Examples of Students Essays

Groundwater Features: Geysers of Yellowstone National Park Essay Example

Groundwater Features: Geysers of Yellowstone National Park Essay

Groundwater Features: Geysers of Yellowstone National Park

            The groundwater feature that is analyzed in this essay is the geysers of Yellowstone National Park – Groundwater Features: Geysers of Yellowstone National Park Essay introduction. The Yellowstone National Park is located primarily in the state of Wyoming, with some small areas in neighboring states of Idaho and Montana in the United States of America.

More Essay Examples on Nature Rubric

            A geyser is a type of hot spring that erupts periodically, discharging a column hot water and steam up into the air. Geysers are found only in regions of volcanic activity and are connected to masses of siliceous lava. Geysers usually have a narrow vent at the surface that is connected to the groundwater chamber through one or more narrow tubes, which form the plumbing of the geysers. The groundwater gets heated up by underlying rocks that in turn get conducted heat from the magma. This geothermally heated water gets constricted by the non-porous inner walls of a geyser and is trapped under layers of cooler water blocking the vents. The high pressure prevents ebullition and superheated temperatures are reached. Gradually, the upper layers that are not under pressure get hot enough for boiling. The steam pushes through the vents, displacing the topmost layers of water and thereby releasing the pressure on the lower superheated layers. The superheated water then gushes out and a part of it gets converted into steam. This causes the violent eruption of a geyser. Once this eruption is over, the residual water cools down below boiling point, the heated groundwater seeps back into the reservoir and the cycle begins again (Hobbs,1931).

Yellowstone contains more than 300 geysers, about two thirds of the total found on earth. The geysers of Yellowstone were created by the volcanic activity of Yellowstone Caldera, the largest volcanic system in entire North America. The current Caldera was formed 640,000 years ago by a massive eruption that released more than a thousand cubic Km of rock, ash and pyroclastic materials. This was followed by a couple of smaller eruptive cycles, the last one ending 70, 000 years ago. The caldera was nearly filled with rhyolitic and basaltic lava flows due to these eruptions. The rhyolitic flow was very viscous and the rhyolite silica rich, acidic and water soluble in nature. Parts of this rhyolitic deposits got dissolved in hot water to form siliceous sinter or geyserite deposits on the inside walls of the geyser plumbing. With time, these deposits accumulated, strengthening the plumbing walls and providing stability to the geyser. At Yellowstone, the magma lies only 6 Km below the surface. The groundwater attains temperatures of 200o C at depths of 200m. These are ideal conditions for geyser activities. Each geyser here has developed its own typical pattern of duration, height and interval of eruption depending upon its water supply, fissures and internal structure (Scarth, 1994). Yellowstone abounds in both cone geysers like the Old Faithful, where the jet of water erupts out of a small vent in a geyserite mound and fountain geysers like the Cistern  Spring, that erupts violently from a pool with a relatively larger vent.

The geysers of Yellowstone National Park have been a major tourist attraction and it remains the only undisturbed geyser basin in the world. Geothermal energy harvesting, which has obliterated many geysers in Iceland and New Zealand, has not been allowed here. The geysers of Yellowstone have been researched by geophysicists for geothermal activities and by biologists for thermophilic bacteria, algae mats and predators (NPS, US Govt.).

 The future of Yellowstone geysers depends upon both the natural volcanic and seismic activities in that zone and the effectiveness of controls placed on adverse human activities. The presence of water, sewer and other utilities and construction activities nearby can have disastrous impact on them. Changing energy economics may force opening up of non-federal land to geothermal drilling activities. The 1994 Water Rights Compact agreement between the state of Montana and the National Park Service that prevents adverse impact of groundwater usage on the geothermal features can serve as a future model for conservation (NPS, US Govt.).


Hobbs, W.H. (1931). Earth Features and Their Meaning. New York, Macmillan Company.

National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Yellowstone National Park.


Scrath, A. (1994). Volcanoes: An Introduction London, UCL Press.


Examples of Students Essays

Rizal Park Essay Example

Rizal Park Essay

Rizal or Luneta Park should make it to the top 5 tourist spots in Manila-Philippines – Rizal Park Essay introduction. It was where the national hero, Jose Rizal, was martyred through a military musketry when Spain occupied the country in the 19th century. It is also among the places in the country known the world over since early times. Rizal Park includes the Chinese and Japanese Gardens, Manila Planetarium, Quirino Grandstand, Ocean Adventure, Part of Manila Bay, and the giant map of the Philippines. Fort Santiago Visitors and tourists often have Fort Santiago next in their Manila itinerary after visiting Rizal Park.

It is just adjacent to it, so this makes it among the top 5 tourist spots in Manila-Philippines. Moreover, Fort Santiago is as historical as Luneta and also had to do with the last moments of Jose Rizalhe was imprisoned there for some time before being shot at Luneta. In fact, metallic footsteps can be seen today from the prison cell of Rizal in Fort Santiago to Luneta to mark where the hero was said to have walked during that fateful morning. Fort Santiago also features dungeons, cells, ruins, and a museum for Rizal, among many others.

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Fort Santiago was used by the Spaniards, Americans, and Japanese. Intramuros After visiting Fort Santiago, tourists might as well tour Intramuros or the Walled City, where Fort Santiago is located. It is just one among many forts located around the walls. Visit also old century-old buildings like the Manila Cathedral and the San Agustin Church, all within Intramuros. There are colorful horse-drawn calesas or carts reminiscent of the Spanish time that bring tourists around the restored walls and stop at each historic spot.

The calesa drivers prove to be expert tourist guides. Bay Walk Area The long stretch of national highway from the US Embassy to a portion just before the Coastal Road to Cavite offers a panoramic view of Manila Bay. It is most picturesque in the afternoon as the dying sun emits golden rays and lends golden tones especially to the towering hotels and office buildings nearby. The renovated bay wall is now a tourist-class promenade known as Bay Walk Area where stylish benches are propped up for frolicking and where people roam around for fresh air or jog in early mornings.

Being now a popular sightseeing destination, it is among the top 5 tourist spots in Manila-Philippines. Quiapo Church Most tourists in Manila never miss the old Quiapo Church. It is located in Plaza Miranda, the historical center in Manila where so-called parliaments of the streets congregate and boldly air their political agenda or grievances against the government. Quiapo Church is home to the Black Nazarene which is paraded each year with crowds of the faithful escorting it in a very emotional procession.

Examples of Students Essays

Questions on Operations Research Essay Example

Questions on Operations Research Essay

Problem 4 An amusement park has 5 major attractions: The Cork Screw, The Caramel Carousel, The Cranium, The Wave Swinger, and the Sky Flyer – Questions on Operations Research Essay introduction. Listed below are the probabilities at which a person moves between rides. For example, if a person is currently riding the Cork Screw they will ride the Cranium next to . 19 probability. A)The amusement park is expected on average 2,000 customers per day. Assuming each customer rides 10 rides in a given day, what is the volume for each of the rides (how many people will ride each ride? B)If a person rides the Cork Screw, on average how many rides will they ride before they return to ride the Cork Screw again? C)The average waiting times are shown in the following table (assume the waiting times are how long a person stands in line and how long it takes to ride the ride, the waiting time basically is the total time from start to end of the ride). If on average it takes a person 5 minutes to walk between each ride and they have to wait in line according to the waiting times on the table and a person just rode the Cranium, how long (in minutes) will it be before they return to ride the Cranium again?

TRANSITION MATRIX 1(corkscrew)2(carousel)3(cranium)4(wave swinger5(sky flyer) 1(corkscrew). 23. 10. 19. 23. 25 2(carousel). 12. 07. 18. 42. 21 3 (cranium). 3. 08. 16. 24. 22 4(wave swinger). 4. 12. 15. 09. 24 5(sky flyer). 09. 09. 28. 11. 43 Average Waiting Times RideWait Time (Min 142 210 325 418 533 Problem 5 Suppose you have the following manufacturing process. You decide that you are going to acquire enough raw materials to manufacture 1,000 items. Each item will require $20 worth of raw material and the rework costs, scrap costs and benefit are provided along with the transition probabilities in the following diagram.

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The scrap cost is not the sum of the processing cost and raw material, it is the cost that will be incurred if the item is scrapped. A)What will be your total profit? B)How many items will be accepted as good products? C)) How many items will be refurbished products? Justify your answers using a Markovian approach. Please provide the A, 0, R, and Q matrices along with the F and M matrices. Also provide your profit equation in terms of the probabilities from your matrices.

Examples of Students Essays

Golden Gate Bridge Essay Example

Golden Gate Bridge Essay

The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening of the San Francisco bay into the Pacific Ocean – Golden Gate Bridge Essay introduction. The Golden Gate Bridge was the longest suspension bridge span in the world when it was completed in 1937, and has become one of the most internationally recognized symbols of San Francisco, California, and of the United States, San Francisco’s city engineer estimated the cost at $100 million, impractical for the time, and fielded the question to bridge engineers of whether it could be built for less.

One who responded, Joseph Strauss, was ambitious but dreamy engineer and poet who had, for his graduate thesis, designed a 55 mile long railroad bridge across the Bering Strait. At the time, Strauss had completed some 400 drawbridges- most of which were inland- and nothing on the scale of the new project. Strauss spent more than a decade drumming up support in Northern California. The bridge faced opposition, including litigation, for many sources.

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The Department of War was concerned that the bridge would interfere with ship traffic; The Navy feared that a ship collision or sabotage to the bridge could block the entrance to one of it’s main harbors. In May 1924, Colonel Herbert Deakyne held the second hearing on the bridge on behalf of the Secretary of war in a request to use Federal land for construction. The bridges name was first used when the project was initially discussed in 1917 by M. M O’Shaughnessy, city engineer of San Francisco, and Strauss.

The name became official with the passage of the Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District Act by the State Legislature in 1923. On June 12, the Santa Rosa chamber voted to endorse the actions of the “Bridging the Golden Gate Association” by attending the meeting of the Boards of Supervisors in San Francisco on June 23 and by requesting that the Board of Supervisors of Sonoma County also attend. By 1925, the Santa Rosa camber had assumed responsibility for circulating ridge petitions as the next step for the formation of the Golden Gate Bridge. Iring Morrow, a relatively unknown residential architect, designed the overall shape of the bridge towers, the lighting scheme, and Art Deco elements such as the streetlights, railing, and walkways. The famous International orange color was originally used as a Sealand for the bridge. Senior Engineer Charles Alton Ellis, collaborating remotely with famed bridge designer Leon Moisseiff , was the principle engineer of the project.

Although the Golden Gate Bridge designer has porved sound , a later Moisseiff design , the original Tacoma Narrow Bridge, collapsed in a strong windstorm soon after it was completed, because of an unexpected aeroelastic flutter. He became an expert in strural design, writing the standard textbook of the time. Ellis did much of the technical and theoretical work that built the bridge, but he received none of the credit in his lifetime.

In November 1931, Strauss fired Ellis and replaced him with a former subordinate, Clifford Paine, ostensibly for wasting too much money sending telegrams back and forth to Moisseiff. Only much later were the contributions of the others on design team properly appreciated. In May 2007, the Golden Gate Bridge District issued a formal report on 70 years of stewardshipof the famous bridge and decided to give Ellis major credit for the design of the bridge. Before the bridge was built, the only practical short route between San Francisco and what is now Marin County was by boat across a section of San Francisco Bay.

The Sausalito Land Ferry Company service, launched in 1867, eventually became the Golden Gate Bridge Ferry Company, a southern Pacific Railroad subsidiary, the largest ferry operation in the world by the late 1920s. The ferry crossing between the Hyde Street Pier in sane Francisco and Sausalito in Martin County took approximately 20 minutes and cost US $1. 00 per vehicle, a price later reduced to compete with the new bridge. Many wanted to build a bridge to connect San Francisco to Martin County. San Francisco was the largest American city still served primarily by ferry boats.

Because it did not have a permanent link with communities around the bay, the city’s growth rate was below the national average. Many experts said that a bridge couldn’t be built across the 6,700 ft [2,042 m] strait. It was going to be painted with black and yellow stripes by the US Navy to ensure visibility to passing ships. The Golden Gate Bridge and highway District, authorized by an act of the California Legislature, was incorporated in 1928 as the official entity to design, construct, and finance the Golden Gate Bridge.

Examples of Students Essays

Ocean Park Essay Example

Ocean Park Essay

Ocean Park, situated on the southern side of Hong Kong Island, is Hong Kong’s premier educational theme park – Ocean Park Essay introduction. The current park covers more than 870,000 square metres of land and features a diverse selection of world-class marine attractions, thrill rides and shows divided between three areas: Lowland, Headland and Tai Shue Wan. Operated by the Ocean Park Corporation, a statutory board, it is a not-for-profit organization that aims to provide elements of entertainment, education and conservation at an affordable price.

The park has consistently rejuvenated and reinvented itself to better serve its guests, establishing itself as a major tourist attraction both locally and abroad. Since its opening more than 30 years ago, over 100 million guests have visited Ocean Park. Over 5 million guests visit Ocean Park each year. In 2006, Forbes. com named Ocean Park one of the “10 Most Popular Amusement Parks in the World”, and in 2007, Forbes Traveler ranked Ocean Park as one of the “50 Most Visited Tourist Attractions in the world”.

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Ocean Park was officially opened in January 1977 by the then Governor of Hong Kong, Sir Murray MacLehose. It was built at a cost of HK$150 million funded by the Hong Kong Jockey Club with land provided for free by the Hong Kong Government. Between 1982 and 1984, the Hong Kong Jockey Club allocated a further HK $240 million to fund the Park’s second phase of development, which included facilities at Tai Shue Wan and thrill rides at the Headland. The objectives were to diversify the Park’s attractions, increase its popularity and revenue and utilize more fully the land granted by the Government.

A new Master Redevelopment Plan (MRP) for Ocean Park was unveiled in 2005, which will see significant upgrades to the quality and availability of features at the Park. The Lowland will be completely redeveloped into a new area called the Waterfront, while the Headland will be transformed into a fantastic new section called the Summit. The Waterfront will feature an exclusive themed resort and a brand new Aqua City, showcasing a Grand Aquarium with 3 levels of viewing galleries approximately four times the size of the existing Atoll Reef; the Amazing Asian Animals themed-area, hich incorporates the themed Giant Panda Adventure, highlighting some of Asia’s rarest creatures; a redeveloped children’s area called Whiskers Harbour and an array of refreshment and retail facilities. At the Summit, guests can visit the Polar Adventure to feel the chill of the North and South Pole, or journey down river rapids to discover the beautiful Rainforest. Thrill seekers hunting for excitement need look no further than Thrill Mountain, while the famed dolphins and sea lions of Ocean Park will continue to delight guests at Marine World.

To connect guests to these exciting new attractions, a first of its kind high-speed funicular express train will be built with the capacity to transport guests from the Waterfront to the Summit in less than 3 minutes. Groundbreaking for the MRP took place in November 2006, signalling the start of this HK$5. 5 billion project, which will be completed in six years over eight phases while the Park remains open throughout. The number of animal attractions and rides will be doubled from 35 to 70 when the redevelopment project is completed in 2012.

Going hand in hand with the leaps Ocean Park has made in terms of developing itself are the numerous achievements the Park has earned for its achievements in the field of animal conservation. In 2002, Ocean Park gained accreditation from the renowned Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA), making the Park the only animal facility outside of the United States of America to earn this important industry recognition and validation of superior animal care, which meets, or exceeds world standards, as established by the Association.

In 2008, the AZA renewed Ocean Park’s accreditation for an additional five more years. The Park’s continuing commitment to animal conservation is reflected in the successful breeding programmes undertaken for its unique collection of insects, fishes, birds and marine mammals. Births of rare shark species, sea lions, sea horses and different species of jelly fish have been recorded, while endangered birds and butterflies are also being hatched and reared at Ocean Park. Research and development into breeding marine mammals via artificial insemination (AI) produced the world’s first bottlenose dolphin regnancies through AI in 2000. This was followed by the births of the world’s first two bottlenose dolphin calves achieved via AI in May 2001. As part of its initiatives to coordinate international conservation efforts for endangered marine mammals in Asia, Ocean Park established the Ocean Park Conservation Foundation (OPCF) in 1993. The Foundation hoped to significantly improve attitudes and practices towards conservation in Hong Kong and Asia through cooperative programmes with other conservation organisations.

The Hong Kong Society for Panda Conservation (HKSPC) was also launched in 1999 to educate the community and support conservation of the giant pandas and their habitat. Both the HKSPC and OPCF were merged into a single organisation on 1 July 2005 as the Ocean Park Conservation Foundation Hong Kong (OPCFHK). The OPCFHK advocates, facilitates and participates in the conservation of wildlife and habitats, with an emphasis on Asia, through research and education. Ocean Park offers two modes of transportation to enable guests to move between the Lowland, Headland and Tai Shue Wan. The Headland and Lowland is connected by a 1. km long cable car system offering not only just a convenient but also exceptionally scenic route between these two areas, with spectacular panoramic views of the southern side of Hong Kong and the South China Sea. Guests can also opt to ride the second longest outdoor escalator in the world stretching over 225 metres, connecting the Headland and Tai Shue Wan. The Headland is home to Ocean Park’s many thrill rides, including the Dragon, Eagle, Crazy Galleon, Ferris Wheel, Flying Swing, Raging River, Space Wheel, Mine Train, and Abyss Turbo Drop. For a less frenetic form of fun, guests can also adjourn to the Marine Land nearby.

The Ocean Theatre is a family favourite where dolphins and sea lions participate in lively daily shows that both entertain and educate its audience about the habitats of these marine mammals. The world-class Atoll Reef aquarium holds 2,000 fishes from close to 250 species, including sharks and a variety of unusual sting rays and marine specimens. At the unique Sea Jelly Spectacular, guests can interact with 1,000 beautiful sea jellies set against stunning music and multimedia displays. As one of the tallest observation towers in Southeast Asia, the Ocean Park Tower boasts a 360? ently rotating viewing room 72 metres above ground that enables guests to see clear to Aberdeen and the outlying islands. And Pacific Pier brings a slice of the sunny Californian coast to Hong Kong, complete with an interactive underwater exhibit view of the sea lions at play. The Lowland features Ocean Park’s latest themed-area, the Amazing Asian Animals – an educational and highly entertaining collection of exhibits bringing together some of Asia’s rarest animals. Red Pandas will be making their debut in Hong Kong for the first time ever at the Giant Panda Adventure, which will also house giant pandas Ying Ying and Le Le.

A viewing pavilion of hundreds of shimmering goldfish, including some of the latest and rarest species, can be found at Goldfish Treasures. For the bird watchers, the Panda Village offers a great opportunity to spot Ocean Park’s avian friends high above the trees, as well as visit some delightful Asian Small-clawed Otters. Young and old guests alike will delight in the starring attraction at the SkyFair – a helium balloon 22 metres in diameter that will raise guests 100 metres into the air. Finally, children will love the Whiskers Harbour, an area made especially for them, with a large and exciting array of kid-sized and kid-oriented rides.

The whole family can join in at the Whiskers Theatre, where live shows take a fun peek at a day in the life of Ocean Park’s sea lions. The nearby Dolphin University, which also encompasses Ocean Park’s dolphin breeding centre, also offers an excellent opportunity for guests, particularly the young and the young at heart, to learn more about the hidden lives of dolphins, as well as the efforts underway to conserve these intelligent marine mammals. For guests’ dining needs, Ocean Park currently offers four spectacular venues, the Bayview Restaurant, the Terrace Cafe, Cafe Ocean and the Panda Cafe.

The latest addition to Ocean Park’s eateries is the Panda Cafe, a uniquely panda-themed indoor and outdoor cafe certain to delight the entire family. Cafe Ocean, located on the Headland, is based on the concept of the classic Hong Kong-style cafe with a wide selection of local gourmet menus. Guests can also indulge in the oceanic ambience at the Bayview Restaurant, featuring an aquatic backdrop with sea jellies, or enjoy alfresco dining at the relaxing Terrace Cafe with its breathtaking sea view. Both the Bayview Restaurant and the Terrace Cafe offer extensive international menus as well as unbeatable views of the South China Sea.

Examples of Students Essays

Japanese Friendship Garden in Balboa Park Essay Example

Japanese Friendship Garden in Balboa Park Essay

            Japanese Friendship Garden is one of the eight distinct gardens located in Balboa Park in San Diego, California  (McCormick 2000) – Japanese Friendship Garden in Balboa Park Essay introduction. Originally, the Japanese Garden was built as a Japanese Tea House just south of Casa del Prado for the Panama-California Exposition in 1915 (2008). In Plaza de Panama, Foreign Arts Building and San Joaquin Valley Building are located. However, the San Joaquin Valley Building was demolished because it was unstable and in 1991 the Japanese Friendship Garden was built on the site (Marshall 2007). The Garden was developed with winding paths, Zen garden, koi-stocked ponds, and an elegant Japanese-style pavilion (Schulte-Peevers, Benson et al. 2006).

            The name of the Japanese Friendship Garden was coined from San-Kei-En which means “three Scene Garden” or the Water, Pastoral, and Mountain as a tribute to the San-Kei-En Garden in Yokohama. This signifies the ties and the blending of two cultures of the people of San Diego and Yokohama. Its design reflects the original principles of the Japanese Garden and a combination from the local regional landscape and culture. Also, it follows the Japanese principles of landscape design focusing on the people, natural environment, and the culture. The Japanese Friendship Garden is a development and extension of Japanese and culture from the home country of Japan and is always in a state of transition where people develop respect both for the environment and the cultural arts (Travaglini 2008).

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            The Garden showcases, a Fujidana (wisteria arbor) an exhibit house, bonsai exhibit, a ceremonial gate, and the perfect balance of the Zen garden with its manicures landscapes, winding pathways, tranquil waterfall, and ancient lanterns (2008). Traditional Japanese foods and beverages are served such as Japanese green tea, herbal teas, Japanese noodles, sushi, rice bowls, miso soup, snacks, and salads both in indoor and outdoor dining. The Garden has also been the venue for special events such as wedding ceremonies in its five major spectacular areas: the Koi Pond and moon viewing deck, the Ceremonial Gate, the Courtyard, the Exhibit House, and the Ceremonial Plaza (2008).

The Koi Pond is located underneath the Fujidana (wisteria arbor), surrounded by serene sounds of waterfall and is one of the favorite venues for ceremonies. The Ceremonial Gate, on the other hand, overlooks the neighboring building of Organ Pavilion’s Corinthian-style columns. At the front of the Garden, the magnificent courtyard is located with views of the Balboa Park and the Organ Pavilion. Guests can further view Japanese arts, crafts, and collections in the Exhibit House which reflects the traditional Japanese sukiya style. Moreover, receptions are held in the Ceremonial Plaza where the Ceremonial Gate serves as a background (2008).

              Figure 1 Monumental Stone Lantern from Miyanoshita


The Japanese term for the Japanese Garden is niwa which means “pure place” which reflects the purity of Eden before man sins. The principles in the Garden are related to the Zen philosophy where the Garden represents the universe and its elements namely fire, earth, water, air, plant, and animal life. A stone or the iron lantern stands for the fire while the stone also represents the earth and the water, air, plant, and animal life stand in their true form. The Zen Principles applied in the niwa are fukinsei (asymmetry/dissymmetry), kanso (simplicity), koko (austerity/maturity), shizen (absence of pretense), yugen (subtly profound), datsuzoku (unworldliness), and seijaku (calm). The principle of fukinsei refers to the Eastern concept of asymmetrical composition of balance where there is an irregular division. In the Western concept, this is described as disorganized or askew The Monumental Lantern Stone (Fig. 1) has height, width, and depth that are arranged asymmetrically or irregularity (Tierney).

  Figure 2 Moon window (Tierney)

The principle of kanso, on the other hand, presents basic simplicity without complexity and flamboyance. In the Eastern sense, kanso expresses cleanliness, freshness, neatness, natural truthfulness and reserved. The moon window (Fig. 2), for example, is just a simple endless circle window with a simple Ikebana. Also, the simplicity portrayed in kanso might as well be different from the Western counterpart. Koko principle reflects austerity and maturity at the same time of subjects in their bare bones such as The Silhouette of Izumo Shrine (Fog. 3). The visual elements show age, venerability with weathered, stern, and forbidding appearance. It may as well be difficult for the Westerners to appreciate koko since the East and the West have different concepts. Most of the koko principle are evident in ancient stones and weathered surfaces (Tierney).

     Figure 3 The Garden of Chishaku (Tierney)                              Figure 4 The Silhouette of Izumo Shrine (Tierney)

The fourth Zen principle, shizen, portrays the ‘true naturalness’ particularly from raw nature such as The Garden of Chishaku (Fig. 3) which is composed of creative arrangements of nature elements to rather express nature and not ‘occupy’ it. Shizen is described as naturalness, absence of artificiality, and a sense of artlessness but creative in intent. Datsuzoku, on the other hand, involves the immediate effect of expression–surprise. The ultimate surprise in the Japanese Garden is the ability of creating a niwa from the nature’s raw materials and portrays the ‘essence of natural things’. Tori from Miyajima (Fig. 4), for example, is a surprise since it is built in the water (Tierney).

     Figure 5 Tori from Miyajima (Tierney)                          Figure 3 View fat Tofuku-ji Temple (Tierney)

Seijaku is the Zen principle responsible for the silence, calmness, and stillness that visitors would feel upon entering a Japanese Garden. Disturbances and noises are totally absent. Seijaku is often portrayed in the stillness of water reflections. This principle is also related to the late autumn and early spring or dawn and dusk which have timely and seasonal characteristics (Tierney). In Tofuku-ji temple (Fig. 5), the principle of quietness is reflected (Tierney). A Japanese Garden is not a typical garden where numerous flowers and plants are planted. The stones, the ponds, the trees, and the paths all have symbolic representations reflecting the Zen philosophy and other subjects or aspirations. The seven principles of Zen philosophy do not have a definite meaning and are correlated with other principles (Tierney).


(2008). “Japanese Friendship Garden.”   Retrieved 9 June 2008, 2008, from            http://www.balboapark.org/in-the-park/detail.php?OrgID=8.

(2008). “Special Events.”   Retrieved 9 June, 2008, from    http://www.niwa.org/display/SpecialEvents.asp.

Marshall, D. (2007). San Diego’s Balboa Park, Arcadia Publishing.

McCormick, K. (2000). The Garden Lover’s Guide to the West, Princeton Architectural Press.

Schulte-Peevers, A., S. Benson, et al. (2006). California, Lonely Planet.

Tierney, L. “Zen Principles which relate to the Niwa.”   Retrieved 9 June, 2008, from            http://www.niwa.org/display/RelatedTopics.asp.

Travaglini, M. (2008). “Tour.”   Retrieved 9 June, 2008, from         http://www.niwa.org/display/Approach.asp?parentID=145.


Examples of Students Essays

Jurassic Park Essay Example

Jurassic Park Essay

Jurassic Park

“Jurassic Park” by Michael Chriton is a science fiction novel considered a cautionary tale – Jurassic Park Essay introduction. The novel is based on the mathematical concept of chaos theory that explains the collapse of amusement park. The most confusing thing revealed is that some scientists argue that book’s content is impossible simply because many of the described dinosaurs depicted in the novel and film versions didn’t live in the Jurassic Period and many of them were described the wrong way. Many of the depicted dinosaurs are argued to belong to Cretaceous Period. Firstly, it would be rather difficult to correctly sequence dinosaur’s DNA without a complete DNA for comparison. Therefore, it is hardly possible to find complete sequence as DNA is unstable outside the living organism. Secondly, the story suggests that DNA frog is used for producing an organism, but in reality the produced organism that varied from original specie is scientific nonsense. (Weaver, 2002, p.76)

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Moreover, some dinosaurs appear to be described incorrectly than real animals. For example, pterosaur (see pic.1) is described as an aggressive dinosaur being able to pick up a child with its feet. In reality pterosaur is thought to have eaten fish and to have been strong enough to lift up a person. Further, procompsognathus (see pic.2) is also provided with attributes which can’t be determined from fossil evidence. In particular, they are presented as living in large groups, as eaters of feces keeping the park clean. Similar to that of cobra, they are presented to secret venom, although in more primitive way. In reality, they are claimed to be early relative of modern crocodiles. No evidence proves they lived in groups and scientists argue venom secretion in dinosaurs was not observed. The ability incapacitate a prey is attributed to compsognathus.  (Desalle & Lindley, 1997)


Weaver, R.F. (2002). Molecular Biology. New York: McGraw-Hill, p.76

Desalle. B., & Lindley, D. (1997). The Science of Jurassic Park: And the Los World or, How to Build a Dinosaur. USA: Ballantine Books.


Examples of Students Essays

Cloud Gate- an Analysis Essay Example

Cloud Gate- an Analysis Essay

Department: Communication Design Course: Contemporary Art in Context Artist: Anish Kapoor Title: Cloud Gate Year: Built 2004-2006 Location: Millennium Park, Chicago, Illinois, United States Dimensions: 10 m ? – Cloud Gate- an Analysis Essay introduction ?? 13 m ? 20 m (33 ft ? 42 ft ? 66 ft) Medium: Stainless steel About the artist: Anish Kapoor, one of the world’s most distinguished and significant contemporary artists, was born in Mumbai to a Punjabi-Hindu father and an Iraqi-Jewish mother. He has studied art at the Hornsey College of Art and Chelsea School of Art Design.

In the 1980s he surfaced as one of the several British sculptors working in an innovative style and gaining global recognition for their work, like Tony Cragg, Richard Deacon, Anthony Gormley, and Bill Woodrow. Kapoor’s pieces are usually simple, curved forms, sometimes monochrome, and frequently bright and noticeable. An interesting characteristic is also that they are sometimes covered by powdered pigments or some of it is lying around them on the floor. Here the inspiration comes from the coloured powders used in India as Kapoor saw on his visits.

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His later works are constructed of solid, pitted stone, a lot of which have carved orifices and cavities. The translucent quality of resin, the brightness of pigment and the liquefied reflections of stainless steel and water all express his fascination with darkness and light that is apparent throughout his sculptures. Through this play between form and light, Kapoor evokes sublime experiences for the viewer. Kapoor says, ‘One of the phenomena that I’ve worked with over many years is darkness.

Darkness is an idea that we all know about, in a way an idea about the absence of light. Very simple. ’ In the 1990 Kapoor represented Britain at the Venice Biennale, where he received the award of Premio Duemila. The subsequent year he won the esteemed Turner Prize. Solo exhibitions of his work have been held in the Tate and Hayward Gallery in London, Kunsthalle Basel in Switzerland, Reina Sofia in Madrid, the National Gallery in Ottawa, and the CAPC Museum of Contemporary Art in Bordeaux. In 2004, Cloud Gate was inaugurated at Millennium Park in Chicago. Cloud Gate:

Introduction: Sculpture cannot continue without originality and creativity. For sculptors it is difficult to come up with a great idea that no one has done before. Anish Kapoor is one of those talented artists who succeed in this with Cloud Gate being his famous masterwork. Cloud Gate is this Kapoor’s first public outdoor work installed in the United States. Inspired by the likeness of liquid mercury, it is made of a 168 seamless series of highly polished stainless steel plates welded together, which reflect the Chicago’s famous skyline and the skies above.

A 12-foot-high arch-like structure provides an entrance to the concave chamber beneath the sculpture, called the “omphalos”, inviting visitors to feel its highly reflective surface and see their image dramatically warped and reflected back from a multiplicity of perspectives. The sculpture reflects many of Kapoor’s imaginative themes although many tourists simply take the sculpture and its unique reflective properties to be a great photo taking prospect. History:

In 1999, Millennium Park officials and a group of art collectors, curators and architects met to review the proposed sculpture designs by 30 different artists from all over the world. The committee finally selected Kapoor’s proposed sculpture over artist Jeff Koons’s proposal to erect a permanent 150-foot (46 m) slide at the park. Kapoor’s contract also states that the constructed piece was expected to survive for 1000 years. This design, ultimately named Cloud Gate, was inspired by the silver reflective quality of liquid mercury and intended to reflect Chicago’s skyline.

This sculpture was originally envisioned at the southeast corner of the Lurie Garden, but park officials finally decided to locate it at AT&T Plaza, which is where it currently stands. The sculpture was first affectionately nicknamed “The Bean” by the public and media outlets, and then officially named “Cloud Gate” by Kapoor months later. The name came from the fact that three-quarters of the sculpture’s external surface reflects the sky and that the sculpture is sort of a gate into the sky. Design and construction: The structure created several design dilemmas.

It was feared that it might maintain and convey hot and cold temperatures in such a way that made it too hot to touch during the summer and so cold during the winter. It was also suggested that the extreme temperature variation might weaken the structure. Graffiti by the visitors, bird droppings and fingerprints were probable problems as well, as they would affect the aesthetics of the flawless sculpture and kill the idea of seamless reflection, since the most pressing issue was the desire to create a single seamless structure.

Various experts that were consulted, including Norman Foster thought such a plan was probably impossible. One other issue was that the sculpture was originally approximated to weigh 60 short tons, because it was impossible to estimate the thickness of the steel compatible with the desired aesthetics at that time. However, the completed piece weighs 110 short tons and thus additional care was required to support it. Luckily, all the problems were resolve in the end. On the inside of its shell are several steel structures that keep the sculpture standing.

At first two stainless steel rings, were put into place in February 2004. During the construction, crisscrossing pipe trusses were assembled between the two rings. The trusses and supporting structures were only present for the construction phases and now it has no inner bracing. The frame can also expand and contract with the sculpture as temperatures fluctuate. The American Welding Society awarded Cloud Gate, MTH Industries and PSI with the group’s Extraordinary Welding Award. The sculpture contributed to Millennium Park being named among the 10 best architectural achievements of 2004 in Time.

Display: Cloud Gate soon after its installation became an icon of the city of Chicago. The public took an instant liking to it, affectionately naming it “The Bean. ” It has incredible drawing power, attracting locals, tourists and art enthusiasts alike, and is now mostly the piece by which Kapoor is identified. It is one of the most photographed attractions in the city too. Anish Kapoor himself says, What I wanted to do in Millennium Park is make something that would engage the Chicago skyline … o that one will see the clouds kind of floating in, with those very tall buildings reflected in the work. And then, since it is in the form of a gate, the participant, the viewer, will be able to enter into this very deep chamber that does, in a way, the same thing to one’s reflection as the exterior of the piece is doing to the reflection of the city around. Artist’s premise: Kapoor’s artworks often aim to stir up immateriality and the spiritual, a result he achieves either by carving dark voids into stone pieces, or through the sheer shine and reflectivity of his objects.

Cloud Gate limits its viewers to partial understanding at any time. The interaction with the viewer who moves to create his own vision in the art piece itself gives it a spiritual dimension. It is also labelled as one of the most provocative structures in the world since it represents both the male and female in one entity by symbolizing both the vagina and testicles. Thus, it represents the tension between the masculine and the feminine; although a hundred people can take a hundred interpretations out of it.

A visitor describes, ‘It’s unique. It’s Beautiful. It’s a messenger. The message I could read from the bean is. “I am the seed, who want to accommodate the whole earth, who want to come closer to me and shadow the Willingness of being together and reflect the beauty in that togetherness” Artistic Study: I chose to discuss this work because it immediately appealed to my interest in reflections and shiny surfaces, which also makes me a great fan of Kapoor’s ideology itself. On study, I could not find a pattern in Kapoor’s work.

The is no real relation to the world around him, but rather his art is an attempt to make people slow down, stare and expand their minds away from the status quo they typically occupy psychologically. I really like the fact that there is a gate to the centre of the Cloud Gate which gives the viewer the liberty to move around the whole thing and experience how it feels around him, truly incorporating himself into it. Upon entering this gate, solid is transformed into fluid in a disorienting multiplicative manner that exaggerates the experience.

Also as soon as I see it, I desire to reach out and feel the smoothness of the metal surface because of its seamless exterior. The perfection of this piece calls for immediate attention and makes it feel like it has magically landed here from a fantasy world and makes the viewer wonder what and how. When the light is right, you can’t see where the sculpture ends and the sky begins, which gives it a whole new surreal feeling creating a unique experience.

Also, the construction of this gigantic structure required immaculate skill on the craftsmen part, so while you experience the glassy feel of the metal you also wonder how such a smooth finish has been achieved. To me, like the rest of the world, this piece is beyond successful, both from design and construction points of view. From a layman to an art expert, Cloud Gate appeals alike. To sum up, Kapoor’s art is always forward moving. His unique style and approach to sculpture inspires one to think-outside-the-box and push the limits of creativity, like he has done in Cloud Gate.

Bibliography: * Baume, Nicholas (2008). Anish Kapoor: Past Present Future. The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-02659-8. * Gilfoyle, Timothy J. (2006). Millennium Park: Creating a Chicago Landmark. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-29349-3. *  “The Bean Unveiled”. Chicago Tonight. Chicago. May 15, 2006. * Jodidio, Philip (2005). Architecture: Art. Prestel. ISBN 3-7913-3279-1. * “Cloud Gate”. Chicago Architecture Info. Retrieved June 1, 2008. * Sharoff, Robert (2004). Better than Perfect: The Making of Chicago’s Millennium Park. Walsh Construction Company. Becker, Lynn. “A photo essay on the making of Anish Kapoor’s Cloud Gate sculpture in Chicago’s Millennium Park”. * Thomas, Neil and Chadwick, Aran (2009). Liquid Threshold. Atelier One. ISBN 978-0-9562563-0-0. ——————————————– [ 1 ]. Tusa, John. “Transcript of the John Tusa Interview with the sculptor Anish Kapoor. ” BBC Radio. British Broadcasting Company. n. d. Web. 31 Jan. 2010. [ 2 ]. Wadhwani, Sita (2009-09-14). “Anish Kapoor”. CNNGo. com. [ 3 ]. “Crain’s List Largest Tourist Attractions (Sightseeing): Ranked by 2007 attendance”.

Crain’s Chicago Business (Crain Communications Inc. ): p. 22. June 23, 2008. [ 4 ]. Anish Kapoor: Sky Mirror, September 19 – October 27, 2006 Public Art Fund. [ 5 ]. Nance, Kevin (July 14, 2004). “The Bean’s bone of contention”. Chicago Sun-Times(Newsbank). [ 6 ]. Steele, Jeffrey. “Special Project – Chicago’s Millennium Park Project”. McGraw-Hill Construction. [ 7 ]. “Making Metal Gleam”. USGlass 42 (4). April 2007. [ 8 ]. “Cloud Gate on the AT&T Plaza”. Millennium Park. Archived from the original on May 19, 2008. [ 9 ]. Lalit Suryawanshi – Tuesday, October 9th, 2007 @ 12:39am

Examples of Students Essays

Hotel and Theme Park Essay Example

Hotel and Theme Park Essay

Earlier this year, my mum and dad decided that we would be going to Benidorm for a week at the beginning of the summer holidays – Hotel and Theme Park Essay introduction. My sister, Tara and I were so excited for the holiday that we immediately started counting down the days even though it was April and we wouldn’t be going until the end of June/start of July. The months leading up to the holiday was a whirlwind of planning what we were taking and what we were going to do while we were there.

Finally the day came and we were getting up at 3 am so we could get ready and catch the 6 o’clock plane from Edinburgh airport to Alicante airport. I remember bouncing in my seat in excitement while we were landing and letting out a squeal of happiness when we were safely on the ground and free to leave exit the plane. The first thing I felt when I departed the plane was the complete relaxation that the searing sun on my face brought to me.

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All too soon we were sitting in an overcrowded bus that would take us all to our different hotels. Our hotel was one of the first few stops as we were relatively close to the beach. On first look, the hotel (which I cannot for the life of me remember the name of) looked pretty standard. It wasn’t horrible looking however it didn’t look like the Ritz. However, once I got inside I was taken aback by how classy the reception area was. I couldn’t help but wonder if our room would be just as classy and lovely as the reception area.

My answer to that particular question was no. The room was nice enough considering we wouldn’t be spending much time in there but I couldn’t help but be disappointed by the size of our room. The thing I enjoyed the most about our room was surprisingly the bathroom, the lighting in there was absolute perfection for getting ready in the morning and evening and the shower was to die for! I could just feel all the tension in my shoulders wash away while in that shower.

Our first day in Benidorm wasn’t all that eventful, Tara and I spent most of our day out by the pool swimming (Tara) and soaking up some vitamin D (me). Eventually we had to leave the pool at about 8 o’clock for dinner which would be starting soon. The dinner the hotel served was extraordinary! It was as if they had taken a dish from every country in the world and put it into a buffet where we could just take whatever tickled our fancy!

Day two of our holiday of found us spending the day sunbathing at the beach and swimming in the sea. The water was a beautiful clear blue colour and the sand was golden. The highlight of day two for me though were the peaches that my dad bought at a fruit stall while we were walking down to the beach. They were the largest and juiciest peaches I had ever had and kept my stomach content until dinner time.

On the third and fourth days of our time in Benidorm were spent in the theme park “Terra Mitica” which translates to ‘mythical land’. The theme park was split into 5 different parts: Egypt, Greece, Iberia, the Islands and Rome. Each area had their own rides and shows. Personally my favourite part was of the theme park was the boat ride around the park as it was decorated magically.

Day five found us exploring the old and new town and the shops that they offered. We found a boat ride that would take us to Benidorm Island and while there we walked all the way to the top of the hill and down again which in the blistering heat was a very difficult feat to accomplish.

The next day was spent at a secluded beach that we found while exploring the town. This beach was a little bit different to the main beach though, as there were fish swimming in the water with us.

Our last day in Benidorm was spent at a marine animal park, “Mundomar” where we watched a bird, sea lion and dolphin show, looked at turtles/tortoises, lemurs, monkeys and seals and had our pictures taken with dolphins. It was the perfect ending to the holiday that had undoubtedly been the best holiday of my life.

With our glowing tans, souvenirs and pictures that needed to be uploaded onto Facebook, we boarded the plane that would take us back to Edinburgh, I couldn’t help but feel disheartened by the fact that we were leaving this incredible, stunning and warm place and going back home to dreary Scotland! But as they say, all good things must come to an end.

Examples of Students Essays

Rhino Capture in Kruger National Park Essay Example

Rhino Capture in Kruger National Park Essay

Poaching is a very touchy subject to many – Rhino Capture in Kruger National Park Essay introduction. Being an animal lover myself I couldn’t imagine enduring that kind of pain on an innocent animal just to make a large sum of money. It is not ethical and although many would love for it to end, poaching seems to be a continuous issue. With the creation of Kruger National Park, their intentions were to protect the nation’s fast and dwindling wildlife areas in South Africa. With their intentions only being good at the start of this assignment in 1898, they have managed to make progress with a few mishaps.

It seems as if money will really make people do stupid things. Mentioned in the article, two employed staff members poached two rhinos in an area of what is considered to be the best antipoaching unit in South Africa as well. In a perfect world, being an animal lover myself as I previously mentioned I would love to take all of these endangered animals under my wing and create an area where they were shielded off from all harm here in the world. However, the world we live is no-where near perfect, so that is unfortunately out of the question.

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All we can do is create more facilities for these animals and have more security to insure the safety of these innocent animals. Possibly even have air security that allowed a clear view of what was going on in the ground below them. At the same time it is just very hard to pull something off like this, especially when such a large area is being watched and poachers are good at what they do because they act so quickly. Hence, why so few get caught. So, for now the hopes for a perfect world is really all we have to end the constant poaching issue.