of Students Essays

Forms and types of entrepreneurship (3) the Abstract , page 3


II.
Types
and form of entrepreneurial activity.



Entrepreneurship in different sectors
has obvious features and is different
the content and techniques of
entrepreneurial actions. Even the view
of goods and services, with whom it has
the entrepreneur, the method of their preparation
actively influences the nature
business. For example, one situation where
the entrepreneur produces goods
acquiring the factors of production, the other
when he sells the finished product,
and third – when the entrepreneur does not
produces goods, not sells them, and
mediating, connecting producers
and consumers.



Forms of entrepreneurship depend on
from the fact whether the entrepreneur
independently or in cooperation with
other entrepreneurs, uses
for business only the property or
attracts the property of other persons,
only uses the personal labor or
attracts employees.



In the case when the entrepreneur
acts as a natural person when
the registration of the business, but
without the registration status of the enterprise
this is the simplest form of doing business
individual entrepreneurship.
Examples of such business
is any activity, from
growing cucumbers in your garden
and selling them in the market to rent
their homes to other people.



In some cases the law provides
the need for state
licenses
issued for private
cost and entitling them to specific types
individual entrepreneurship,
for example, on hunting and fishing
at certain scales, medical
educational services, transportation
goods. For systematic workouts
certain activities
acquired the patent.



The kind of personal
entrepreneurship is a
family business which relates to
collective forms of doing business.



Collective
entrepreneurship
is not
requires, as a rule, refusal
ownership of property each
entrepreneur establishing a common
firms with other entrepreneurs.
The only question is how shares common
income. However, most forms
collective entrepreneurship
associated with the merger of capital, the creation
legal entity in the form of economic
companies. As a variant of conditional preservation
of ownership in the collective
entrepreneurship can lead
its transformation into a joint-stock property,
where each shareholder – the owner of his
action.



Unification, integration forms
enterprise
issued in
the form of associations and unions. If
entrepreneurship join
state-owned enterprises and organizations
then we can talk about the state
entrepreneurship. It’s possible
for example, in the case of a lease entrepreneurs
state or municipal
of ownership.



Forms of entrepreneurship in turn
can be divided into organizational and
legal and organizational – economic.
Among the organizational – legal
forms
– partnerships, associations,
cooperatives.



Business partnership
is a commercial organization
is a legal person with
split on deposits (shares) of the founders
(participants) share capital, having
as the main purpose of the activity
profit.



Business partnerships can
be created in the form of a full partnership
limited partnership, partnership
with limited liability,
partnership with additional
responsibility and joint
companies. Banks, insurance companies,
investment companies and capital,
other similar organizations, activities of
which is based on the attraction
money and other property of persons who are not
participants in partnerships established
and act in the forms of economic
partnerships that are defined for
these organizations special
the legislative acts.



Full recognized partnership
the participants in case of insufficient
the property of a full partnership shall bear
joint and several liability for its
obligations with all of them
property. Full partnership is not
require Charter. It is created on the basis of
the Memorandum, which
is signed by all participants.
In the Memorandum specifies
the name of the partnership, the place of his
finding the right management it
activity, size and composition of the share
capital of the partnership, the order changes
the share of each of its members. Here
also contains statement of responsibility
participants of a full partnership for
violation of duty to make
deposits etc.



Profits and losses of a full partnership
distributed among its members
in proportion to their shares in the share
capital. To determine the size
taxes each party adds
their share of the profits to its
income from this amount, and pays taxes.



A somewhat different situation in mixed
(limited partnership) the partnership (or
a limited partnership). Alongwith participants engaged from
behalf of the partnership business
activities and responsible for
the obligations of the partnership to its
property (full partners), there are
one or several participants-depositors
(limited partners) who bear the risk
losses associated with the activities
of the partnership, within the sums
of their contributions. Limited partners
do not participate in the implementation
partnership business
activities.



A limited partnership, as full
the partnership has no formal Charter. It
is created and operates on the basis of
the Memorandum, which
signed by all General partners.



The next group of entrepreneurial
(commercial) companies- the economic
companies
: limited
liability, company with additional
liability, joint-stock company.



At the initial stage of economic transition
Kazakhstan to market relations the broad
widespread partnership
limited liability (LLP).
The civil code retained the basic
principles, too, in the form of companies with
limited liability. This
the company is founded by one or more
persons. The authorized capital is divided
on shares of the certain constituent
documents sizes. Members of society
a limited liability
liable for its obligations and bear
the risk of losses connected with the activity
companies, within the amount made
their contributions.



In contrast to the limited
responsibility members of society
additional liability
jointly and severally liable for
its obligations with their property in
the same for all times to
the value of their contributions determined by
the constituent documents of the company.
In case of bankruptcy of one of participants
its liability for the obligations of
society is divided between the rest
the participants proportionately to their contributions.



Widely common form
entrepreneurship in the modern
conditions are joint-stock companies.
According To The Law Of The Republic Of Kazakhstan
may 13, 2003. No. 451-11: “Joint
company is a legal entity,
issuing shares in order to attract
of funds to carry out its
activities.”



Most joint-stock companies created
by privatization of state and
municipal enterprises. Authorized
the capital stock of the company sub-divided
a certain number of shares. Participants
joint-stock company (shareholders) do not
liable for its obligations and bear
the risk of losses connected with the activity
society, within the cost
of shares owned by them.



Joint stock companies can be open
and closed.



From the closed joint-stock companies
shares can only accommodate among
its founders and pre-determined
. the Number of shareholders shall not
to exceed one hundred, except in cases
when the closed joint-stock company
is a non-profit organization.



Open joint-stock company is
joint-stock company, whose members
can freely sell and buy
shares of the company without the consent of the other
shareholders. It can conduct open
subscription for shares issued by them, which
can freely handle stock
market. It implies complete openness
companies and careful monitoring
activity, so it must
every year to publish for General
information:




  • annual report;



  • the balance sheet;





  • account of profits and losses;




and this year, raising professional
auditor for inspection and confirmation
the annual financial statements.



JSC, as a company, are reasonably
a popular form of entrepreneurship
in Kazakhstan and around the world.



The company was created by a group of persons for
joint production or
economic activity is called
cooperative. Mandatoryin
the cooperative is the personal labor
or other participation of its members in activities
co-op, and combining it
members property share
contributions. The cooperative movement in the USSR
in the era of perestroika was developing at a rapid
pace. In just two years, since 1987. at
1989. the number of cooperatives in the country
grew by 15 times –from 13,9 thousand to 210тысяч. And
the volume of output
increased from 350 million to 41млрд. RUB
or in 117 times. Increased steadily and
the number of people employed in the cooperative
sector: 1990. it reached 5 million.
people.8



In modern business practice
cooperatives by turnover is
a relatively small share,
although they are common in many
countries. In Kazakhstan cooperatives
spread primarily
in production activities, in
services and intermediary trade
region. For cooperative forms
entrepreneurship is typical
the establishment of close links of the members
of the cooperative by the cooperative.
A typical example is country
and housing cooperatives.

Examples of Students Essays

Forms and types of entrepreneurship (2) – Course work , page 1


COURSE WORK



at the rate “Economy”



on the topic: “Forms and types
entrepreneurship”



The contents


Introduction


1.
Form of business


2.
Types of business activities


Conclusion


Literature



Introduction



Business activities
(entrepreneurship) is
a proactive self
the economic activity of citizens and
their associations, aimed at obtaining
profit or income. This
mind not just getting some mass
profit, and the receipt of such amount,
which will allow the company to develop
at a normal pace.



Main characteristics
components of entrepreneurship
regulated by the Civil Code
(CC) OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION.



Entrepreneurship can
be exercised only in a market
economy. Thus, in the modern world,
as a rule, in its pure form (i.e. without
government intervention) market
missing. The experience of developed countries
confirms that the most effective
is “mixed economy”, in
which there is interference
States, particularly in the field of
the redistribution of the final product.



This work is devoted to types,
forms and methods of implementation
entrepreneurship.
The work consists of two chapters. In the first
the Chapter examines the forms of
business activities in
the second types of business
activities.



1. Forms of business
activities



Business management
means have a subject specific
the totality of rights and freedoms by:




  • choice of the type of economic
    activities;



  •  the implementation of its planning;



  •  the choice of funding sources;



  • access to resources;



  •  organization and management
    business activities;



  •  marketing of products.




Entrepreneurship means
the rights and freedoms of ownership
the means of production, produced
product and income. The necessary
a particular economic environment, and
the climate, which have really ensured
and not declared.



The economic environment implies
concepts such as self-government;
the freedom of economic choice; opportunity
investment income.



It is also necessary to
the existence of a competitive environment or
the competitive mode of management.



The basic principles
entrepreneurship should include:




  • the involvement on a voluntary
    basis for business
    activities of property and money
    of funds of individuals and legal entities;



  • independent formation
    programs for its activities,
    independent selection of suppliers and
    consumers of products,
    pricing in accordance with
    legislation;



  • free involvement in his
    activities of any necessary resources
    (material, labor, natural,
    financial), with the exception of species
    prohibited by the legislation of the Russian Federation;



  • self-employment and dismissal
    workers under the legislation;



  • free disposal of clean
    profit;



  • self-realization
    foreign economic activity.




It is possible to allocate the following rights
and obligations of entrepreneurs.



Rights of the entrepreneur:



  • to start
    and conduct business
    through the establishment, acquisition or
    the transformation of the enterprise, as well as
    on the basis of the contract with
    the owner of the property of the company;


  • to attract
    on a contractual basis and use
    financial assets, assets
    intellectual property,
    property and separate property
    the rights of citizens and legal entities;


  • independently
    forming production program,
    the suppliers of the raw material
    resources and consumers of their products,
    to set her prices within the range
    certain legislation
    The Russian Federation and treaties;


  • to implement
    foreign economic activity;


  • to implement
    administrative-administrative
    the management of the enterprise;


  • to hire
    and dismiss employees on behalf of
    of the company and independently
    accordance with applicable law
    and the Charter of the enterprise;


  • to dispose of
    the profit of the company in accordance
    with the legislation of the Russian
    Federation, the treaties and the Charter
    of the company;


  • to use
    the services of the system state
    social security, medical
    and social insurance;


  • to form
    unions, associations and other unions of
    entrepreneurs;


  • challenge
    in court (arbitration) in accordance
    law actions of citizens,
    legal entities, bodies of state
    control.




Obligations of the entrepreneur:



  • to perform
    obligations arising from
    the legislation of the Russian Federation
    and concluded contracts, including
    and the owner of the property of the company;


  • to conclude
    in accordance with the legislation
    The Russian Federation alone
    or on behalf of the enterprise labour
    contracts for employment of citizens
    or their authorized bodies;


  • fully
    to pay all employees
    enterprises according to concluded
    contracts, regardless of the financial
    condition of the company;


  • to implement
    social, medical and other types
    compulsory insurance of citizens
    employed to provide them
    conditions for employment in
    accordance with applicable law
    and the collective agreement;


  • to perform
    decisions of Central and local bodies
    authorities on social protection of disabled persons
    and other persons with limited
    ability to work;


  • in a timely manner
    to provide a Declaration of income
    businesses and pay taxes in
    the manner and amount defined
    the legislation of the Russian Federation;


  • to say
    bankruptcy in the event
    impossibility of performance of obligations
    to creditors.




Now
time can be divided into two basic forms
entrepreneurship in Russia:



1) create
the enterprise (legal entity) in the form
the limited liability company,
joint-stock companies (open or
closed), partnership (full or
faith), of the company with additional
responsibility, production
of the cooperative. To create an enterprise may
one or a group of persons based on
from the selected form.



2)
entrepreneurial activities without
forming a legal entity. This
this form is intended for citizens who
passed the state registration in
an individual entrepreneur
(SP).



Individual
the companybelongs
the individual citizen on the rights of private
of ownership. The property of the individual
of the company is of property
the individual citizen received
income and other legitimate sources.



Forbidden
the owner of the company
wage labor, but in limited
size (not more than 20 people).



It can be noted
the following key benefits
activities in the form of individual
entrepreneur (IP) in Russia:




  1. Easy registration processes
    (and the liquidation of the business)





  • not required to develop
    constituent documents, notarization
    at the notary (at the moment
    the state fee for the certification
    constituent documents of a notary
    is 500 RUB for each document);



  • size paid at
    registration of state duty
    (400 rubles) is 5 times smaller than for
    legal entities (2,000 rubles);



  • not required to pay the share
    (or reserve) capital (for example,
    at least 10,000 rubles for OOO);



  • individual entrepreneur
    not obliged to have a seal, such as
    LTD.





  1. Total tax less
    load than in the form
    of a legal entity. Especially obvious
    tax savings when you use
    the simplified tax system.



  2. Easy accounting results
    activities. For example, an entrepreneur
    not developing an accounting policy, not
    obliged to keep accounts, etc.



  3. Easy reporting system
    before the state bodies.



  4. Easy organization of money
    calculations. SP is not required to have a current
    Bank account. And even if such
    account he not set a limit on
    the rest of the money in the register. In addition to this SP
    need not keep a cash book.




The only
the lack of activity in the form of
individual entrepreneur (IE):
businessman for its obligations
meets all of its personal property.
However, to foreclose on it
the property can only court.



A group of individuals, United
common goals to achieve results
production, with the requisite
to achieve these goals, material
resources, forms a legal entity
– the enterprise. The company is
economic unit having
due to the legislation
administrative and economic
independence created for
production run
works and services with the aim of obtaining
profits and meet the needs of
companies. The company has specific
of the owner, which may
to be the individual owner,
a group of individuals, organizations,
the government and economic
control.



The main features that allows
to assume the economic legal object
a person are:



  • right
    to enter into business relations with
    other legal and physical
    persons, including the conclusion of contracts
    buying and selling inventory
    values, labor agreements (contracts
    agreements) hired labor
    etc.;


  • right
    to protect their property interests
    in court, arbitration and other bodies
    state power and management;


  • full
    property liability before
    counterparties within specified
    the economic law, and in
    the limits of the property listed on
    balance sheet (owned)
    of the enterprise;


  • the presence of
    required by law
    registration certificate, and
    cases and
    the license for those
    or other specific activities;


  • the presence of
    approved in the prescribed manner
    the Charter, which defines the goals,
    organizational structure, rights and
    responsibilities of the management bodies, the procedure
    liquidation of the enterprise, as well as basic
    the relationship between the founders and
    owners.




Full partnershipis
the company, based on
collective ownership is
Associationof several citizens and
(or) legal entities, intended
for joint economic activities
on the basis of the contract between them. All
participants of a full partnership shall bear
unlimited joint and several liability
the obligations of the partnership to all
of their property. The assets of such
the enterprise is formed by deposits
participants received income and other
legitimate sources, and belongs to his
the participants on the rights of the common
of ownership.

Examples of Students Essays

Forms and types of planning of activity of enterprise. Preparation of production, its structure and objectives – examination , page 1




2





The contents



1. Forms and types of planning
the activities of the enterprise 3



2. Preparation of production,
its composition and tasks 8



Task 19



In the past year, payroll
the shop was 400 people For the coming year
increase volume
by 30 %, amounting to 105 million rubles
the growth of labor productivity by 10 %.



To determine the number of
working for the coming year.



List of used
sources 20



1. Forms and types of planning
activities of the enterprise.



Modern theories of planning
refers to the process of preparation of management
decisions based on the processing of
the source of information and includes
the determination of the means and ways to achieve them
through comparative evaluation
alternative options and adoption
the most acceptable of them expected
conditions.



Planning can be classified
on several criteria:



– scope of coverage (General and
partial);



the content aspect
business activities
(strategic — finding new opportunities
and products tactical — background
for known features and products
operational — implementation of this
possible);



– the subject (object) of the planning
(targeted, means — resources, equipment,and
materials, finances, information,
software, actions);



– areas of operation
(production, marketing, R & d, Finance);



– scope (global, contour,
macrolichen, detailed);



– timing (short-, medium-,
long-term);



– rigid and flexible;



Selection criteria, forms of planning
(planning principles):



– completeness (all required to be considered);



– detailing (its depth
is determined by the purpose of the planning);



– accuracy;



– simplicity and clarity;



– continuity;



– elasticity and flexibility
(the use of planned reserves, accounting
the multiplicity of possible alternatives,
deferred items planning to
clarify the situation, variation);



– alignment in planning
(account “bottlenecks”);



– the economy.



When assessing cost-effectiveness
planning should take into account its
the usefulness (which is usually difficult) and costs
planning.



The management science approach to planning
can be carried out by setting
criteria and planning tasks,
definition of planning tools,
methods of coordination of plans, directions
and planning methods.



Should clearly define:



– planning object (
planned);



– the subject of planning (who
plans);



– period (horizon) planning
(for what period);



– planning tools;



– planning methodology (as
plan);



– approval of plans (what, with
by whom and on what terms).



Distinguish:



– consistent planning
(a new plan is drawn up after
the validity of the previous);



– rolling planning (for
the expiration of the term of validity of the previous
the plan is an audit
remaining period and is being newly
for the period after the end of the period
the previous, etc.;



– rigid planning (specifically
identifies all objectives and activities);



– flexible scheduling (i.e.
the possibility of ambiguous
conditions and revising the plan taking them into account).



In principle, any firm has
the hierarchy of plans. In a series of subordination
you can distinguish the following types
planning:



the total (long-term fundamental
the concept of the company);



strategic (long-term
the development company, the spheres of life, production,
R & d staff);



– tactical (economic conditions
operations — production capacity,
of the means of production, capital,
investment, personnel, etc.);



– operational planning
(specific actions for short-term
period).



The main features of the strategic
planning are:



– goal planning — long-term
ensure the existence and implementation
the main goal of the company;



media planning ideas —
senior management;



– scheduling issues —
the lack of reliability and structuring;



– planning horizon —
long-term;



coverage — global, wide
range of alternatives;



– principles — changes in environmental
environment (controlled factors).



Usually the most important questions
planning — markets.



This planning includes:



– the development of strategy;



– strategic planning
the production program;



– planning of capacity development;



– development planning structure
potential.



Tactical planning
is based on the strategic
and is the core of the implementation
strategic plans (horizon 1-5 years)
relates primarily to financing
investments, the average maturity of sales, MTS,
staff.



Distinctive characteristics of the operational
planning are:



– the carrier of the ideas in the planning
the middle and lower levels of management;



– task planning — ensuring
the relative reliability and relative
structuring;



– the horizon;



depth;



range.



– the basis;



– short and medium term;



– detailed plans;



– limited range of alternatives;



– created potential.



Operational planning
covered by a separate functional
the field of enterprise.



In conditions of relatively
stable the external environment can
use the standard system
forecasts and plans of the enterprise (Fig.
1)1.





Fig. 1 – System of forecasts and plans
enterprise



When planning is solved
many problems, main reasons
which:



– features of the initial state
(problems of bad planning
structured, hard to pin
and measure);



– features of the finite state
(the impacts on the goals and resources in
planning is not defined and will show
itself only in the future, a plurality of
purposes);



– problems of the alternatives (a
the uncertainty of available
alternatives, the search for other require
of time and money);



– problems of instrumentation (choice
the most optimal);



– a large number of persons involved
in planning;



– responsibility (the decision maker takes
responsibility plan
make up others);



– the problem of control (during
compilation, execution, and adjustments).



The annual plan of production
enterprises usually made in the form
a comprehensive program of production,
financial and economic activities.



It consists of the following
interrelated sections:



– marketing plan;



– the production program;



– technical development and organization
production;



– increase economic
production efficiency;



– rules and regulations;



– capital expenditures and capital
construction;



– logistics
support;



– work and frames;



– cost, profit and
the profitability of production;



– funds economic
stimulation;



– financial plan;



– the plan of nature protection and rational
use of natural resources;



– social development team.



An integral part of planning
the enterprise rules and regulations.
The rate refers to scientifically based
measure of cost of living or public
of labor to produce a unit of output
or to perform specified scope of work.
The ratio characterizes the degree
resource use per unit
measurements of products or work (
unit area, weight, etc.).



There are rules (regulations):



– costs of living labor;



– consumption of the objects of labor (raw materials,
materials, fuel, etc.);



– use tools
(machines, equipment, etc.);



– movement (organization) of production
(the duration of the production cycle
time advance, and partiinost
etc.);



– production costs (incl.
WIP);



– socio-economic, etc.



A set of rules and regulations
represents the basis for the current
and intra-firm perspective
planning. On the basis of these norms are formed
the balances of consumption of material
resources, energy balances, etc. According to the degree
of detail distinguish the norm
specified and the summary. According to the method
development:



– analytical;



– experienced;



– experimental statistics.



The totality of norms and standards
forms a normative economy firms
which is entered in the PMS and used
for operational planning and
production management, planning
all activities of the company and
organization of production preparation.



For example, when planning MTS
use the unit cost of materials
per unit of finished product.



The flow rate of the material include:



useful consumption of the material;



– additional costs caused by
technological process;



– expenses not related to
technological process (for example,
because of sekretnosti length when cutting,
battle, leakage, etc.).



An important indicator is
the utilization of the material
(the ratio of the net mass of the product to normal
of consumption).



The rate of the stock material is
to establish the required delivery on
the planned period taking into account the order in which they
receipts from suppliers, sizes
warehouses, the allowable expense
working capital to create
inventories.



Set the rules
the current safety stock and the amount
(stock).



Only serial
and systematic preparation
the formalized plan and control
their execution allows companies
to organize an effective system
planning and to provide linkages between
planned performance between individual
units.

Examples of Students Essays

Forms and types of memory – Abstract


The Ministry
education



HSE, St. Petersburg branch



Faculty of management



The Department of psychology



Summary:the



Forms and types of memory



Finished: Molokanova
M. A.



Checked: Kurzina
N. P.


2008



The contents



Vvedenie…………………………………………………………………………………..3



Form
memory…………………………………………………………………………….4



Types
memory………………………………………………………………………………6



Zakluchenie………………………………………………………………………………..8



List
literature……………………………………………………………………….9



Introduction



Of course, before
how to consider the types and forms of
memory, you must define itself
concept. Biological memory
the ability of living creatures (or their
populations), impact sensing
from the outside, to consolidate, preserve and
subsequent to playback of the called
these impacts change
the functional state and structure.
The main memory functions are
the accumulation of the saving experience
individual or species and ensuring
linking the past with the present (continuous
mental activity). Memory gives
us the opportunity to learn something already
‘ve experienced. Psychologist
S. L. Rubinstein once said: “Without memory
we would be creatures for a moment. Our
the past would be dead to our
future, and now… forever
would disappear in the past”



Undoubtedly, memory
one of the most important processes in life
person. But how it works? What
occurs in the human body,
when the information is “on or
another level”? I want to consider the types of
and forms of memory and try to answer
to these questions.



Forms of memory



Elementary memory
are objects of inanimate nature. Trail
time on the rocks – a kind of
memory carrying information about their age.



What is the difference
the memory of living matter from non-living memory
matter? The main difference between living things is
the ability of active, structural
the reproduction of information, which
became the basis for the emergence of life,
characterized by self-reference.



That is at the origin
life on our planet appeared
the oldest memory of the living and genetic
memory. It is the memory of the species,
according to which plays all
structural-functional organization
its representatives, including (for many
species) their behavior. The greater proportion of
behavior determines the genetic
memory for a given species, the
they are less suited to rapid
changes of the external environment.



Ancient genetic
memory is the most significant
part of the memory in any organism that
and highly organized. So
elucidation of the mechanisms of genetic
memory and identification of its material
the media are the biggest success
in the development of ideas about memory alive
facilities in General.



In 50-ies it was
it is established that the carriers of the genetic
memory – nucleic acid. These
substances, especially DNA, have a number of properties
to ensure the stability
store information. The basis of the variability
this information in phylogenesis lies
mutagenesis. Playback changed
forms in the presence of protein enzymes.



The second form of memory,
which developed in the process of evolution
and is closely linked with genetic –
immunological
memory. Over a hundred years ago Louis Pasteur
substantiated the main principle of vaccination
creating immunity to pathogens
contagious diseases. In the most General terms
immunological memory is
ability after the first meeting with
genetically foreign bodies and
substances to know them again
the meeting, to bind and to include
nonspecific mechanisms of their destruction.
These foreign substances are called
antigens and immune proteins, which possess
the ability to destroy antigens
are called antibodies. The main
participants of the immune response are
immunocompetent lymphocytes. Their
surface membrane features
a specific set of antibodies. And
adult body is equipped with a set
genetic information for synthesis of
the diversity of antibodies. These antibodies
lymphocytes serve as the receptors for
antigens. Each lymphocyte has
receptors to one or more of
similar antigens. And all lymphocytes,
carrying the same receptor, belong
one clone, that is, are descendants of
one mother cell with the same
receptor. The process of selection of clones and
leads to immunological memory.
The first encounter with antigen causes
the number of associated
lymphocytes and their differentiation into
effector cells and memory cells.
If first live a few days,
second stay in the body for life
and when you re-encounter with antigen
able to re-differentiate into cells
both types.



Immunological
the memory uses the mechanisms of genetic
memory and, being a later
evolutionary acquisition is
a kind of development of these mechanisms
in the direction of greater fitness
to antigenic diversity
environment.



Finally, the third
a form of memory – the nervous.
She provides individual forms
devices to macrosporum
environment. Since the external
exposure remember even a single-celled
organisms, it is not surprising that the function
memory is clearly represented at the level
individual nerve cells. However
neural memory is a property of the whole
specialized organ of the CNS
animals and humans. Specialization
cells, including neural – later
the acquisition of evolution, so nervous
the memory came much later
genetic. Given that many
cases nature uses more ancient
mechanisms for the formation of new,
the nerve memory, like immunological,
apparently, based on the mechanism
this ancient, primary forms of memory.
Thus, in the course of evolution living
developed three forms of memory: ancient
genetic and later –
immunological and nervous. And
the latter was the most difficult
by its nature and mechanisms, as
she encompasses all that contributes to
the survival of the species, its adaptation.



Types of memory



After electric
response of receptor cells to the external
effects occur of trace processes
continued some time in
the absence of real stimulus. These
primary trace processes are
the basis of touch
memory. The duration of storage of traces
in sensornoi memory does not exceed 500 MS,
erasing of the track is 150 MS.
Assume that sensory memory
person is not dependent on his will and not
can be subjected to conscious
control.



Following
sensory memory period associated with
wound information, referred to as
short-term
memory. And finally, the most significant
information is stored in long-term
memory. The transition
from short-term memory to long-term,
called consolidation, gradual
and is associated with the activation of several biochemical
processes. This division was adopted by
the majority of researchers, though
some believe that the period
consolidation corresponds to a special kind
an intermediate memory, which, as it
interface between short – and long-term
memory. Most scientists see
the basis of short-term memory before
all electrophysiological mechanisms
associated with multiple circulation
impulses (reverb) in a closed
the system of neurons. The volume of short-term
memory is 7±2 units. That is, when
a single presentation of a number of
meaningless words the subject
reproduce them in this volume.



Long-term
memory is based on the synthesis
macromolecules – nucleic acids and
protein and is associated with activation
the genetic apparatus of cells.
Therefore, unlike previous
procedural types of memory, long-term
memory is a new
intracerebral functional structure,
based on the result of the changes
in the membranes of neurons and interneuronal
relationships.



Thanks mainly
research by psychologists within
short-term memory is allocated to the primary
the memory associated with the mental repetition of
of material to memorize and it
interpretation. The duration of this memory
is limited to a few seconds
and the material is erased when you replace the
new. In turn, long-term
the memory is divided into secondary
by creating associations, that is,
the relationship of the individual elements
and phenomena that can be stored
minutes and years, and tertiary
memory includes skills constantly
accompanying person’s life: the ability
reading, writing, professional
skills, etc., which practically
forgotten.





Conclusion



The memory
– an interesting property inherent in
living. The localization of memory
mechanisms and processes have always been interested in
scientists. Research in this area
engaged physiologists, psychologists, physicians,
biologists, geneticists, Cybernetics… All
they have made and continue to make your
contribution to the expansion of our knowledge about memory.
But, despite the fact that research
there have been over half a century, still
there are no precise answers to many questions…



References:




  1. Nikandrov V. V.,
    Psychology, publishing house Prospekt, 2007.



  2. The Batuev A. S. Physiology
    higher nervous activity and sensory
    systems, publishing house Piter, 2008.



  3. Danilova N. N.,
    A. L. Krylova, Physiology of higher nervous
    activities, 1997.



  4. Roman Aizman, Memory
    and attention components of the mental
    health article


Examples of Students Essays

The phenomenon of cohesion and adhesion – the Abstract , page 1


The Ministry of higher education
Russia



Ulyanovsk State
Technical University



Department Of Chemistry



Essay on the topic:



“The phenomenon of cohesion and adhesion”



Performed, St-ka gr.The Izod-31



Murakawa E. N.



Checked: Pismenko V. T.



Ulyanovsk 2005



The contents



Introduction



– Chapter1. Cohesion and surface
power



Chapter 2.Adhesion and work of adhesion



Chapter 3.The mechanism of the processes
adhesion



Chapter 4.The linking of the work of adhesion with
edge angle



Conclusion



List of used literature



Chapter 1. Cohesive
and surface forces.



Surface
the tension of the various condensed
tel PA border gas directly
is due to interatomic and intermolecular
interaction in condensed
phase. The interaction (adhesion) molecules,
atoms, ions inside one phase (homogeneous
part of the system) is called cohesion..Cohesion
due to the same forces of attraction
different nature determines
the existence of substances in the condensed
condition. Cohesive force and sometimes
called forces of attraction (attraction),



Considerquantitative
the characteristics of the cohesive interaction.
The work of cohesion is determined by the expenditure
energy PA reversibleisothermal
gap body cross-section are equal to one
square. Since the gap is formed
surface in two units of area, then
the work of cohesion is equal to twice the value
the surface tension on the border with
gas:



Wto
= 2σ (1.1)



In relation to
perfect solid (no
defects of structure) the value of Wto
often called tensile strength
(reversible), or cohesive strength.
A real body due to the presence of defects
structures have a much smaller
{sometimes a hundred or a thousand times) strength.



Cohesion reflects the intermolecular
interaction within a homogeneous phase,
therefore, it can characterize also
parameters such as energy
crystal lattice, internal
pressure, energy of vaporization,
boiling point, volatility
(as determined by the equilibrium pressure
a couple of the body) etc. These parameters and
quantitatively characterize and
the surface tension of the bodies on the border
with gas.



Internal pressure
liquids can be estimated using
the equation of van der Waals forces.
Molecules
in liquids are much closer
to each other than in gases, and van der Waals
intermolecular forces
they are the predominant, and
specifies liquid
state.



In the equation of van der Waals for
real gases



(p+a/V2)(Vb)=RT
(1.2)



where p is the external
pressure; V
molar
the volume of gas; and
constant
characterizing intermolecular
interaction b— a constant
reflecting own volume
mole of molecules enters the inner
pressure opredelava
ratio:



RVN=a/
V2
(1.3)



As molar volume
liquids under normal conditions in
thousands of times smaller than the molar volume of gases
the ratio a/V2
for liquids inmillion
times greater than for gases. It means
what internal pressure
R
EXT
to
liquids
very large, and therefore can be neglected
external pressure in the equation of van der Waa-
Lisa. Then the equation of state for
liquids will take the form:



A(V-b)/V2=RT
orREXT=RT/(V—
b)
(1.4)



Accurate information
about cohesion
and surface tension can be obtained
from thermodynamic characteristics
bodies related to the energy of vaporization.
In the process of evaporation of the substance
there is a complete rupture of intermolecular
relations, therefore, the work of cohesion is defined
enthalpy of vaporization:



Hn=Gn+TSn

(1.5)



where Gn
the Gibbs energy change when
vaporization; S
n—change
the entropy of vaporization.



Enthalpy of vaporizationsolid
bodies equal to the energy of the crystal
grid.



At equilibrium
between condensed and steam phases
when p
= const
and T=const
Gn=
0; then



Np=TSp

(1.6)



It follows that the more
enthalpy of vaporization, i.e. more
the work of cohesion, and hence surface
the tension, the greater its entropy.
As



Sp=‘sonRln(p/pATM)

(1.7)



where ‘sabout
the entropy change of vaporizationwhen
temperature
boiling point: RATM
— pressure
pair equal to the atmospheric pressure.



More than the work of cohesion (more
the surface tension), the smaller
the saturated vapor pressure above the substance
at a given temperature (less volatility).



Value S0,
related to 1 mole of the substance, has
approximately the same value
for many non-associated liquids
(rule trutone) equal to 85 — 90 kJ/
/(mol -K) . Thus, such cogley
liquids (surface tension)
it is possible to evaluate and compare
the boiling point and enthalpy
(heat) of vaporization at the temperature
boil.



When we talk about excess
the surface energy on the border
the interface, uncompensated
the forces of surface molecules and atoms
and another of their physical condition
(surface tension) than
with the state of the molecules and atoms in the volume
phase (cohesion), in the first place
emphasize the peculiarity of the thermodynamic
the state of the matter in the surface
layers. This feature in each
case is shown in unsaturation
certain physical forces and chemical
relations, characteristic for condensed
phases and for solids of surface
properties also depend on the type of
the crystal lattices. Of course,
surface properties directly
reflect the nature of the ions, atoms and molecules,
located on it.



For liquids and most
solids cohesive forces are expressed
in intermolecular interactions,
due to van der Waals
and hydrogen bonds. It differs
from chemical interaction lack
specificity and saturability,
small energies, manifestation on
much larger distances. The gap
such linkages leads to the formation of
surface, having respectively
the listed characteristics, i.e.
the ability to form
van der Waals and hydrogen bonds with
molecules impinging on the surface;



The destruction of solids.
having a crystalline atomic
lattice (crystals of carbon, Germany,
silicon, etc.) break covalent
connection. The reactivity of atoms
PA the surface of such bodies is extremely
big. In a vacuum, they are able
between to form a double bond,
and air often react with
oxygen, forming on the surface
oxide film,



From ionic crystals distribution
the electric charge on the surface
significantly different from the distribution
in volume. The result of the reaction
the ability of the surface increased to
ions of opposite charge.



From the
brief information should be immediate
the relationship between the surface properties of the bodies
with their bulk properties. Different
the crystal structure sharply
have different properties, including
energy cohesive ties.
Traces the reduction of this energy
in a series of crystals: covalent > ionic
> metal >
molecular
(van der Waals). In addition, chemical
and crystallographic structure
different faces of the same
crystal can significantly
vary. More dense packing
atoms meets a lower surface
the Gibbs energy of this face and



accordingly, a lesser
reactivity.



For most
solids the chemical bond
be mixed. For example,
oxides
metals depending on the nature
metal, its oxidation can
have a different proportion of ionic and covalent
ties. Hence the ambiguity
the reactivity of the surface.



Composition and structure
solid surfaces depend on the conditions
their formation and subsequent processing.
For example, the surface of the oxides in the
the time of formation show more
high chemical activity than
after conditioning them on the air and the
more at high temperatures.
Significant impact on properties
the surface of the oxides having
preliminary interaction with couples
water, for example, on the surface
aluminosilicates modified quantitative
the ratio between bronstibock and
lusowskie acid centers.
The transition Lewis acid acid
Branstad can be represented as
follows:



Thus,
acid which can take electronic
a couple for the formation of a covalent bond,
as a result of joining of molecules
water passes into the acid, is able
to give the proton. Heat treatment
leads to the opposite process.
The hydroxyl group of the PA surface
mixed oxides also exhibit
different reactivity. For example.
— Oh groups on the surface of the aluminosilicate
can contact the silicon atom, with
with the aluminum atom and cation of an alkaline
metal. In addition, the reactionability
hydroxyl groups affects mutual
the effect of mixed oxides.

Examples of Students Essays

Forms and methods of influence of public Finance on the chemical and petroleum industry – Summary , page 1


FEDERAL AGENCY
EDUCATION



State educational
institution



higher professional
education



“Saint-Petersburg state



engineering economic
University”



FACULTY ENTREPRENEURSHIP
AND FINANCE



Department of Finance and banking
business


COURSE WORK



on discipline “Finance”



on the topic:



“Forms and methods of influence
public Finance for chemical
oil and gas industry”


Fulfilled:


student
of course the term of study


specialty
“Finance and credit”


Group


Room transcripts
books


Signature


Checked:
Juror R. I.


Post:
Assistant Professor of Finance


and banking
business


Rating:
Date:


Signature


2009


The CONTENTS






















































INTRODUCTION



3




CHAPTER 1. MODERN
THE STATUS OF THE CHEMICAL AND
THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY IN RUSSIA



5




1.1. The modern state
chemical and petroleum industry



5




1.2. Legal
the provision governing the activities



12




CHAPTER 2. FORMS AND METHODS
THE IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT
FINANCE CHEMICAL, OIL AND GAS
INDUSTRY IN RUSSIA



15




2.1.Form
the impact of public Finance
for chemical, oil and gas
industry in Russia



15




2.2. Methods
the impact of public Finance
for chemical, oil and gas
industry in Russia



18




CHAPTER 3.PROBLEMS
AND PERSPECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT CHEMICAL AND
THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY IN RUSSIA



23




3.1.Problems
development of chemical and oil and gas
industry in Russia



23




3.2. Prospects of development
chemical and petroleum industry
in Russia



25



CONCLUSION



31



LIST
LITERATURE



32




INTRODUCTION



Relevance
the topic is that
chemical
processing of hydrocarbon raw materials
is carried out at the enterprises
petrochemical and chemical complex
which belong
to
the number of base sectors of the Russian
industry. They provide a
industry and agriculture
agriculture raw materials, contribute to accelerated
development of the industry, defining
scientific-technical progress, formation of
socially oriented structure
of production and consumption. Stable
the operation of petrochemical
complex is of fundamental importance
for the development of all segments of the domestic
economy. The industry has
significant export potential
and plays a significant role in the Russian
foreign trade, which is very important for
sustainable development of the country.



The purpose of my work is
the study of the forms and methods of influence
public Finance for chemical
oil and gas industry. During
work on the subject, I determined
the following priority tasks:



  • To perform
    the modern state of chemical and
    the oil and gas industry in Russia


  • To consider
    regulatory support,
    regulatory activity in this
    the field


  • To consider
    forms of influence of the state
    Finance chemical, oil and gas
    industry in Russia


  • To learn
    methods of influence of the state
    Finance chemical, oil and gas
    industry in Russia


  • To identify
    the main problems of development of chemical
    and the oil and gas industry in Russia


  • To determine
    prospects of development of chemical and
    the oil and gas industry in Russia


  • To do
    conclusion on the work done




CHAPTER 1.
THE MODERN STATE



CHEMICAL
OIL AND GAS



INDUSTRY
IN RUSSIA




    1. Modern
      the status of the chemical and oil and gas
      industry in Russia





For the period 2000-2006 exports
petrochemical products in Russia in
the money supply has increased by more than 2.5
times, which is due in large part
with the growth of the world prices for chemicals. In
2000-2004 the growth rate of exports outpaced
the growth rate of imports. However, since
2005 import growth were almost
twice appropriate
the indicator of export due to the growth
domestic demand and insufficient
assortment of domestic petrochemical
products (especially in the field of small tonnage
chemistry). Despite this, the balance
foreign trade turnover of products
petrochemical complex for
more than 15 years remains positive. To
40% of Russian petrochemical products
exported from the country of export
mainly products are low
value added and imported products of high
conversions: chemical fiber and thread,
synthetic resins and plastics and
products. Nomenclature
export almost does not undergo
changes: fertilizers —
34,3; synthetic rubber — 9,2; plastic
and synthetic resin — 5,3; ammonia —
5,3; tires — 3.7 V; caprolactam — 3,1; styrene —
2,8; methanol and 2.2% of foreign exchange earnings.



In contrast to the export item
Russian import of diverse
traditionally, it prevail products
with high added value:
plastic goods (23,4%), plastic
and synthetic resins (18.6 per cent), automotive
bus (6.8 percent), paints
(4,9%), chemical fibers and threads (4,1%),
chemical means of plant protection
(2,2%), rubber and rubber
products (3,4%), detergents (1,3%),
catalysts, plasticizers, etc.



The main consumers
Russian petrochemical products
are the markets of EU countries (32.5 percent), CIS (24,2%) and
The Asia-Pacific region (20.4 per cent).
A significant impact on the Russian
the exports, with the introduction in several countries
(USA, EU, China, India, Mexico, Brazil,
Philippines, Australia, Indonesia)
protectionist and anti-dumping
measures. Protective measures are applied
export of synthetic rubbers,
epichlorohydrin, bisphenol-A,
polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE),
alcohols (butanol, Isobutanol),
trichloroethylene, polyvinyl chloride,
caprolactam. Consideration of these restraining
measures are especially important when designing
new petrochemical plants and
the development of existing facilities.



In the years of economic crisis
sharply reduced domestic market
chemicals. The only source
the income of many domestic manufacturers
steel shipments to foreign markets. Due
export forms almost half
total revenue of the industry
moreover, in certain sectors this
the figure exceeds 80% (caprolactam,
xylenes, etc.). For example, xylene is mainly
exported. High conversions
xylene (for example, polyethylene terephthalate)
we have more than 90% bring
import.



Impetus to the development of chemical
the complex gave a sharp growth in world prices
for hydrocarbons, which resulted in
rising prices for chemical products. It
was the main reason for the emerging
in 2003-2004 the revitalization of the petrochemical
production. Domestic producers
high-tech products
using chemical raw materials (Shin,
SMS, structural polymers,
paint products) is difficult
to compete with foreign ones. In the production of
synthetic fibers, paints and varnishes
in recent years, the issue or declined,
or grew slightly.



Currently in Russia
discontinued production of certain
types of polymer materials (polyimide,
polycarbonates), rubber special
purpose, adhesives, sealants, etc., Under
the threat of closure is a production
all carbon materials necessary
for the manufacture of structural
heat resistant and corrosion resistant
composite materials for aircraft
and aerospace equipment, nuclear
industry. In a critical situation
there are more than 42% of light-duty
the industries producing boric
a silicon carbide fiber, heat resistant
organic glass, heat-resistant
organosilicon and ORGANOMETALLIC
oligomers, fillers, pigments, etc.



Specific production
and consumption of petrochemical products
per capita in Russia is much
lagging behind the developed countries. Production
per capita plastics and synthetic
resins in 2005 amounted to (kg/person) in Russia
— 25,9; US — 276,4; the average for the group
EU — 200; Japan — 104,5; chemical
fibers and yarns in Russia and 1.1 in the USA —
13,5; in Japan and 10.3 kg/person Exists
the backlog for such vital indicators
as the share of plastics in the structure
structural materials and share
synthetic fibers in balance
textile
raw materials. Dynamics of consumption
petrochemical production in the Russian
the market for 300 vital products shows
the growth of domestic demand
industry, agriculture and
transport. For selected product
groups “internal” consumption
exceeds 90% (polyethylene, polypropylene,
polystyrene, polyethylene-terephthalate,
synthetic rubbers).



Rapidly growing
construction industry and housing and communal
sector, where applied polymer
materials, fiberglass, foam,
adhesives, paint products and other
chemical products (table. 1).



Table 1



The demand for chemical
products in the domestic market (kt).











































































































1



2



3



4



5



Name
products



2006



2010



2015



2015% 2006
g



Chem. fiber
and thread



274



418



540



197,1



Polyethylene



1206



1670



2470



204,8



Polypropylene



423



670



960



U.S. $ 227.0



Polystyrene
and copolymers of styrene



325



465



670



206,2



Polyvinyl chloride
and copolymers of vinyl chloride



742



905



1470



198,1



Pet



449



695



935



208,2



Polycarbonate



22



50



60



273



Caustic soda



1074



1365



1945



181



Soda
calcified



2395



2815



3615



151



Paint
materials



1176



1460



1860



158



SMS



759



1100



1220



161



Synthetic
rubbers and latexes



551



835



1350



245


Examples of Students Essays

Forms and methods of influence of public Finance on the chemical and petroleum industry – Summary , page 3


2.1. Action
public Finance for chemical
oil and gas industry in Russia



State regulation
the national economy is
a system of typical measures of legislative,
Executive and Supervisory
nature, carried out by competent
state agencies and
public organizations in order
stabilization and adaptation
the socio-economic system to
the changing conditions.


Form
of the state’s influence in the region
chemical and petroleum industry
can be divided into administrative
and economic (directand
indirect).



  • Indirect
    the intervention through various measures
    economic policy and its priorities


  • Direct
    intervention through administrative
    tools that are based on force
    the state government and include
    measures of prohibition, permission and
    coercion



Indirect
the intervention (shape):



  • Indirect
    forms
    used in the state
    chemical and petroleum industry
    aimed, on the one hand, to stimulate
    the chemical, oil and gas
    industry, and on the other to create
    favorable General and
    the socio-political climate
    development of innovative ideas.



Administrative
tools:



  • Administrative
    form
    is manifested in the form of direct
    subsidized financing
    carried out in accordance with
    special laws enacted
    for direct assistance
    industry.



To
the most effective indirect methods
forms chemical, oil and gas
the industry can be attributed to economic
methods. These include:



  • price
    regulation


  • tax
    and amortized regulation


  • credit
    and stock policy


  • development
    and implementation of Federal, interregional
    regional programs



Current
the system of government
chemical and petroleum industry
enjoys both administrative
regulation and economic
methods.


So
to indirect forms include:



  • credit
    policy


  • tax
    policy


  • analytical
    activity (collecting and processing data
    necessary for forecasting)




Having considered the forms
the impact of public Finance
on the chemical and petroleum industry,
we can draw the following conclusion:



Action
public Finance for chemical
oil and gas industry can
divided into two main groups:



1)administrative



2)economic (direct
and indirect).



  • Indirect
    the intervention through various measures
    economic policy and its priorities


  • Direct
    intervention through administrative
    tools that are based on force
    the state government and include
    measures of prohibition, permission and
    coercion



Indirect
the intervention (shape):



  • Indirect
    forms
    used in the state
    chemical and petroleum industry
    aimed, on the one hand, to stimulate
    the chemical, oil and gas
    industry, and on the other to create
    favorable General and
    the socio-political climate
    development of innovative ideas.



Administrative
tools:



  • Administrative
    form
    is manifested in the form of direct
    subsidized financing
    carried out in accordance with
    special laws enacted
    for direct assistance
    industry.




The choice of those or other forms of influence
dependent on the economic situation in
the country, or strategy development
chemical and petroleum industry.



2.2. Methods of influence
public Finance for chemical
oil and gas industry in Russia



The implementation of the objectives of the state
regulation of economy in practice
is available through various
methods:



1.Economic



  • Financial
    (Leasing, loans, guarantees, foreign exchange
    regulation, investment,
    subsidies)


  • Tax
    (special tax incentive
    modes, depreciation, deductions for
    science, soil management, training
    frames, social problems)


  • Customs


  • Tariff
    (on natural monopolies)


  • Bank
    (promotion of cross-sectoral
    flow of capital, the use
    reserves and profits of the Central Bank)




2.Institutional



  • New
    investment instruments (Pension
    funds loan Fund industry
    stock bonds, issue
    securities)


  • Mechanisms
    bankruptcy


  • Management
    state property in industry




3.Budget and legislative



  • Federal
    and regional programs


  • Target
    laws




4.Administrative and social
political



  • State
    administration (organs and functions, legal
    tools)


  • Public
    dialogue business-authorities (arrangements
    reflection)




Investments in the oil
industry focus
in the production of raw materials. New oil and gas
provinces of the European North, Eastern
Siberia and the Far East much
modest reserves of minerals,
than Western Siberia, and their detailed
exploration and production will require
considerable investment.



The same methods include:



  • Withdrawal
    excessive administrative and technical
    barriers.




  • Providing
    tax breaks and economic
    preferences to enterprises introducing
    innovative technology enterprises
    exporting
    deep processing of oil.



  • Donations
    monitoring, analysis and
    information on status and trends
    the development of the oil market




Is now active:







  • Creation of conditions for preservation
    a high degree of competition, and as
    the consequence to maintain the effectiveness of
    the oil industry by providing
    equal and transparent conditions
    management for all participants
    the oil market


  • Assistance
    all available
    the state’s political and
    economic instruments
    to increase the participation of the Russian
    oil and gas companies in the world
    commodity markets, in oil
    and petrochemical industry
    in other countries


  • Support
    in the development of Russian oil and gas
    companies of foreign projects
    pasture for the Russian state


  • Promotion
    cooperation of companies in the development
    new oil and gas provinces in
    the territory of Russia and abroad



  • The use of long-term
    mechanisms of state
    regulation aimed at
    improving the investment climate
    in the oil industry







The government
approved the Strategy of development of chemical
and the oil and gas industry for the period
until 2015, the financing of which
have to spend more than $ 4 trillion.RUB.



Among the construction projects
refineries,
located in the most
high probability of completion have
two:



  • Construction
    “Tatar-Korean petrochemical
    company” petrochemical complex
    on the basis of Nizhnekamsk refinery. Common
    the project cost is estimated at 2.5 –
    $ 3 billion. At the end of 2004 began
    the first phase, the cost
    which is $ 1.3 billion.
    The construction of the first phase,
    in addition to the installation ELOU-AVT-7 capacity
    7 million tons worth up to $ 200 million and
    intended duration of commissioning
    the first starting complex in the end
    2009 includes the creation of the production
    expandable polystyrene capacity
    40 thousand tons per year, production of linear
    polyethylene capacity of 200 thousand tons per
    year. The cost of the first stage
    is 1.5- $ 1.7 billion. The second stage
    envisages construction of a plant
    for the production of ethylene



  • Construction of a plant
    gas condensate processing
    capacity of 1.2 million tons per year, as well as
    catalytic cracking unit
    capacity of 530 thousand tons of gasoline worth
    about 80mln.$ . company “TAIF”
    the territory of JSC “Nizhnekamskneftekhim”,
    delivery of which is scheduled
    at the end of 2009




Is and
provides perspective
plans for system expansion pipeline
transportation of petroleum products. Main
the challenge for the coming years is to bring
products pipelines on the coast
The Baltic and Black seas, allowing
to minimize the dependence
Russian exports from neighboring
countries. By 2015, the government intends
almost all Russian exports
of petroleum products (95%) to carry through
domestic ports.



Table 3



Investments in the chemical and
the oil and gas industry (million rubles)
























2007



Refining
industry



16726674



Gas industry



48045623



Chemical and
petrochemical industry



17826985



Petrochemical
industry



6039280




Table 4



Funding for chemical and
the oil and gas industry (LCY)




















2009



Oil production



114856356



Gas production



3880858



Chemical industry



134656768




Having examined the methods of influence
public Finance for chemical
oil and gas industry can
to conclude the following:



The state has begun
to help oil and gas chemical
industry. But I think that
the best help would be of course
the construction of plants that produce
end-use products. To put
for export not raw materials, and finished products.



CHAPTER 3.
PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT
CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRY
IN RUSSIA

Examples of Students Essays

Forms and methods of influence of public Finance on agriculture in Zambia – the Abstract , page 1

FEDERAL
EDUCATION AGENCY



State educational
institution



higher professional
education



“Saint-Petersburg state



engineering economic
University”


faculty
business and Finance


Department
Finance and banking


COURSE
WORK


at
the discipline “Finance”


on
the topic: “Forms and methods of influence
public Finance in rural
agriculture in Zambia”


Fulfilled:
Mulenga
M.





Student
III year 5 study term


specialty
Finance and credit


Group
3383


Room
gradebook ______________


Signature
_____________


Pwas tested:


Post:


Rating:
_______ Date: ________________


Signature
_____________


2010


The contents













CHAPTER 1.



1.1.



1.2.



CHAPTER 2.



2.1.



2.2.



CHAPTER 3.



3.1.



3.2.




INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………



MODERN CONDITION OF RURAL
AGRICULTURE IN ZAMBIA
………………………………………



Analysis of state rural
agriculture
……………………



The legal framework
regulating agriculture in
Zambia ………………………………………..



SHAPE AND AWAY FROM THE STATE
FINANCE FOR AGRICULTURE ……….
….



Methods of tariff regulation
the agricultural sector
……………………………



Forms of influence of the state
Finance for agriculture ……….
……………………………….



PROBLEMS AND DIRECTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT
THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN
ZAMBIA..



Problems of development
the agricultural sector…….



Prospects of development
the agricultural sector…



CONCLUSION…………………………………………….


LIST
SOURCES………….




3



5



5



12



34



34



42



44



45



50



51


INTRODUCTION



Agriculture
this sector of the economy that produces
agricultural products. Includes
crop and animal production;
meets the needs of most
food and raw materials for
textile, footwear, perfume,
in the food industry.
Industry
is one of the most important presented
in almost all countries.



The majority of the population
planet continues to live in rural
areas and to ensure their existence
– directly or indirectly – mainly
at the expense of agriculture. In the last
decade the quality of life of rural
is deteriorating and in pursuit of
industrialization in the agricultural
sector not enough is invested
funds.



Agriculture
is one of the key sectors
economy of Zambia. The level of development
the agricultural sector has always been and
continues to be a determining
factor in the economic and social
– political stability of the state.
As one of the priority areas
development of economy of the Republic, rural
the farm has a huge
potential and large reserves.



The main task and purpose of this
work was to reveal the impact
public Finance in Rural
farm show
prospects and problems of development of this
sector in Zambia, based on the analysis already
existing data.



CHAPTER 1. MODERN
THE CONDITION OF RURAL



AGRICULTURE IN ZAMBIA



1.1. Analysis of state rural
agriculture



Zambia is an agrarian
country. Agriculture employs 60%
the economically active population.
Area of fertile land is
47% of the country, but is
only 20%. The variety of climatic
conditions allows to grow a
crops: corn,
cassava, wheat, millet, melons, fruits,
cotton, sorghum, soybeans, tobacco,
sunflower, rice and others In connection with the growth
in the 90s the export of fruit to Europe fast
rapidly gardening. In
the southern and Central regions developed
cattle. Widespread in the country
mainly subsistence farming.
Relatively few farms producing
commercial products (a few hundred
large plantation farms that
owned and managed by Europeans
them). Performance farms
African farmers because of the backward
farming marginal soils and
frequent droughts very low. Serious
the damage comes from frequent droughts.



The country has three
agro-ecological zone suitable for
agricultural production mnogofaznykh
Rastenievodstvo, livestock and fish. The table
below are the numbers and the percentage
small-and medium-farm households,
engaged in agricultural
activity in cities. Only
the city of Lusaka is less than 95% of the rural
families engaged in agriculture.
Crop is the main
activity, and poultry
also is the dominant activity
in all the cities. Animal
it seems less universal
but is still significant
activity for households in
the southern and Eastern provinces.



Rural households,
occupying agricultural
activities in 2008



Table. 1
















































































































Rural home
farms engaged in:



Geographic area



home
economy


Just



%


households



Crop



Animal



Poultry



Rybovo-dstvo



Zambia



921 061



97,4



97,8



29,3



67.1



0,3



Central



87
379



95,8



95.9 per



27,4



70.3



0,0



Copperbelt



39
691



97,3



100,0



14,7



51,7



0,1



Eastern



195
191



99,4



99,3



43,7



62,8



0,1



Luapula



127
701



97,3



95,6



12,9



73,6



0,6



Lusaka



22
579



73,3



97,4



26,5



55,9





Northern



168
966



98,4



97,0



25,4



73,6



10,3



North-western



56
930



99,1



99,0



14,2



56,3



0,3



Southern



115
893



98,1



96,7



49,6



80,9





Western



106
731



97,0



99,1



21,9



53,1






Dynamics
production and consumption of grain
cultures



thousand tonnes (unless
agreed. units)





































































2007.



2008. (est)



Production



area
(thousand hectares)



2 884



3 274



the volume
the collected products



19 130



24 278



the cost
production (mln, f.St.)



1 920



3 180



Balance
supply and consumption of agricultural products



Production



19 130



24 278



import
from: countries


other
countries



1641


809



1536


748



export
in:


other
country



2362


78



3002


465



the total amount
supply



19 140



23 095



change
farms and stocks.



– 956



3 337



total
domestic consumption



20 095



19 759



production
in % of total supply for
consumption in Zambia



100



105





Source: Statistical service
Zambia, March 2009
.



Net profit
farms (36,2%), owing
mostly higher prices, as
livestock products and
grains were partly
offset by increase in cost
agricultural products in General
(doubling in fertilizer prices and means
of reclamation; increases in feed prices). Common
the output of the farm
farms grew by 25.5%, which was
due to increased production
grain crops (65.6 per cent in value
terms) and animal products
(24,7%).



Crop
Zambia








































































2007.



2008.



area (thousand hectares)



yield (t/ha)



the volume of production
(million tons)



area (thousand hectares)



yield (t/ha)



the volume of production
(million tons)



..



140



40,2



5,6



144



41,8



6,0



sugar beet



125



53,8



7,4



120



62.6 per



7,5



rape



681



3,4



2,1



598



3,3



2,0



Beans



123



3,0



0,4



118



4,5



0,52



peas



26



3,1



0,1



21



4,0



0,1



Examples of Students Essays

Forms and methods of influence of public Finance on the oil industry – term paper-page 1


THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND
SCIENCE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION



State educational
institution



higher professional
education



“Saint-Petersburg state



engineering economic
University”



faculty entrepreneurship
and Finance



Department of Finance and banking
business



COURSE WORK



on discipline “Finance”



on the topic: “Forms and methods of influence
public finances on oil
industry”



Fulfilled:
Ivanov
.And.


(Name And Surname)



student
III
of course 4G. 10мес. training period


specialty
080105 – Finance and credit


Group
No. 3382


Room
gradebook 33071/08


Signature
_____________


Checked:
Hagen L. A.



(Name And Surname)



Position: assistant Professor



Finance and
banking



Rating: _______ Date: ________________


Signature
_____________



2010


The CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION
………………………………………………………………..3


CHAPTER
1. THE THEORETICAL BASIS OF THE OIL



INDUSTRY
Russia
………………………………5



1.1. Oil
industry as a sector of the economy



Russia……………………………………………………………….5



1.2. The legal framework
regulatory impact



public Finance
on oil



industry
Russia………………………………………….7



1.3. Analysis of the state of
the oil industry in



Russia………………………………………………………………10


CHAPTER
2. FORMS AND METHODS OF INFLUENCE



PUBLIC FINANCE
ON



OIL
INDUSTRY
……..16



2.1. Action
public Finance on



oil
industry……………………………..16



2.2. Methods of influence
public Finance on



oil
industry………………………………….17


CHAPTER
3. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS IMPACT



PUBLIC FINANCE
ON



OIL
INDUSTRY
……22



3.1. The impact of
public Finance on



oil
industry……………………………..22



3.2. Prospects the impact
public Finance on



oil
industry……………………………..25


CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………..30


LIST
LITERATURE
………………………………………………………………33


APP…………………………………………………………..35



INTRODUCTION



Currently the oil sector
the fuel and energy complex
Russia is one of the most
stable production
complexes of the Russian economy.



The oil complex today
provides a significant contribution to
creating a positive shopping
balance and tax revenues in
the budgets of all levels. This contribution
significantly higher proportion of complex in
the industrial production. Its share
accounts for over 16% of GDP
Russia, the fourth part of the tax and
customs revenues to the budgets of all
levels, and more than a third coming
in Russia foreign exchange earnings.



Such high rates are associated
with significant resources and production
the potential of the oil industry. In the depths
Russia holds about 13% of proven
oil reserves. These resources are located
mainly on land (approximately 3/4). About
60% of oil resources accounted for
areas of the Urals and Siberia, which creates
potential export
in both Western and Eastern
directions. The economy consumes
only less than one third of extracted oil
(including processed products).



Oil production in the country is carried out
more than 240 oil and gas associations
with 11 refineries,
including OAO “Gazprom”, provide
more than 90% of total output.



Thus oil
industry plays a huge role in
the Russian economy and is always
a topical theme. Strategic objective
the development of the oil industry is
a smooth and gradual increase
production with the stabilization of its level on
the long term.



NK “YUKOS”
is a leader in oil production among
Russian companies, one of the main
oil exporters and, of course, plays
a significant role in the development of the oil
complex of the Russian Federation. Income
from the sale of hydrocarbons
for many years, will determine
financial and economic condition
the country and economic growth.
However, in the oil industry
accumulate unsolved problems
pose a threat to stability
its sustained development in the middle
and the long term. Relevance
and the importance of solving these problems for
sustainable, progressive
oil business development identified
the goal of the course work.



The purpose of this
course work to perform
positive and negative influence
public finances on oil
industry. To perform
the state of the industry and on the basis of
the received data to identify problems
the industry and prospects for the nearest
period.



Tasks of the course work are:




  • to consider the form and methods
    the impact of public Finance
    to the oil industry;



  • to analyze the trend
    the development of the industry and the mechanism of the state
    financing oil
    industry;



  • to identify the main challenges
    the development of the oil industry;



  • to identify the main problems
    the development of the transport sector and ways of their
    solutions.




CHAPTER 1. THE THEORETICAL BASIS



OIL
INDUSTRY IN RUSSIA



1.1. Oil
industry industry



the economy of the Russian Federation



The level of oil production, Russia
ranked second in the world after
Saudi Arabia. Oil reserves
make Russia one of the most important players
on the world market.



Oil production in the country is carried out
more than 240 oil and gas organizations.
11 refineries provide
more than 95% of total output. Main
mining locations – opened in the 1960s and
1970-e years the Western Siberian fields,
which accounted for 68.1% of total
annual production. The second in the country in terms
oil production – the Volga-Urals region
– is in a late stage of development
productive fields and
characterized by decaying prey,
which in the next few years will begin
be reduced.



Among the Russian raw
the giants of the leading position by volumes
oil and gas is traditionally
LUKOIL. Last year, the company produced
76,9 million tonnes (563 million barrels) of oil and gas
equivalent-10% more than him
the nearest competitor, Yukos (69.3 million
tons), not including foreign
units of LUKOIL, the extraction of which
was 2.9 million tons. Followed by
“Surgutneftegas” (49,2 million tons), Tatneft
(24.6 million tons), TNK (37.5 million tonnes), and Sibneft
with the production of 26.3 million tons. State
Rosneft with a production of 16.1 million tons is
only eighth place, behind SIDANKO
(16.2 million tons). Only the “big eight”
the largest oil companies in Russia
accounting for 83% of oil and gas
equivalent.



On 01.09.2008 in
performance stock of oil
industry of the Russian Federation, there were 158,3
thousand wells, which were connected to 133.5 thousand
wells (or 84.3%), non-operating Foundation
– 24.8 thousand wells. Average daily production
oil in August 2008 was on
level – 1341,8 thousand tons/day., in an average
January – August 2008 – 1332,9 kt/day.



For 8 months of 2008 footage
production drilling amounted to
9.9 million m, commissioning of new wells – 3593. Expected
year development, obviously, will exceed
14.5 million m, and the commissioning of new wells may
will reach ~ 5.4 million PCs.



Thus, pre-crisis
the situation in the oil industry of the Russian
The Federation was stable enough and
characterized by a high results.



1.2. The legal framework
regulatory impact



public Finance
on oil

Examples of Students Essays

The form and the macroeconomic consequences of unemployment, Course work , page 1

Federal
education Agency


Moscow
state University of Economics,
statistics and Informatics


Department
“Accounting, analysis and audit”


COURSE
WORK


at
the discipline of “macroeconomics”


on
topic “Forms and macroeconomic
consequences of unemployment”


Finished(a):
art. gr.


F.
Acting


Head:


Belgorod
2011.



The contents



Introduction
3




  1. The concept and causes of unemployment
    5






    1. The concept and essence of unemployment
      5



    2. Causes of unemployment
      7






  1. The level and forms of unemployment
    11






    1. The unemployment rate
      11



    2. Forms of unemployment
      13






  1. Macroeconomic implications
    unemployment
    16






    1. Social consequences
      unemployment
      16



    2. Economic consequences
      unemployment
      17






  1. Okun’s Law

    19



  2. Statistics of unemployment in Russia
    during 2008-2010.g………………………….18



  3. Methods of dealing with unemployment
    22




Conclusion (s)
25



References
……………………………………………27



Introduction



Relevance
research
on
the topic: “Forms and
macroeconomic implications
unemployment”
due to the fact that unemployment
is a macroeconomic
the problem of high-impact
for each person. The loss of jobs for
most people mean lower
living standards and causing serious
psychological trauma. So
it is not surprising that the problem of unemployment
is often subject to political
discussions.



Undertaken in an open and
to a market economy is associated with large
difficulties, causing many
socio-economic problems. One
of them is the employment problem that
inextricably linked to people, their
production activities. The transition
to the market not only sharpened the problem
employment, but also added new ones,
linked to structural adjustment
the Russian economy and the emergence of
the new labour relations as a result of
different forms of ownership. In
the result was inevitable
the release of workers from enterprises
and funding them already
the large army of the unemployed.
Tens and even hundreds of thousands of people in our
the country was literally
thrown into the street. But only the fourth
some of them according to official data
have the status of unemployed. But consider
unemployment only as a phenomenon of the transition
period wrong. It is associated with
economic development and change
needs in the workforce, and social
status of the employee.



Unemployment is not merely the absence
work is also a social disaster,
providing powerful and destructive
the impact on people. This phenomenon affects
on economic, social and
psychological condition of people. Although
unemployment can be creative,
mobilizing the will test most
passed through it say they have experienced
despair, powerlessness and confusion,
especially if you been out of work longer
than a few weeks. Psychologists
it is proved that the collision with the unemployment
affects average
life expectancy, condition
health, longevity and mortality
the addiction to alcohol. Moreover,
I want to emphasize that these are
not only family income, but also lost
the self-esteem of people, there are various
complexity of the disease on the nervous
the soil and there is a feeling of hopelessness
in the future. People simply
losing a landmark and a sense of further
the struggle for life. It just starts
to exist, not live. And this, in my
glance, the worst, because it lost
the personality of the individual.



For many people, the feeling
self-esteem directly
due to the fact that they are busy.
Therefore, to find that they are
unclaimed in the labor market, people
experiencing severe psychological
shock, depression. Depression, in its
turn, leads to inaction, and
inaction to the loss of skills,
loss of self esteem, decline in moral
foundations, and public and
the political unrest.



The object of the topic
the course work is: “Forms and
macroeconomic implications
of unemployment.”



The aim of the course work
is the consideration of the nature of
unemployment, its causes, forms,
socio-economic impact
unemployment and methods of its overcoming,
and review of statistics
unemployment in Russia in 2008-2010.g.



In accordance with this purpose
the work identified the following tasks:



  1. to determine
    the concept and essence of unemployment, causes
    its occurrence and economic
    and social consequences;


  2. to consider
    classification of types of unemployment,
    to reveal their details;


  3. to produce
    statistical analysis of the structure and
    unemployment dynamics in the Russian
    Federation for 2008-2010.g.;


  4. to determine
    ways and methods of dealing with unemployment.





  1. The concept
    and causes of unemployment





  1. The concept
    and nature of unemployment




Market
labor, like any other market, can
to lose its equilibrium. If
the wage rate for any
the reason is reduced and becomes below
equilibrium on the labor market occurs
the situation when demand exceeds
the supply of labor and a lack of
labor force, i.e., the presence of unoccupied
jobs.



Unemployment,
first of all, is a part of the population
the country, consisting of persons who are
able-bodied age, not having
work and in search of work in
for a certain according to the legislation
period of time. This lack of employment
for economic reasons the particular,
more or less at any given
the time, part of the working population
able and willing to work.[20;288]



Education
and rising unemployment represent
the specific law of population.
The essence
the law of population is that
that the wage-labor force, contributing
profit growth creates a source for
accumulation of capital, the latter
through the mechanism of growth of technical
composition of capital – generates industrial
the army of the unemployed.
.[14;223]



In this regard, unemployed
represent the relative
the overpopulation. Labor becomes
in excess of the demand,
imposed on her. This does not
implies that there is an absolute excess
population. The root cause of education
unemployment – the growth of the technical structure
capital.



Unemployment is a socio –
economic phenomenon in which
part of the labor force (economically
active population) not engaged in
the production of goods and services.



Unemployment refers to
macroeconomic problems because
what it is:



spheroidals processes
what is happening in the economy
of the country;



itself has an impact,
feel across the entire economy
of the country.



Unemployment
due to the number of people willing to find
work compared with the number
jobs corresponding to the profile
and qualifications of applicants for these
places. For the analysis of problems of unemployment
you must first clearly define
who should be considered unemployed.
Criteria for recognition of a person unemployed
typically established by law or
government documents and can
a little vary from country to country. But
as a rule, were all characterized by,
what:



Unemployed
are those persons working
age who is not currently
unemployed, leave the labour market and
conduct active searches. Persons with
work, as well as persons employed part time
working day or week are
employed. [19;498].



To
the unemployed in Russia are persons
under 16 years of age and older, who in
the period under review:




  • not
    had a job (profitable occupation);





  • doing
    the job search, i.e. addressed in
    public or commercial
    the employment service, used or
    placed ads in print,
    directly addressed to the administration
    of the enterprise (employer), used
    personal contacts and other methods
    took steps to organization
    own business;





  • was
    ready to get to work.




When
referring to the unemployed should be
met all the above criteria.



To
unemployed persons registered in the
the bodies of the state employment service,
includes individuals without work, seeking
work and in the prescribed manner
received official status of unemployed
in the public service
employment.



It is important
to emphasize that to the unemployed usually
carry not only dismissed on the various
reasons, but also persons voluntary left
work and undertaking attempt to find
new. The structure of unemployment for its
reasons includes four basic
in the labour force:




  • lost
    as a result of the dismissal;
    voluntarily left work;





  • come
    to the labour market after a break;





  • for the first time
    came to the labour market.




The ratio
these categories depends, first of all,
the phase of the economic cycle.



total
the demand for labor and its total
suggestions. The diversity of the causes and
types of unemployment shows how difficult it is
and deeply this phenomenon.