Examples of Students Essays

The Law egg Sex Discrimination Act Example

The Law egg Sex Discrimination Act – Part 2

Policies and procedures within services: equal opportunities; grievance procedures; bullying and harassment at work; other anti-discrimination policies; recording and monitoring of equal opportunities data and complaints; complaints procedures for service users Diversity issues: employment within public services; development of a diverse workforce through recruitment and staff selection strategies; catering for employees’ needs through support mechanisms (staff unions, associations and federations); aspects of public service work which may impact on individual beliefs Task 2 (UP) deadline Evidence = Individual written document) – The Law egg Sex Discrimination Act introduction. A) Use the case study on p. 0 about positive action in the Humidifiers Fire and rescue Service. What are the positive and negative effects of the positive action policies to the Fire and rescue Service? What is positive Action? This is used to recruit firefighters from under-represented groups within the community as a whole egg women, ethnic minorities, gay men and women and people with disabilities. They are allowed to do this by law egg Sex Discrimination Act, Race Discrimination Act, Disabilities Discrimination Act Positive Effects Currently 97% white men However population is 52% women and 48% men White British 4% Asian 2% Black They want a diverse fire service that represents society as a whole.

So they do the following at Humidifiers Equality and Diversity Officer Evening and weekend awareness courses Opportunity to ask questions of minority officers The positives could be that more ethnic minorities may consider a career in the fire service. Also minority groups may feel able to get information and advice about the fire service. The negative could be that white men feel discriminated against (Telegraph article about Avon Fire Service). It could be that the wrong person is chosen for the job. They may be chosen because of their minority background How might this ensure the Fire and rescue Service has a diverse workforce? Open days provide opportunities for minorities to find out more An equality and Diversity officer may actively every day promote recruitment of minorities b) Use the case study on p. 00 about the Army Equal Opportunities Policy 2000 What are the positive and negative effects of positive action to the Army? Individuals from different religious backgrounds can join the army and still keep ND practice their faith. This includes provision of specialist food, daily prayer when safe, celebration of holy days, Sikh men are allowed to wear turbans, regular liaison with a variety of faiths. Negatives may be that white British men may think they are getting special treatment, the enemy may be able to pick off those with turbans more easily, Generalizations by white British about different faiths may lead to more racism because the minorities are treated differently.

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More costs associated with preparing and ordering specialist food, holy festivals and prayer may not always e practical. How might this ensure the Army has a diverse workforce? If this becomes more widely known it may make more people from different religions want to join the army Task 3 (AS) deadline Choose the Army or the Fire and Rescue Service to research a) What recruitment policies does this public service have to try to ensure its workforce reflects society? Army – Use bullet points from case study b) What policies does the public service have to combat under-representation? Respecting different religions, food, clothing, prayer Open days, information services Task 4 (UP) deadline

Essential content – 3 bullet points for each side heading – in a spider diagram Equality of service: services to individuals; Come to emergency calls egg 999, fire, road traffic crash, chemical spillage, rescue Home visit to check for fire safety Provide advice Same applies to businesses statutory requirements; There are laws to ensure the minimum standards of service are provided accessibility by users; All users must able to fully access fire service premises egg disabled, mobility impaired Fire makes special plans to help all users Leaflets, websites, information must be made available in a variety of formats g Braille, languages, video, talks, home visits recognizing needs of citizens as individuals and groups Fire Service has policies to ensure all needs of all groups can be met. Task 5 (UP) deadline (Evidence = Individual written document).

POI Give 5 examples of how specific public services provide equality of service to all citizens See bullet points in case study Task 6 (MM) deadline Analyses the effectiveness of the methods used by public services to promote equality and diversity in society and within the service Review the case studies from task 2 – answer these questions in detail ) What are the positive and negatives of these policies in terms of recruitment and retention? B) What might these positives and negatives lead to and why? (In terms of recruitment and retention) Possible short term and long term effects because Length – 1 side minimum Task 7 (DO) deadline Write a summary and conclusion for MM. Overall do these policies lead to more negative or positive effects in terms of recruitment and retention for the public service? What is your opinion? What do you recommend the public services should do in the future? 3 Rig Para’s

Unit assignment Essay – Part 2

In this first section, explain the key features of the relevant legislation and regulations applicable to each workplace – Unit assignment Essay introduction. PA. Describe the roles and responsibilities of those involved under current H&S legislation and regulations. For each of the two working environments chosen, discuss the roles and responsibilities of the employer, the employee, the health and safety executive and one other, it says in the specification. The one other, I might recommend, could be an external contractor working on site.

We had quite a lot of information on the roles and responsibilities of contractors from Out Jump, so this could be a handy place to start as we know the names and roles of the main staff involved with H&S at SUMAC and can explain how these relate to the roles and responsibilities within the company. MI . Explaining the consequences of not following legislation. What happens if management do not abide by legislation and regulations when carrying out their roles and responsibilities?

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Base this on one of the engineering workplaces that you have considered during the assignment. Consider who is culpable in the event of an incident and what the possible consequences could include. Tips: Anything in bold and underlined can be regarded as a heading or a sub heading in your assignment. Aim to complete this assignment in approximately 2000 words or 4 sides of AY. Use the HOSE website for examples and legislation information as required. Reference any sources used.

Examples of Students Essays

Compare and Contrast Person Centred with Psychodynamic Essay Example

Compare and Contrast Person Centred with Psychodynamic Essay

When comparing and contrasting the differences in the three approaches, I will review the relationship between client and counsellor – Compare and Contrast Person Centred with Psychodynamic Essay introduction. I will attempt to discover how the relationship is formed and how it is maintained during the therapeutic process. Once this has been established, I will then look at how the changes occur in the therapeutic relationship and which techniques will be used. I will compare and contrast the approaches of Carl Rogers, Sigmund Freud and Albert Ellis. I will look at how their theories have impacted on the counselling processes in modern times and throughout history.

In the humanistic approach in counselling there is a vital importance that the core conditions between client and counselling are present from the outset for the relationship to exist. Roger stated that the core conditions were “necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. ” (Mcleod 2001) Without the core conditions being present, there is no hope for the therapeutic movement for the client. Empathy is seen as being with the client, this is going into the clients frame of reference and experiencing the emotions and feelings that the client is experiencing at that particular moment in time.

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In 1986 Rogers underlined empathy as “ To my mind, empathy is in itself a healing agent. It is one of the most potent aspects of therapy, because it releases, it confirms, it brings even the most frightening client into the human race. If a person is understood, he or she belongs” (Merry 2002) To me this sentence is what empathy is in a nut shell, this shows that the client is being understood, and the counsellor is secure in their own identity so that they don’t get overwhelmed in the client world. Another of the core conditions is congruence, this is the genuineness of the counsellor.

This is where the counsellor has understanding of the complex feelings, thoughts and the attitudes of the client. However there is a fine line between the counsellor an understanding the client needs and the counsellors feelings and thoughts being projected. Congruence should be used to show the client that the counsellor is sincere and that they are not clinical and unemotional. The last core condition is unconditional regard, this is where counsellor show the client acceptance of who they are in the present time.

Where the beliefs and attitude of the counsellor are not used in judgement against the client. It is important skill for the counsellor to have so that the client can feel secure in the emotions that they feeling in the present. In the psychodynamic approach in counselling the relationship between the client and the counsellor is an intensive relationship, and the emotional tone of the client and the attitude towards the counsellor is essential for the relationship to exist.

Through analysing his patients Freud devised a structure that was to define the personality of the individual, these were the id, the ego and the super ego. Freud believed that in order for the human psyche to be balanced and healthy all these have to be in harmony with each other. Freud once stated that“ The conscious mind may be compared to a fountain playing in the sun and falling back into the great subterranean pool of subconscious from which it rises. “ (brainy quotes. com 2010).

A Psychodynamic counsellor can use a technique called transference, this is where the counsellor reflects on in the past so that they can reflect on it in the present. Transference is drawing on the past experience with significant figures such as the mother and the father and the relationship that the client has with them. This is carried out on a unconscious level even thought the client knows that the information is out dated. The counsellor uses the information in a way that gets them to understand some of the problems that they are experiencing.

Once the transference is brought in to the open it is important to use this as a learning experience and for the clients to identify the faulty patterns within their own behaviour with regards to others. Counter transference is where the feelings of the client is unconsciously reacting to the client thoughts and feelings towards the counsellor. However, counter-transference is caused by the counsellors own limitations which might include the counsellor unresolved emotional issues, but a counsellor can use this to their advantage and draw out information that is important to the clients therapeutic process.

In the cognitive behaviour approach to counselling the use of potential outcomes of cognitive behaviour therapy, looking at the fact that there are emotional disorders that result from negative thoughts and thinking on unrealistic terms, and this in time can be altered by changing the unrealistic terms and negative thoughts to positive thoughts and realistic ideas. Rational emotional therapy is there to assist the client to make enlightened changes to themselves. In 1962 Ellis stated that “ human thinking and emotions are, in some of their essences, the same thing, and that by changing the former one does change the latter ( Dryden 2001).

This would let the client to give up the demands of their own psyche, others and the world, and change it to suit their choices and to allow themselves to accept themselves for who they really are. If the counsellor can get the client to do this, they can experience healthy negative emotions such as sadness, concern and disappointment, while still retaining their desires, wishes and needs. The client will rarely experience unhealthy negative emotions that would have surrounded with ‘should,’ ‘musts,’ and ‘oughts. The client and the counsellor has to collaborate within the relationship as it gives autonomy to the client to encompass their own problems, and to overcome and use problem solving as a way of coming to term with the issues. When looking at the differences in the three approaches in counselling it was important to note that the core conditions related to all three theories. In the Humanistic Approach the core conditions are necessary for the therapeutic relationship to develop. In the two other approaches they were sufficient for the relationship to develop.

With humanistic approach all of the core conditions are present, but with psychodynamic non judgemental attitude are poignant to the relationship, and the counsellor will not take side in the conflict, however congruence and empathy is present, but not widely used by the counsellor. With cognitive behaviour again all three core conditions are present but unpositive regard is important to show the client that their imperfections are accepted by the counsellor. There has to be empathy as this helps the counsellor to build a rapport with the client.

I have noticed that there is at least one of the core conditions are present in the therapeutic relationship, with exception of the humanistic approach, where all three are used in conjunction with each other. I also realised that transference is present in the cognitive approach as the client constructs an image of the counsellor, which results in transference, but this is used like psychodynamic transference in a therapeutic way. When looking at how the therapeutic approaches is the three different pproaches to counselling, the humanistic approach is where you understand that this process is client led and that it is where the client wants to go. With the humanistic approach to counselling the counsellor will start the very beginning of the relationship with a contract. This is where the relationship between the counsellor and client is formed. The counsellor will hope that this contract will establish trust between the both parties. Trust is paramount in the relationship, with out trust the client cannot be open and honest with the counsellor.

The counsellor works within the client internal frame of reference. This is where the counsellor tries understands the clients world, thoughts and feelings of the significant points that were happening at that time. Rogers once said “To be of assistance to you I will put aside myself – the self of ordinary interaction – and enter into your world of perception as completely as I am able. I will become, in a sense, another self for you- an alter ego of your own attitudes and feeling – a safe opportunity for you to discern yourself more clearly, to experience yourself more truly and deeply, to choose more significantly. (Rogers 1951) I understand that this is what Rogers was trying to say about the clients internal frame of reference and how the counsellor should try and move around freely with out imposing their own thoughts and feelings. However some times the clients thoughts and feelings are from their conditions of worth. If the client feels that they are useless at most things in their life. This could be due to the fact that there have been negative feelings on them from a early age. Sometimes when the client has been surrounded by feelings of worthlessness they some times lose their inherent values as an individual.

When looking at the process of the therapeutic changes in the Psychodynamic approach to counselling, you have to look at what specific techniques are used, but you have to be clear what the aims of the treatment are. Freud stated that “where id was, let ego be” (McLeod 1993) he said this to summarise his aims. What he means by this is that we are driven by the force and impulses and after therapy people are more rational, aware of their inner emotional life and be able to control these feelings with appropriate behaviour.

McLeod (2003) also stated that “ A key aim of psychoanalysis is, then, the achievement of insight into the true nature of one’s problems…. ” A counsellor also uses the skills of listening, observing, clarifying, linking, interpretation, giving reflective responses and drawing on past events and presenting behaviour. You also have to look at defence mechanism. The ego is govern the Reality Principle which has the task of dealing with demands of the Id, while it is also praising the external reality and then it decides on the what behaviour is suitable for the environment.

It also deals with threat and punishment off the Superego which with all the factors of the Id and Ego, it generated anxiety in the individual. This is where the person’s wishes and external reality is dealt with the use of the defence mechanism. Freud once stated that “The poor ego has a still harder time of it; it has to serve three harsh masters, and it has to do its best to reconcile the claims and demands of all three… The three tyrants are the external world, the superego, and the id. ” From New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis, (1932) psychology. about. com.

Once we know where the emotions that we experience comes from, we will know how to deal with the issues if they were ever to arise again. When a person understands their feelings and emotions they will get a release of the emotional tension of the repressed or buried memories, Freud called this “catharsis”, this means to purify the emotions from the ties that it had to our past. When looking at the process of the therapeutic approach of cognitive behaviour therapy, In 1962 Ellis stated that “ human thinking and emotions are, in some of their essences, the same thing, and that by changing the former one does change the latter ( Dryden 2001).

Ellis went on to put forward a model that would be easy to remember, this is the ABC model. The A is for activating events where the emotional and behaviour leads to the consequences ( C) and the emotional residual is decided by Beliefs (B) this model shows some action or attitude of an individual or physical event that has happened in the clients life. A counsellor will show the client how this can be used to monitor the cognitive reactions to events, this then shows the client how to engage the thoughts and reactions to any events, which then turn give them choice on how to react towards the event.

There is also cognitive change techniques this is where the counsellor can help the client to look at the irrational and rational beliefs. This is done by giving the client homework, which is a imagery technique that helps the client to change their unhealthy negative emotions to healthy ones. This is said to give the client an intellectual insight in their irrational beliefs. This is also used in the behaviour change techniques, this is where the counsellor and client negotiates the homework, where the client aims to putting what they have learnt in therapy in to play.

There is also the emotive-evocative change techniques, this is where the counsellor uses self -disclosure and openly admit that they make errors. When looking at the similarities and the differences to the three approaches on how each of them impact on the outcome of the counselling process, it is important to note that each of them have a variety of different techniques but the outcome is the same for each. However each of the approaches were all governed by the fact that a contract had to be established for trust to develop.

In the humanistic approach the counsellor would stay in the clients frame of reference when they were experiencing the emotions that was difficult to convey. Also the humanistic approach is given a time limit in weeks that both counsellor and client must try to achieve. With Psychodynamic approach it is a timely and an expensive course of therapy. With psychodynamic approach it looks for patterns that happened in childhood that is now no longer tolerated in adulthood.

Where as the humanistic approach is looking at why they feel the negative feeling that other have imposed on them in childhood. In the cognitive behaviour approach this is seen as the therapy that is fast acting and that gives the client homework to do in there own time. This the only approach that give the client homework. This approach is a collaborative between the client and counsellor and the work is mostly done with the client being in control of the therapy.

In conclusion, I understand the core conditions are vital in all approaches to counselling – they are only a necessity in the humanistic approach, but they are sufficient in the other two approaches. I also realised that, when it came to the therapeutic changes in the approaches, even though each of them used different techniques, the outcome was the same. This was to get the client to have autonomy for their own life and that what the past and what others have placed on them is nothing compared to the power that is within the client.

Examples of Students Essays

Person-centred and Systems Theory approach case study based Essay Example

Person-centred and Systems Theory approach case study based Essay

Case Study :

Ramesh is 45 year old Sri Lankan man who works as a telephone call centre agent – Person-centred and Systems Theory approach case study based Essay introduction. He was close to and lived with his mother, who died 18 months ago. Ramesh was recently hospitalised after a suicide attempt. He had been taking anti-depressants for several months before he took an overdose. According to his sister, he had become depressed and was drinking and smoking a lot, and hardly ever eating. He had been taking time off work, and was at risk of losing his job with BT. His sister says that Ramesh went downhill after the death of their mother, but that she was surprised at this as he always complained about all the things he had to do for her when she was alive. The sister has a family of her own, but says that she has tried to involve Ramesh in her family, but he had mostly refused. He had some friends who he used to play cricket with, but he has stopped seeing them. He had been saying that there’s nothing to live for, and he wanted to be left alone. Ramesh is due to be released from hospital in two weeks’ time.

Introduction

The purpose of this essay is to critically analyse the Task-centred and client-centred approaches to Social Work Intervention. I will initially explain their main principles, advantages and disadvantages and apply them to the assessment, planning and intervention of the above case study. Particular attention will be paid to how these perspectives inform the application of anti-oppressive practice (AOP). The word ‘perspective’ describes a partial ‘view of the world’ (Payne 1997:290) and is often used to attempt to order and make sense of experiences and events from a particular and partial viewpoint. The reason for choosing these two theories is because they can be used simultaneously. One of the major attributes of the Person Centred approach is the emphasis on relationship building between the Social Worker and the service user, which therefore makes it easier to set out the tasks that need to be carried out because lines of communication have been opened up

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Task- centred Approach

The task-centred model is a short-term, problem-solving approach to social work practice. It is a major approach in clinical social work perhaps because unlike other several practice models, it was developed for and within Social Work (Stepney and Ford, 2000). My reasoning behind adopting this approach is because it is essentially a clear and practical model that can be adapted for use in a wide range of situations. It is designed to help in the resolution of difficulties that people experience in interacting with their social situations, where internal feelings of discomfort are associated with events in the external world. One of the many benefits of planned short-term work is that both the Social Worker and Client put immediate energy into the work because the time is limited. The dangers of the effectiveness of the intervention being reliant on the Social Worker/Client relationship, which may or may not work out, are minimised in the short-term. The model consists of five phases.

Phase one

This is the problem exploration phase and is characterised by mutual clarity. Problems are defined as an unmet or unsatisfied wants perceived by the client (Reid, 1978). The client should be as clear as the social worker about the processes that will be followed in order to fully participate fully in the work. Involving the service user right from the initial phase has the advantage that they feel empowered and is a good example of anti-oppressive practice. Less commonly the worker may take the lead in identifying the problems but however must be careful not to detract from the clients’ unique expertise in the understanding of their own individual situation. This phase normally takes from one to two interviews although some cases may require more. It ends with setting up of initial tasks. In Ramesh’s case the Social Worker will be using the following sequential Steps.

Identifying with Ramesh the reasons for the intervention in the first place. Explain to Ramesh how long the process will take (roughly between 4- 6 weeks). The social worker has to assess Ramesh’s ability to understand his problems and their extent especially taking into consideration that he has issues with alcohol and dependent on anti-depressant drugs. Establish whether Ramesh acknowledges he has a problem and is willing to do something about it. The process of problem exploration will entail the answering of a series of questions: How did his problems begin?

What happens typically when Ramesh drinks a lot of alcohol?

How often this happening iand what quantities of alcohol is he going through per day/week? What efforts (if any) he himself has put into resolving his problems?

Phase two

This is when the selecting and prioritising of the problems occur. This has to be what both the Social Worker and Ramesh acknowledge as the ‘Target problem’ and explicitly agree will become the focus of their work together. Commonly there will be a series of problems identified and will be ranked in order of their importance (Stepney and Ford, 2000). There are basically three routes for problem identification. The most common is through client initiation. Clients express complaints which are then explored. A second route is interactive. Problems emerge through a dialogue between the practitioner and client in which neither is a clear initiator. In the third route to problem identification the practitioner is clearly the initiator. So for example, using the information in case study, the problems could be listed as: Dependence on alcohol

Excessive smoking

Isolation

Phase three

Following the identification and ranking of target problems stage, the first problem to be identified will need to be framed within a ‘problem statement’. The client’s acceptance of the final problem statement leads to a contract that will guide subsequent work. Both practitioner and client agree to work toward solution of the problem(s) as formulated. The way the problems are framed and defined are crucial in motivating both the Social Worker and the service user. The ultimate goal is to avoid the service user from feeling over-whelmed or that the goals set are unachievable. Therefore they have to be set in a realistic manner which also reflect the concerns and wishes of the service user, again this re-enforces anti-oppressive practice issues. They should be clear and unambiguous and which lend themselves, as far as possible, to some sort of measurement so that the Social Worker and service user can tell what progress is being made. So for instance if it is agreed that Ramesh’s dependence on alcohol is the priority, the Social Worker can suggest and also help him join an Alcohol support group. Agree on the number of meetings he’ll attend. Not only will the support group help him tackle the alcohol issues but will also give him the opportunity to be around other people and interact with them. Gradually this should help eliminate the isolation issues which are major facilitator of depression. Evidence shows that the more support and services the person has, the more stable their environment. The more stable their environment, the better the chances of dealing with their substance problems (Azrin 1976, Costello 1980, Dobkin et al 2002, Powell et al 1998). An important secondary purpose of the model is to bring about contextual change as a means of preventing recurrence of problems and of strengthening the functioning of the client system. One of the issues Ramesh is dealing with is depression which according to his sister was triggered by his mother’s death. With his approval, it might be useful for Ramesh to be referred for bereavement counselling in order to come to terms with losing his mother. Other important things that need to be considered during this phase are ways of establishing incentives and motivation for task performance. The task may not itself satisfy Ramesh’s ‘wants’ but at least he must see it as a step in that direction. Phase four

This is the stage where implementation of tasks between sessions occurs. There is not a great deal to say about this self-evident phase, however, that is not to say it is not an important phase. Its success will depend on all the groundwork undertaken in the previous phases of the process. Task implementation addresses the methods for achieving the task(s), which should be negotiated with the service user, and according to Ford and Postle, (2000:55) should be; ‘’designed to enhance the problem solving skills of participants…it is important that tasks undertaken by clients involve elements of decision making and self-direction…if the work goes well then they will progressively exercise more control over the implementation of tasks, ultimately enhancing their ability to resolve problems independently”. According to Doel (2002:195) tasks should be “carefully negotiated steps from the present problem to the future goal.” Once tasks are set, it is important to review the problems as the intervention progresses in order to reassess that the tasks are still relevant to achieving the goals. Cree and Myers (2008:95) suggest that as circumstances can change, situations may be superseded by new problems. The workers role should be primarily to support the user in order to achieve their tasks and goals which may include providing information and resources, education and role-playing in order to handle difficult situations. In this case Ramesh will go ahead and continue attending his alcohol cessation support group and the Social Worker can work on arranging bereavement counselling for him and liaise with him about when he feels ready to start. Phase five- Termination Session

Termination in the task-centred model begins in the first session, when client and practitioner set time limits for the intervention. Throughout the treatment process the practitioners regularly reminds the client of the time limits and the number of sessions left additional progress. If an extension is made, practitioner and client contract on a small number of additional sessions, usually no more than four interviews. It should also be noted that such extensions occur in less than one fifth of the cases in most settings. Any accomplishments made by the client are particularly stressed in the termination session. This emphasizing of the client’s accomplishment serves as a reinforcer. In another final termination session activity, the practitioner assists the clients in identifying the problem-solving skills they have acquired during the treatment process, review what has not been done and why not. An effort is made to help clients generalize these problem-solving skills, so they can apply them to future problems they may encounter. Person Centred Approach

The key emerging principles of the person centred approaches are that individuals must rely on themselves and liable for their own actions (Howe D, 2009). The Person-Centred Approach developed from the work of the psychologist Dr Carl Rogers (1902 – 1987). He advanced an approach to psychotherapy and counselling that, at the time (1940s – 1960s), was considered extremely radical if not revolutionary (BAPCA). In order for people to realise their full potential they must learn to define themselves rather than allowing others to do it for them. the An important part of this theory is that in a particular psychological environment, the fulfilment of personal potentials includes sociability, the need to be with other human beings and a desire to know and be known by other people. It also includes being open to experience, being trusting and trustworthy, being curious about the world, being creative and compassionate. This is one of the most popular approaches among practitioners (Marsh and Triseliotis 1996: 52) because of its hopefulness, accessibility and flexibility.

The psychological environment described by Rogers was one where a person felt free from threat, both physically and psychologically. This environment could be achieved when being in a relationship with a person who was deeply understanding (empathic), accepting (having unconditional positive regard) and genuine (Trevthick,P, 2005). The approach does not use techniques but relies on the personal qualities of the therapist/person to build a non-judgemental and empathic relationship. This in itself could be an issue because of the sole reliance on the Social ability to engage with service users. However, there are disadvantages to this approach. For example, treating people with respect, kindness, warmth and dignity can be misconstrued as ‘’adopting a person centred approach’’. This means the counselling part of the relationship has a risk of being completely over-looked.

The goal would be to work on a one-to-one with Ramesh mainly using counselling skills. He has a sister who has a family of her own so therefore family work can be included as a possibility. If he is willing to perhaps go and temporarily live with his sister when he is discharged from hospital in two weeks, it will be a positive step for him to spend more time in a family setting rather than by himself. That way he might not feel so isolated and depressed. This will also help build his self-confidence and self-esteem. The lack of motivation that Ramesh has for going to work needs to be further explored. It could be he is feeling unfulfilled and that at 45 years of age he has not achieved much. He needs social work intervention which is geared towards him attaining ‘’human potential’’ (Maslow’s basic theory). The Social Worker should encourage him to come up with ways in which he can work towards that and also look at areas in his life where he can make his own choices with an aim to recognise elements in his situation that constrain these and seek to remove them. For example, if he is not turning up for work because he is unsatisfied with his job perhaps he could enrol for a vocational course in an industry he enjoys which will improve his job prospects. The fact that he says he has nothing to live for means he has no feeling of self-worth and hasn’t reached the stage of self-actualisation in his life, this is something he is going to need support in figuring it out for himself because it is relative.

.

Conclusion

It is evident that both the task-centred and person centred approaches are popular and generally successful models of social work practice and can both be used in a variety of situations. Both approaches are based on the establishment of a relationship between the worker and the service user and can address significant social, emotional and practical difficulties (Coulshed & Orme, 2006). They are both structured interventions, so action is planned and fits a predetermined pattern. They also use specific contracts between worker and service user and both aim to improve the individuals capacity to deal with their problems in a clear and more focused approach than other long term non directive methods of practice (Payne 2002,). Both of these approaches have a place in social work practice through promoting empowerment of the service user and validating their worth. They do provide important frameworks which social workers can utilise in order to implement best practice However, there are certain limitations to both of the approaches, for example Further to the constraints of short term interventions Reid and Epstein (1972) suggest that these approaches may not allow sufficient time to attend to all the problems that the service user may want help with and that clients whose achievement was either minimal or partial thought that further help of some kind may be of use in accomplishing their goals. The problems Ramesh is facing are deep rooted psychological problems which may require a longer time frame to sort them out. Depression can take really long to deal with and 4-6 weeks may not be sufficient and the fear is that this might actually have an adverse effect on Ramesh if he does not see any progress within the agreed time frame.

REFERENCES

1. Caplan,G. (1995) Principles of Preventive Psychiatry, London, Tavistock. 2. Coulshed, V. and Orme, J. (2006) Social work practice. 4th ed. Basingstoke,Palgrave, MacMillan. 3. Doel, M. and Marsh, P. (1992). Task-centred Social Work. Aldershot, Ashgate

4. Ford and Postle (2000) Task-centred Practice and Care Management, Social Work Models, Methods and Theories, Russell House

5. Howe,D (2009) A brief Introduction To Social Work Theory, Palgrave, Macmillan 6. http://www.bapca.org.uk/about/what-is-it.html

7. Murgatroyd,S. and Woolf,R. (1982) Coping with Crisis: Understanding and Helping People in Need, London, Harper and Row. 8. O’Hagan,K. (1986) Crisis Intervention in Social Services, Basingstoke, McMillan. 9. Payne, M (1997) Modern Social Work Theory (2nd edn) Macmillan 10. Thompson,N. (1991) Crisis Intervention Revisited: A guide to Modern Practice, Birmingham. PEPAR Publications 11. Trevthick,P,( 2005) Social Work Skills- A Practice Handbook, Open University Press. 12. Cree, V. and Myers, S. (2008) Social Work: Making a Difference, Bristol: The Policy Press

Examples of Students Essays

Unit level assignment Essay Example

Unit level assignment Essay

Scenario: Hartford Grange is a residential care home for 15 older people who have various impairments including dementia, strokes and arthritis – Unit level assignment Essay introduction. Hartford Grange is an old Victorian house set in its own gardens on a busy road. The new manager has asked you to create a report on the potential hazards and harm they may cause. She also asked you to create a booklet for new staff that covers how legislation, policies and procedures influence health and safety at Hartford Grange and promotes the safety of the individuals in the setting.

For this task I will explain six potential hazards in a health and social care setting. There are potential hazards in the Hartford Grange residential home, these shards affect all the people working and living in the residential care setting. There are loads of hazards which can be found in every surface of the care setting. Hazards Harms that may arise Slippery floor The harm that may arise is either a service user or a member of staff slipping and hurting themselves. i. E. Recaptures, sprains, cuts and bruises. This is once again more harmful towards people suffering with arthritis as it will just make pains worse and if someone suffering from strokes slips on the floor it may cause them shock or fright that ca possibly trigger of another stroke or make the previous offering worse. Objects left on the floor The harm this may cause is a person tripping over and hurting themselves or if the object has any sharp edges there is a possibility they may cut themselves.

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This is even more serious for people with arthritis as it will cause them immense pain. Equipment blocking fire exits This can be harmful as it may prevent service users and members of staff getting out in time when there is a fire. Also if a service user suffering from dementia is told to leave through the fire exit and it is blocked it will quite possibly confuse them. This is also dangerous for the staff working the Hartford House as it will be much harder for them to get residents and themselves out safely.

Also , the residents will breath in the smoke if it takes too long and since their lungs are not as strong due to being to fragile, it can easily cause death. And if there is anyone suffering from asthma and their inhaler is not in reach and no one can go get it for them, this can also be highly dangerous. Poor Lighting This can be very hazardous to the residents who are visually impaired, due to their poor vision, the staff at Hartford Grange are responsible for taking special are of these residents e. G. Y making sure that there is a good contrast between objects and surroundings such as dark doors in white surrounding or else if the area is dark and difficult to see the visually impaired patient would then be at great risk of possibly falling over or bump into something sharp causing themselves serious harm or fracture. Equipment not functioning and placed correctly Equipment that is not functioning or placed correctly e. G. Cord pulls for call help systems, not within easy reach of the residents who may be in wheelchairs ay have the residents overstretching and this may cause them to fall.

Another example would be if the residents which have arthritis have a sudden serious cramp and fall over, an out of reach cord pull is useless to them if they are trying to call for help. Busy road near by The risk of road traffic accidents may be likely to occur if residents with dementia get confused, they may become disorientated and get lost. Along with this there are people who suffer from arthritis, which means they may possibly walk slower than normal and this can be an issue when walking along a busy road.

Examples of Students Essays

Example Assignment Essay Example

Example Assignment Essay

If you are not sure, check with your tutor – Example Assignment Essay introduction. Q Can I copy other people’s work? ANON. The work that you produce must be your own work and you may be asked to sign a declaration to say that the work is your own. You should never copy the work of other candidates or allow others to copy your work. Any information that you use from other sources, e. G. Books, newspapers, professional journals, the Internet, must be clearly identified and not presented as your own work. Q Can work in a group? Ayes. However, if you work in a group at any stage you must still produce work hat shows your individual contribution.

Q How should I present my work? A You can present your work in a variety of ways, egg hand-written, word- processed, on video. However, what you choose should be appropriate to the task(s). For some work, e. G. Presentations, coaching sessions, role-play, work experience, you will need to provide proof that you completed the task(s). A witness statement or observation sheet could be used for this. If you are unsure, check with your tutor. Q When I have finished, what do I need to hand in? A You need to hand in the work that you have completed for each task. Do not include any draft work or handouts unless these are asked for.

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When you hand in your work make sure that it is labeled, titled and in the correct order for assessing. Q How will my work be assessed? A Your work will be marked by an assessor in your centre. The assessor will mark the work using the assessment objectives and the grade descriptors in the qualification specification. Scenario Safety Matters As the Health and Safety Office for the Local Authority you have been asked to put on a training day for new care workers in your area. The following advert has been sent to all health and social care settings in your area.

You are to prepare for the training day by producing presentations, risk assessments and written reports to show to your group of trainees. A wide variety of professions are expected to be represented at the training day, so you will need to cover a selection of scenarios from various environments. Tasks Task 1: Potential hazards in health and social care Assessment Criteria Pl For the first part of your training day, you must prepare a presentation that explains the potential hazards and the harm that may arise from each hazard. You should choose a setting that you know well and refer to this throughout he presentation.

You may wish to include photographic evidence to highlight the hazard (be sure to obtain consent from your setting before doing this). A minimum of six potential hazards should be covered. The evidence for this will be: A set of presentation slides that explain potential hazards and the harm that may arise from each in a health or social care setting (Pl) Task 2: Legislation……. What’s the impact? Assessment Criterion UP, MI Now you have grabbed the attention of your audience you need to introduce them to legislation and policies and procedures. You must outline each piece of isolation etc. ND make it clear how it influences health and social care settings. Produce a descriptive table or poster which gives outline information about the legislation, polices etc. And how each relates to health safety and security within health and social care environments. Additionally, you must produce a written report that explains in detail the roles and responsibilities relating to the health, safety and security of individuals in a health and social care setting. Include a range of different roles and the responsibilities. The evidence for this task will be:

A table/poster that outlines how legislation, policies and procedures relating to health, safety and security influence health and social care settings (UP) A written report that describe the roles and responsibilities relating to the health, safety and security of individuals in a health and social care setting (MI) Task 3:Risk Assessment Assessment Criterion UP, MM, Del Now your group have a good understanding of the potential hazards and the legislation that settings adhere to, you need to demonstrate the correct way of carrying out a risk assessment in a health or social care setting.

To help you to accomplish this task, firstly read the advice from the Health and Safety Executive: http://www. Hose. Gob. UK/simple-health-safety/manage. HTML You need to carry out a risk assessment in a setting and use this to show the correct procedures to follow. Additionally you need to show your recommendations for controls that will minimize or remove the hazards you identified in your risk assessment. Finally, you should evaluate the effectiveness of the controls you have recommended in reducing the incidents or harm or injury. On the next page is an example of a risk assessment you could use.

You ay also wish to download a blank assessment form from the Health and Safety Executive: http://www. Hose. Gob. UK/risk/festivities. HTML A risk assessment that you have carried out in a health or social care setting (UP) A written account of the recommendations for controls that will minimize/ remove the hazards identified in the risk assessment (MM) A written evaluation of the effectiveness of the recommended controls in reducing the incidents or harm or injury (D 1) An example of a risk assessment in a health or social care setting Task 4: Dealing with incidents and emergencies Assessment Criterion UP, MM, DO

The last task on your training day is for you to demonstrate to your group the possible priorities and responses when dealing with incidents or emergencies in a health or social care setting. You can use the scenarios on the next page or you can discuss your own that you have either witnessed or heard about in your workplace setting. Firstly, you should choose two particular incidents or emergencies in a health or social care setting and explain the possible priorities and responses when dealing with each one.

Secondly, you should explain why it is important to maintain respect and dignity hen responding to incidents and emergencies. Use your examples from your chosen two incidents or emergencies to highlight specific points and include other examples where necessary Finally, you need to justify the need to review policies and procedures following critical incidents. Again, you can use examples from either your chosen two incidents or emergencies and include others where necessary.

An explanation of possible priorities and responses when dealing with two particular incidents or emergencies in a health or social care setting (UP) An explanation of why it is important to maintain respect and dignity when espousing to incidents and emergencies (MM) A written report that justifies the need to review policies and procedures following critical incidents (DO) It is highly recommended that you complete a first aid course as part of this task and include a copy of your certificate in your evidence.

Examples of incidents and emergencies within a health or social care setting A member of staff has tried to wash the kettle in the sink. She is lying on the floor and is not making any sound. What do you do? An elderly gentleman has been admitted for a hip replacement. He looks like he isn’t had a bath for days, has dark bags under his eyes and bruise marks on his wrists. What should you do? You are helping to serve lunch to the patients when the fire alarm sounds. You have no idea where the fire is or how bad it is. What do you do?

Examples of Students Essays

Writing assignment history Essay Example

Writing assignment history Essay

You will produce a leaflet explaining both how infections are caused by different pathogens (Pl) and how pathogenic micro-organisms grow and spread (UP) – Writing assignment history Essay introduction. Task deadline – September 30th 2013 2. You will demonstrate (UP) standard precautions that would be used to prevent the spread of infection in a health and social care setting. This will be observed by your subject tutor within the skills lab. Task deadline – w/k commencing 7th October 2013 3. Your subject tutor will give you a case study about an outbreak of infection in a health and social care setting.

In small groups you will study these case studies and present the following to your peers; Explain (MI) how you would manage the outbreak of infection Identify (UP) key aspects of legislation and guidelines relevant to the prevention and control of infection Explain (MM) the role of organizational procedures in the prevention and control of infection. Task deadline – presentations w/k commencing 9th December 2013 To follow the presentation you will now complete a report that assesses (D 1) how the suggested measures meet legal requirements and guidelines for the prevention ND control of infection.

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Task deadline- 16th December 2013 4. In your placement competency portfolio complete the questionnaire to describe (AS) the roles and responsibilities of personnel in relation to infection control in your health and social care placement. Task deadline – 3rd February 2014 5. Your subject tutor will supply you with a risk assessment in relation to infection prevention and control undertaken at a health or social care setting. In small groups you will review (MM) the risk assessment which will be recorded by your tutor.

After the discussion you will complete a 500 word assignment that assesses (DO) how the risk assessment can contribute to reducing rates of infection the health and social care setting. Task deadline – Discussions w/k commencing 17th March 2014. Assignment (DO) 6th April 2014 Submission Policy Only work submitted by deadline or by previously agreed extension will be marked and returned within 3 weeks. You can only give work to your teacher in class or to the support office. Resubmission Policy Please see the department’s resubmission policy.

Examples of Students Essays

Task Centred Approaches Essay Example

Task Centred Approaches Essay

Abstract

Task centred approach has been found to be one of the ways in which service users can be empowered – Task Centred Approaches Essay introduction. This paper looks into the various ways in which service users can get to be empowered. In providing this analysis, this paper examines several ways by which service users can be empowered such as theory and practice, which is used for changing the institutional and social contexts in a way which permits people to achieve the goals and values for social work. Next the paper explores codes of conduct as well as the duties which are expected of the social workers. At the same time, the paper discussed the issue of poverty and how it can be eradicated before discussing the whole process of empowerment while illustrating the principles of the same. The paper equally examines the issue of knowledge and how it is important in the field of social work. In this regard the concept or research is mentioned and how it contributed to the generation of more knowledge and under standing of social work. Eventually the paper makes a conclusion. For instance the paper concludes by emphasising the need to adopt the task centred approaches in helping the service users in resolving the problems as a way of empowering them.

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Introduction

There is a lot of debate going on with respect to the best ways in which task centred approach can be used to empower service users. Before analysing how this can be done, it is important to understand some basic definitions. First task centred approach is a psychological approach of solving any problem more so in social work. This implies that social work involves several tasks. The rationale behind the task centred approach is to select problem solving technique which is relevant to the particular task that is being undertaken. It is drawn from both behavioural as well as cognitive psychotherapies which are concerned with the perceptions, learning and thoughts of individuals with regards to information (Sternberg, 1995). Task centred approach is highly structured and time limited approach which is usually focused on the problem. At the same time, service users are those people who are directly involved or the direct recipients of the services provided by the social work being undertaken. One way by which task centred approach is helpful to service users is by empowerment.

Theory and Practice

Theory and practice is one way that task-centred approach can be used to empower service users. Theory is used for changing the institutional and social contexts in order that people may achieve the goals and values for social work. The theories of social work are practice guidelines and are drawn from the sociology and psychology disciplines. The social work theories help in the construction of the human needs understanding. Social workers should identify the reasons of their social work practices. Theories are framework threads that are used in practice and therefore people need to construct the threads for the practice of the social work. Theories components are like tools and people need to select the component that is relevant to the work context of the social worker since the social work primary’s task is varied. Since there are various context of social work such as risk management, community education, policy development among others, social workers have many theories that go with the contexts (Healy 2005).

            Task centred approach are theories that show how people learn, perceive, think and remember the things that they see (Sternberg 1995). The approach is a structured highly, focused on problem and time-limited even though it can used in many other theories. This approach is used in many interventions of social service. In interventions that are short term, human beings tend to have a great progress than in long term interventions. There are various task centred practice principles. The principles include promoting structured approaches and systematic to intervention, planned briefness and adopting a practice evaluation scientific approach. The other principles include seeking mutual clarity with service users and aiming at achieving small changes. The other principles of the task centred practice include focusing on the things that are here and now, promoting collaboration that is between service users and social workers and lastly building client action capacities (Healy 2005).

            In seeking mutual clarity, social workers ensure that identify the simple gesture and visiting the people in need. In the mutual clarity, the social workers also ensure that they work out a plan that will be used for the treatment process of the service users. The social workers should also ensure that they achieve small things than achieving the large changes. An example of achieving small changes is shown when a social worker start by determining the problems that the client is facing and determining the medical assistance that is needed. The social worker should also focus on the present and not the future of the client and by this the social worker will be applying the focus on here and now principle. The social worker should also do the task together with their clients for the recovery process. By doing this the social worker will be applying the collaboration principle. The sessions of the social worker and the client should also be systematic, structured and brief. The social worker should apply the principle of using a scientific approach to ensure that he or she is evaluating the work outcomes and the strengths of the practice (Healy 2005, p.116).

            Task centred approaches are used for treating problems that have been accepted and acknowledged by the clients. The task centred approaches are also used for problems that have clearly defined by the clients and are resolved through actions. For example, when a client acknowledges that he or she is having a problem, the problem can be easily and immediately resolved by finding out the possible course of action that can be used. This process helps the resolving of the service user process easier. The social worker’s intervention strategy is to ensure that clients are first helped in the problems that are mostly concerned to them. In the second task, the social worker should help the clients in having a good experience while resolving the problem. This process is to help the clients in improving the future capacity of dealing with the problems. The clients are also helped in being willing to accept the problems that are facing them using this approach (Payne 1997).

            The social worker should be willing to work with the clients in the resolving of the problems. The social workers must be available in the provision of the services to the service users. The social workers should use the planned, systematic and the structured approach that will be used in giving the clients the experiences that will help the clients in problems solving capacities in the future. By doing this the service users will be empowered by the task centred approach which will encourage them in resolving their problems in the future. Task centred approaches are used by the social workers to achieve collaboration between the client and the social worker. The social workers need to work in conjunction with the service users in order to resolve the problems and this will therefore encourage the service users (Payne 1997).

The task centred approaches are also used in targeting the problems of the clients in order for the achievement of rehearsal and review of the task centred approaches. This means that the task centred approaches are theories such as the social learning, cognitive-behavioural and communication since the task centred approaches focus on learning the behaviours of human beings and resolving the problems that face people (Payne 1997, p. 108). Task centred approaches are a formal working ways. The task centred approaches aims at doing all the tasks in a formal way. The task centred approaches are not effective especially in crisis that are debilitating constantly. When crisis tend to weaken regularly, the task centred approaches can not be able to resolve the crisis. The task approaches are non effective in problems that are long-term psychological. The practices that are mostly used by the task centred approaches are focused, directive and time-restricted (Payne 1997, p.113).

The Codes of Conducts and Duties of the Social Workers

For the service users to be empowered by the task centred approaches, the social workers should ensure that they follow the codes of conducts such as treating every person as one. The social workers should also respect and maintain the service users’ privacy and dignity. The social workers should promote and ensure that every service user is given equal opportunity. The social workers should also ensure that the different and diverse service users’ values and cultures. The social workers are also supposed to prepare the work for the service users and thereafter work with the service users in the task centred approaches in resolving the issues that are affecting the community. The social workers are also supposed to plan the various task centred approaches and carry out while evaluating the task centred approaches of the social work. The social workers are also supposed to help the service users by demonstrating the task centred approaches of the social work (Cunningham & Cunningham 2007).

Poverty Eradication

Another task centred approach that can be used in the empowering of the service users is through poverty eradication since poverty is one of the defining characteristics of the social work service users’ lives. This can be done by identifying the poverty causes. The task centred approach is to identify the values and beliefs of the social work (Cunningham & Cunningham 2007). Since the service users are overwhelmed with the poverty levels that they are faced with, they have been discouraged and therefore by eradicating the poverty levels of the service users they will be empowered (Smale et al. 2000, p.18). The features that are identified with the poverty such as social isolation, unemployment and low incomes have enhanced the problems that are faced by the service users. The problems that have been caused by poverty include poor health, break ups of families and poor care for the children. The social workers should aim at dealing with the poverty problem so as empower the service users by reducing the chances of people going to social cares (Becker 1997).

            Social workers are encouraged to understand the factors that generate poverty so that they can empower the service users. This is because the social workers have been found not to understand the factors that produce the poverty. The social workers have also been found to have failed in the addressing the issues of the poverty in the social work (Becker 1997, p.114). Social workers should help in the poverty eradication by ensuring that they work on the individual service users than the structural levels (Becker 1997, p.116).

            The social workers should use task centred practices to address the poverty impacts on the lives of the service users since they are practical approaches that can deal with the problem of poverty (Doel and Marsh 1992; Reid and Shyne 1969). The task centred approaches are practical approaches that can help in dealing with problems affecting the service users such as debt, living problems and lack of housing. This is because task centred approaches are models that are practical and ensures that the service users are empowered since the problems that the service users need to be worked on are chosen. The task centred approaches are based on principle that the social worker work in conjunction with the service users. The process of the social worker working together with the service users ensures that the new methods of problems solving are learnt to ensure that the service users are equipped in problem solving in the future (Cunningham & Cunningham 2007).

            The task centred approaches can also be combined with other essential approaches such as the individualised approach to help in the poverty eradication to the service users to ensure that they are empowered (Cunningham & Cunningham 2007). To address the issue of poverty among the service users, there is need of the social workers to reduce inequality to help in the poverty eradication. It is also suggested that the social workers should adopt the mutuality approach so that people can be in a position to share the responsibilities and resources to help in the poverty eradication. The social workers should support the service users by changing the inequalities among the service users (Holman 1993, p. 71).

Empowerment

A task centred approach is of great importance because it can empower service users. There are different ways in which this approach can be expressed. One such way is through empowerment. Empowerment as a perception is comprehensive and gives information on different tasks in the communal employment together with features of hypothesis and rehearsal. Empowerment also assists in the understanding of different customs of societal work since it is a loom in its own accuracy (Payne 1997, p.266).

           It is therefore important to note that empowerment tries to offer support to the customers in order for them to increase influence. The authority to be gained through empowerment by the users is for both pronouncement and accomplishment over their own existence. This is by reducing the consequences of both collective and individual blocks in order for the existing power to be put into effect. This can all be achieved by making sure that the users have augmented their competence and self-confidence in order to make appropriate use of the power. The users can also move power from the atmosphere to the customers (Payne 1997, p.266).

            Empowerment is comprehensive with the shifting of authority and the importance. This is in the direction of congregating the requirements and privileges of the users who might be demoralized. Therefore, empowerment is the process of escalating individual authority. The escalation is aimed at assisting the individuals to acquire accomplishment for them to perk up their conditions (DuBois 1994, p.202 & Miley 2005, p.25). Authorizing is about the accomplishment of influence. Allowing can refer to a state of mind, for instance sentiment of value and capability. Empowerment can also be described as the reorganization of authority that results from shifting communal constructions (DuBois & Miley 2005).

Principles of empowerment

The essential sanctioning purpose is communal impartiality. This means that providing protection for individual users together with social equality through the mutual support and shared learning (Payne 1997). Therefore, authorizing, originates from the knowledge regarding the speculations of individual. Sanctioning can also be derived from both the fundamentals of political affairs and way of life. This can be in terms of the background since democratic organization is basically based on the authoritarian principle. This principle of inhabitants encourages the partaking of the resolutions which influence their wellbeing.

            The implication here is that the principle of empowerment dates back from long ago implying that it is quite difficult to exactly figure out its origin. That not withstanding, Payne (1997) argues that empowerment originates from such theories as community development or self help. Still it could originate from the ideology of political empowerment. What needs to be noted is that the main aim of empowerment is to achieve social justice. Social justice entails not only giving people more security but also giving the people more political and social equality by the use of mutual support as well as shared learning.  It is therefore evident that empowerment is informed by not only many knowledge bases but also many theoretical foundations.

            There are some of the essential principles of allowing which are drawn from the performance of enlightening. The principles include observing customers as knowledgeable and capable if they get access to the prospect and possessions. There is also achievement of proficiency through the practices of life which is an enhancement before being informed what to do. There is a requirement of users to involve themselves in their own authority regarding the objectives, ways and the description of effects (Payne 1997, DuBois & Miley 2005).

             Another approach requires that users gain and use proficiency since it can assist in the practice of freedom. The awareness level provides information which is essential for the happening of transformation (Payne 1997, DuBois & Miley 2005). The users are required to be inter-confidence of the performance and strategy. The elevation of awareness controls the lives, self-assurance in the user aptitude together with the informal representative recognition. Therefore, the achievement of sanction is accomplished through individual improvement.

            The principles inform empowerment practices in the social work in different ways. The ways include providing maintenance to the users in the process of making pronouncements which influence their lives. The users are very crucial in the elucidation discovery process since this has a force (Payne 1997). Communal employees contain acquaintance and skills which can be utilized and allocated by the users. There should be corporation between the users and the communal employees. There should be perspective focus on the indulgent of the users on their circumstances. The communal working ways and user experience connection is essential in connecting individual with diplomacy.

            The approach of empowerment is a very effective more so when dealing with women who have undergone domestic violence. Given the fact that empowerment entails a collaborative process between the clients and the practitioners working together. It therefore follows that those involved in social work appreciate the fact that clients are expertise regarding their personal problems, capacities as well as potential solutions.        The principle of working in collaboration is very appropriate in cases of domestic violence. This is because it reduces the aspects of social control existent in worker-client relationships. Besides it does not replicate the power imbalances usually experienced by women particularly with regards to domestic violence. Through working in collaboration, survivors are presented with an opportunity of experiencing shared power besides being considered as equals in the relationship. In particular, feminist empowerment seeks to achieve empathy, common experience as well as mutual respect (Worell & Remer, 1992).

Knowledge

One fundamental aspect of social work is carrying out research with the intentions of generating more knowledge. This is more so important in a situation in which more and more information is being produced but which is not being utilized towards knowledge and understanding. Marsh & Fisher (2005) while analyzing the need to support for research in social work borrow from Lewis’s work in trying to come up with a formula for determining knowledge. Their contribution is that knowledge as applicable in social work is a result of combined evidence with not only practice and wisdom but also the views of the users. Evidence in this case refers to research based evidence which is usually very vital in policy formulation in social work. This combined together with the views of the service users makes suggests how powerful and transformative knowledge is.

            It is however important to note that there are other ways in which knowledge can be polarized. This is informed by the fact that there exists several means of knowledge. Mode 1 knowledge for instance, is knowledge which is generated with the intention of ensuring that there is compliance with scientific practice. On the other hand, mode 2 knowledge is not only socially accountable but is equally transient and transdisciplinary (Gibbons et al 1994, p. 3). The second description is in tandem with what social work research seeks to achieve. The argument here is that when there is too much information, competence is not achieved by merely being in a position to generate more of the same. Rather emphasis should be laid on generating more insights by properly arranging what already exists (Gibbons et al 1994, p. 64).

                For a long time now, those in charge of policy formulation in the UK have emphasized on evidence based practice (EBP). This was brought about by the realization that there was an absence of a systematic evidence to prove that that social work intervention just like in other professions had any positive impacts. Evidence based practice has the central concern of decision making which are supposed to be based on the evidence of what actually works (Webb 2001, p. 61).  The only drawback with respect to knowledge is that assumptions vary about what planned results of social work interventions should be. This usually results from the disagreements which are bound to occur amongst professionals with regards to policy results. Still, these differences could result from the interpretations the policies which could be an indication of the expectations of then various people in the system.

Conclusion

             In conclusion, there is need of the social workers to ensure that they adopt the task centred approaches in helping the service users in resolving the problems so to empower the service users. The social workers should training and teach the service users on how to use the task centred approaches in the resolving of the problems that are affecting the service users so as to empower them in dealing with problems in the future (Campbell 2008, p. 9). The social workers should also use theories to help in the construction of the human needs understanding by identifying the reasons of their social work practices. Social workers should use theories since they are framework threads that are used in practice and therefore people need to construct the threads for the practice of the social work (Healy 2005).

Conclusively, for the service users to be empowered by the task centred approaches, the social workers should ensure that they follow the codes of conducts such as treating every person as one and also respect and maintain the service users’ privacy and dignity. The social workers should promote and ensure that every service user is given equal opportunity. The social workers should also ensure that the different and diverse service users’ values and cultures. The social workers should also address the issue of poverty since many service users are affected by poverty to ensure that they are empowered (Cunningham & Cunningham 2007).

References

Becker, S. 1997, Responding to poverty, the politics of cash and care, Longman, London.

Campbell, P. 2008, Good Practice Guide lines: Service User and Carer Involvement within Clinical Psychology Training, The British Psychological Society, Leicester. Available at: http://www.bps.org.uk/downloadfile.cfm?file_uuid=DE688754-1143-DFD0-7E15-0DEEB1F678F9&ext=pdf.

Cunningham, J. & Cunningham, S. 2007, Sociology and Social Work, Learning Matters, Southernhay East. Available at: http://www.learningmatters.co.uk/sampleChapters/Sociology.doc.

Doel, M. & Marsh, P. 1992, Task-centred social work, Aldershot, Ashgate.

Du Bois, B. & Miley, K. 2005, Social Work – An Empowering Profession,

5th Ed, Pearson, Sydney.

Gibbons, M., Limoges, C., Nowonty, H., Schwartzman, S., Scott, P. & M. Trow.

1994, The New Production of Knowledge: The dynamics of science and research in contemporary societies London: Sage

Healy, K. 2005, Social Work Theories in Context: Creating Frameworks for Practice, Palgrave Macmillan, Houndsmill

Holman, B. 1993, A new deal for social welfare, Lion Books, Oxford

Marsh, P. & M. Fisher. 2005, Developing the evidence base for social work and

social care practice. London, Scie.

Payne, M. 1997, Modern Social Work Theory, 2nd edn, Macmillan Press, Houndsmill

Reid, W. J. & Shyne, A. W. 1969, Brief and extended casework, Columbia University Press, New York

Smale, G., Tuson, G. & Statham, D. 2000, Social work and social problems, Palgrave, Basingstoke.

Sternberg, R. 1995, In search of the Human Mind, Harcourt Brace College Publishing, Sydney

Webb, S. 2001, ‘Some considerations on the validity of evidence bases practice in

social work’ in British Journal of Social Work 31(1): 57-79

Worell, J. & Remer, P. 1992, Feminist Perspectives in Therapy – An

Empowerment Model for Women, Wiley, Brisbane

 

Examples of Students Essays

NVQ level 5 Lead person centred practice Essay Example

NVQ level 5 Lead person centred practice Essay

1.1, EXPLAIN PERSON-CENTRED PRACTICE.

Person centred practice are ways of commissioning, providing and organising services rooted in listening to what people want, to help them live in their communities as they choose – NVQ level 5 Lead person centred practice Essay introduction. These approaches work to use resource flexibly designed around what is important to an individual from their own perspective and work to remove any cultural and organisational barriers. People are not simply placed in pre-existing services and expected to adjust, rather the service strives to adjust to the person. Person – centred practice is treatment and care and considers the needs of the individual. Person centred practice:

Persons perspective is listened to and honoured.

Individuals have a role in planning the supports they receive and the staff that are hired. Regularly look at peoples lives to see what is working and not working. Employees know their roles and responsibilities in supporting people. Staff are matched with people based on skill and common interests. Person-centred practice is treating patients as they want to be treated.

More Essay Examples on Decision making Rubric

This involves: GETTING TO KNOW THE PATIENT AS A PERSON- health care workers need to get to know the person beyond the diagnosis and build relationships with patients and carers. SHARING OF POWER AND RESPONSIBILITY – respecting preferences and treating patients as partners in setting goals, planning care and making decisions about care, treatment or outcomes. ACCESSIBILITY AND FLEXIBILITY – meeting patients individual needs by being sensitive to values, preferences and expressed needs. Giving patients choice by providing timely, complete and accurate information they can understand, so they can make choices about their care. COORDINATION AND INTEGRATION – working as a team to minimise duplication and provide each patient with a key contact at the health service. Teamwork allows service providers and systems working behind the scenes to maximise patient outcomes and provide positive experiences. ENVIRONMENTS – physical and organisational or cultural environments are important, enabling staff to be person centred in the way they work.

1.4, EXPLAIN HOW PERSON CENTRED PRACTICE INFORMS THE WAY IN WHICH CONSENT IS ESTABLISHED WITH INDIVIDUALS. Person-centred care has been defined as treating people as individuals and ensuring they are fully involved in the planning process. By being involving, discussing and consulting with the individual regards their care plans, it can be deemed that verbal consent has been given to the care provider. By enabling the individual to make choices and contribute in the decision making process the individual has consented to the care to be administered. Choice involves providing the person with alternatives from which to choose and respecting the decision that is made, as far as possible. Consent means giving permission, an informed decision, permit, approve or agree. A persons capacity to consent is considered to be affected by three main processes: comprehension ( ability to understand and retain information ) decision making ( ability to weigh up information and reach a decision) and communication ( ability to communicate the decision made ) A person may be unable to give consent for several reasons including: Mental health problems

Brain injuries

Learning disabilities

Coma

Legally a competent adult can either give or refuse consent to care, even if that refusal may result in harm to harm to them. You must respect their refusal just as much as they would their consent. It is important that the person is fully informed with regards the consequences of their refusal EG: medication has been refused. If an individual refuses to give consent a record should be made. If an individual lacks the Mental Capacity to give consent to care. The Mental Capacity Act 2005 allows people over the age of 16 to appoint a proxy decision maker. The MCA has been in force since 2007 and applies to England and Wales. The primary purpose of the MCA is to promote and safeguard decision making within a legal framework. It does this in two ways: By empowering people to make decisions for themselves wherever possible and by protecting people who lack capacity by providing a flexible framework that places individuals at the heart of the decision making process. By allowing people to look ahead for a time in the future when they might lack the capacity for any number of reasons.

1.5, EXPLAIN HOW PERSON CENTRED PRACTICE CAN RESULT IN POSITIVE CHANGES IN INDIVIDUALS LIVES. Person centred planning can be a life changing, enriching experience and is now evidenced based practice. Recent research ( Robertson et al, 2005 ) has shown that person centred planning is associated with benefits for individuals and led to significant changes in the areas of social networks, contact with family, contact with friends, community based activities, scheduled day activities and levels of choice. Results:

30% increase in size of social networks

2.4 times more contact with family

41% increased contact with friends

35% increase in activities

2.8 times more choice making.

3.1, EVALUATE HOW ACTIVE PARTICIPATION ENHANCES THE WELLBEING AND QUALITY OF LIFE OF INDIVIDUALS. Wellbeing and quality of life for most people is enhanced through meaningful involvement and activity. It is crucial that individuals are involved in decisions that affect them. There are many ways in which such involvement can be facilitated and encouraged. Services should recognise the importance of social contact and companionship and on-going links with social networks. Your organisation should support continued community involvement, easy access to transport and the opportunity to participate in social and leisure activities. Maintaining social contact is also important to social identity and fulfilment. Active support is a proven model of support that encourages people with learning disabilities to plan the best use of their time, with the correct level of support to engage or participate in all activities that make day -to-day living. It empowers and motivates, changing the focus of support from caring for to supporting and working with. Active support underpins all areas of health and social care as it is so person-centred values into action. Services are changing their approach to support from the “hotel” model to the active support model. Active participation is an approach that enables individuals to be included in their care and have a greater say in how they live their life in ways that matter to them. The benefits of active participation can be divided into primary benefits and secondary benefits.

Primary benefits include:

Physical benefits including greater activity levels.

Increased independence and autonomy in what people do.

An opportunity for individuals in health and social care settings to have a say in matters of direct concern to their lives. Increased opportunities for social contact and interpersonal relationships. Encouraging involvement and self-awareness. Individuals become more involved in the community and more aware of opportunities and what they can hope for themselves. Increased opportunities for learning and development of important skills, knowledge, education and employment. Enhanced wellbeing with increases in self-confidence, self-esteem and self-belief. The benefits of active participation included the above primary benefits where the individual gains from its application in real world of health and social care practice but there are also some secondary benefits.

The secondary benefits: can be described as benefits that occur as a result of active participation but are not a direct aim of active participation. These included: Decreasing the likelihood of abuse. As the individual engages positively by actively participating is area of their life, such as in personal care, the scope for abuse by others is reduced. Decreasing vulnerability. As individuals gain in their self-confidence and self-esteem they are less prone to exploitation and harm from others.

Conclusion:

Active participation is an approach that empowers individuals in the activities and relationships of everyday life leading to them living as independently as possible. The importance to the individual as an active partner in their own care or support is that it brings physical, psychological, relational and over all wellbeing benefits. Service user participation has resulted in an impact upon the service users, themselves, the organisation and also what the organisation does. For individual service users, the benefits of participation may include increased confidence and self-esteem, the chance to acquire new skills and improved material resources if, for example it helps them to acquire paid employment.

Participation leads to greater satisfaction and improved quality of life for instance, older people mental health service users and people with disabilities who have had greater control in decisions about the support they receive, report greater satisfaction and better health than those who have not. LISA GOTTS.

513 (M3) MANAGE HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE PRACTICE TO ENSURE POSITIVE OUTCOMES FOR INDIVIDUALS. KNOWLEDGE:

1.1, EXPLAIN OUTCOME BASED PRACTICE.

Today caregivers are adopting outcomes based practice methods to achieve desired patient care goals. Outcomes based practice ( sometimes called outcomes management ) involves a combination of teamwork, continuous quality improvement and process and outcome measurement. Outcome based care is about putting the person at the centre of the care service and not prescribing a standard service to everyone. It is about delivering meaningful outcomes to every individual and helping people to lead more fulfilling lives. Outcome based care requires careful planning which involves working with the people who use our services to help them identify and achieve the things they want to do. Delivered well, outcome based care increases interest and motivation and creates the enthusiasm needed to support people to lead a more fulfilling life. Key benefits of outcome based care:

The service users desires, aspirations, abilities and talents are explored and utilised to help ensure they lead a more fulfilling life. It empowers care workers to work more closely with service users to understand how best to enable their independence. The service can respond more easily to changing needs and preferences. It contributes to maintaining a service users independence.

It enables service users to exercise more choice and have more flexibility in the day-to-day delivery of their service. It encourages partnership working between all stakeholders involved in the delivery and management of an individuals care. It uses resources such as funding and time to gather effect. It provides a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of services. A fundamental part of outcome based care is looking for opportunities to

support people in activity throughout the day. This means thinking about the activities that need to be completed- key tasks such as personal care, travel or meal preparation. The practice of outcome based care ensures that service users are involved in their daily living choices, no matter what their physical or mental ability. Of course not everyone using our support services can undertake all tasks independently, people need different levels of support. The role of the care worker is to provide enough support to enable the service users successful participation. A key principle of outcome based care is helping service users to engage little and often so that they build up experiences of success and increase their motivation.

1.2, DESCRIBE HOW YOU CRITICALLY REVIEW APPROACHES TO OUTCOME BASED PRACTICE. Outcome based practice was introduced as a new way of working. Instead of, a needs based approach to care and the support offered, it became outcomes/results based accountability. A ‘needs’ based delivery of care was difficult to measure in terms of success or failure where as an ‘outcome’ based delivery was more focused on achievement. Outcomes in a social care context are concerned with quality of life rather than simply levels of ability, health, employment or housing status. At a community level this can be about people feeling safer, people being healthier, communities being stronger. At an individual level outcomes can be framed in terms of the steps a person needs to take in order to improve aspects of their lives relating to their own safety and security. For instance: Outome based practice is a disciplined way of thinking and moving from ‘talk to action’ quickly- from strategy to implementation. It is about re-focusing on the difference you are making to peoples lives, meeting their goals- knowing where you/re heading helps you change what your doing. Outcome based practice:

Offers a framework for strategic planning and enables all stakeholders, commissioners, service providers and communities alike, to improve the lives of children, young people, families and adults. Helps identify the activities that will make the most difference to individuals and communities. Can be used to improve the improve the performance of programmes, agencies and service systems through compelling links between

service activity and outcomes for users. Can dramatically improve partnership working by creating a common language, shared ownership and maximising the contribution of all stakeholders.

Outcome based practice focuses on the individuals goals and steers the carer away from a needs based care delivery. It also has measurable aims and objectives where needs based care has not. The work becomes driven and specific because there is a goal in mind. When outcomes were first introduced into care some care professionals had difficulties seeing the differences between an ‘outcome’ and a ‘need’. some professionals felt their role had been reduced because the individual became the ‘expert’ in their own care and the centre of the planning. This meant the care professional needed to come to terms with this new way of delivering services.

PROGRAM PLANNING/MANAGEMENT TOOLS

Program planning or management tools are outcome models that assist in an efforts proposal, funding and implementation phases. They illustrate the logic, theory of change and anticipated flow of an intervention, providing markers against which both incremental and ultimate progress may be measured Models:

1, The logic model: the most widely used of these models, providing a graphic overview of a program, outlining the outcomes to be accomplished along with how they are to be achieved and for what groups. A logic model generally includes the target group, the resources to be used activities and objectives. Best used for describing a program in the broadest strokes, it can be an extremely useful tool particularly at the earliest stages of a project.

2, Outcome funding framework: stresses key shifts in the thinking that traditionally has influenced human service programs. It encourages funders to think like investors and encourages programs to shift from emphasizing service activities to focusing on performance targets, defined in terms of client changes gained. The model also uses milestones, or sequential steps toward achieving ultimate targets, to allow for ongoing assessment and

mid-course program corrections.

3, Results based accountability ( RBA): Starts with the desired ends and works backward toward the means to achieve them. RBA first describes what a desired result would look like, then defines that result in measurable terms and finally uses those measures to gauge success or failure. RBA asks and answers three basic questions, what do we want, how will we recognize it, what will it take to get there. This model distinguishes between population accountability and program accountability. Its inclusion of the crosswalk, a tool for matching RBA with other outcome models, is a unique and useful aspect of the framework.

4, Targeting outcomes of programs (TOP ): based on a hierarchy of sequential steps in planning, implementing and evaluating programs. It helps answer four basic questions: why have a program, how should it be conducted, has the program design been implemented, what are the benefits delivered.

1.4, EXPLAIN HOW OUTCOME BASED PRACTICE CAN RESULT IN POSITIVE CHANGES IN INDIVIDUALS LIVES. Health and social care is increasingly moving towards outcomes-based services. An outcome describes the measurable impact of the service on a persons life. Every individual has different needs and goals and an outcomes-based service places these at the heart of its delivery rather than using a ‘one sixe fits all’ approach. This represents a major shift in the way services are designed, commissioned, delivered and evaluated. The importance of outcomes in social care has been widely recognized for many years. A focus on outcomes which encourages service users to express the outcomes they want for themselves provides scope for user empowerment and choice. It involves moving from a traditional activity-based approach to serve planning and delivery to a more flexible and responsive model where new thinking is needed about how to measure success. Outcomes based approach is used as a means of improving performance, accountability and consistency in service provision which can only result in positive changes in individuals lives. Outcomes refer to the impacts and end results of services on service users. They may be general EG: improve the health of older people or individualized and person-centred

where they based on the priorities and aspirations of individuals. Whether or not outcomes are perceived as successful may depend not just on the activities and skills of service providers and care managers but also on the goals and expectations of service users. By involving people in thinking and planning for their own services it also creates a more responsive service which is able to respond to users changing needs and preferences. Outcomes will be monitored and reviewed regularly to ensure the service is continuing to meet the service users wishes and needs. EG: whilst the overarching outcome might be for an individual to regain independence and control over his own life, progress may be better monitored if there are a series of bite-sized outcomes such as being able to: Make a simple meal

Dress and undress without help

Wash or shower on their own

Organise own shopping needs

And so on for the whole range of other activities of daily living. This is likely to give the individual a more rapid sense of achievement as areas of independence and regained. Benefits of outcome focused care planning:

Promotes independence and responsibility (empowerment )

Improves use of key social work skills- communication, negotiation, partnership working, task or goal centred planning ect. Enables people to exercise some choice and control which will hopefully lead to an improved quality of life. Treating people as individuals- feeling valued and respected. Compatibility with and respect for cultural and religious preferences. Puts the service user at the centre of the assessment- having ‘a say‘- takes account of preferences. Raises expectations within the community about what can be achieved and promotes the use of the community as a resource. Prompts you to consider different ways of meeting need and achieving outcomes.

2.1 EXPLAIN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL BASIS FOR WELL-BEING

Psychological health is important with respect to how we function and adapt and with respect to whether our lives are satisfying and productive. As manager this applies to both your staff and the people in our care. General

well-being does simply mean that you are free from anxiety and depression. People with long-term physical health conditions will often have psychological and emotional needs resulting from the burden of illness-related symptoms, the disability associated with the physical illness and the impact of living with more than one physical condition at any time. The links between physical and mental health are clear. There are shared risk factors for illness: illness regularly presents with both psychological and physical symptoms and being physically ill, particularly on a chronic basis, often has an impact on mental health and psychological wellbeing. The concept of holistic health and well-being incorporates several different facets including physical, intellectual, emotional and social.

Theories relating to the psychological basis for well-being: Well-being is a dynamic cincept that includes subjective, social and psychological dimensions as well as health related behaviours. The Ryff Scales of psychological well-being is a theoretically grounded instrument that specifically focuses on measuring multiple facets of psychological well-being. Definitions of Theory-Guided Dimensions of well-being:

Self-acceptance

High scorer: possesses a positive attitude towards the self acknowledges and accepts multiple aspects of self, including good and bad qualities, feels positive about past life. Lower scorer: feels dissatisfied with self, is disappointed with what has occurred with past life. Is troubled about certain personal qualities, wishes to be different than what he or she is. Positive relations with others

High scorer: has warm, satisfying, trusting relationships with others, is concerned about the welfare of others, capable of strong empathy, affection, and intimacy, understands give and take of human relationships. Low scorer: has few close, trusting relationships with others, finds it difficult to be warm, open and concerned about others, is isolated and frustrated in interpersonal relationships, not willing to make compromises to sustain important ties with others. Autonomy

High scorer: is self-determining and independent, able to resist social pressures to think and act in certain ways, regulates behaviour from within, evaluates self by personal standards. Lower scorer: is concerned about the expectations and evaluations of others, relies on judgments of others to make important decisions, conforms to social pressures to think and act in certain ways. Environmental mastery

High scorer: has a sense of mastery and competence in managing the environment, controls complex array of external activities, makes effective use of surrounding opportunities, able to choose or create contexts suitable to personal needs and values. Low scorer: has difficulty managing everyday affairs, feels unable to change or improving surrounding context, is unaware of surrounding opportunities, lacks sense of control over external world. Purpose in life

High scorer: has goals in life and a sense of directedness, feels there is meaning to present and past life, holds beliefs that give life purpose, has aims and objectives for living. Low scorer: lacks a sense of meaning in life, has few goals or aims, lacks sense of direction, does not see purpose of past life, has no outlook or beliefs that give life meaning. Personal growth

High scorer: has a feeling of continued development, sees self as growing and expanding, is open to new experiences, has sense of realizing his or her potential, sees improvement in self and behaviour over time, is changing in ways that reflect more self-knowledge and effectiveness. Low scorer: has a sense of personal stagnation, lacks sense of improvement or expansion over time, feels bored and uninterested with life, feels unable to develop new attitudes or behaviours.

4.1 EXPLAIN THE NECESSARY STEPS IN ORDER FOR INDIVIDUALS TO HAVE CHOICE AND CONTROL OVER DECISIONS. An informed choice means that a person has the information and support to think the choice through and to understand what the reasonably expected consequences may be of making that choice. It is

important to remember that too much information is presented to them. Professionals and organisations must be able to demonstrate that they have taken these individual needs into account. Enabling people to make informed choices does not mean the local authority or provider organisation should abdicate its responsibility to ensure people have a good quality of life. EG: if a person chooses to stay in bed all day, every day, the local authority or provider organisation has a responsibility to explore what is happening and respond to this appropriately, working to ensure that the individual fully understands the consequences of their decision. It is not acceptable to simply accept such a decision at face value if this would put the individual at significant risk, as acts of omission can be considered to be abusive. It is important to involve people in decisions even when they do not use speech as their main means of communication. Person centred planning techniques point us towards many ways of listening to people in different ways other than relying on what they actually say, using tools such as learning logs, communication charts and supported decision making agreements and these should all be utilised if we are to demonstrate that we have truly attempted to communicate effectively with an individual. It is also imperative that professionals and organisations ensure that the views of others who know and care about the person are invited and taken into account in any decision making process, without these taking precedence over the individuals views and wishes. Where we are supporting people who have complex communication needs, person centred approaches are essential to ensure peoples involement in decisions which affect their lives. The steps to follow to ensure the individual has choice and control over decisions, when discussing outcomes they wish to achieve should be: Step 1

Ensure who the individual wishes to be present and involved in any discussions and meetings. Step 2

Ensure the individual understands the process as you proceed and can communicate their wishes. Step 3

Seek consent from the individual to access information from others such as social worker, hospital. Never break confidentiality with others. Step 4

Record everything discussed and check the individual agrees with your records by asking them to sign an agreement. Step 5

Be open to feedback and regular evaluation and review of the plan to ensure it is working. Individuals needs and preferences constantly change.

5.3 USE APPROPRIATE APPROACHES TO ADDRESS CONFLICTS AND DILEMMAS THAT MAY ARISE BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS, STAFF AND CARERS, FAMILIES AND SIGNIFICANT OTHERS. A typical day probably involves a race to coordinate resources, provide care, perform procedures, gather data, integrate information, respond to emergencies, solve problems and interact with diverse groups of people. In your role as health care professional you probably face more conflict and greater complexity than any other profession. The challenges of balancing competing interests, philosophies, training backgrounds, the endless quest for adequate resources and the emotional quality of the work you do, means conflicts and dilemmas are bound to occur during the courses of your practice. It is important to evaluate, manage and intervene by mediating when conflicts may and do impact upon the lives and outcomes of people within the provision. There are various appropriate approaches which can be used to address conflicts and dilemmas. Depending on the circumstances this could take the form of: One to one discussion

Group discussion

Using contracts

Providing information to inform choices

Mentoring for conflict resolution.

First you must evaluate your own value systems, beliefs and attitudes in relation to the specific conflicts and dilemmas between people, workers and parents/carers, families and significant others to identify those: a) you can deal with objectively and fairly

b) where expert advice and guidance is required

Once this has been established it as a conflict you are able to deal with objectively and fairly you need to support and ensure that workers and relevant others are aware of the provisions systems, procedures and practices for addressing ethical dilemmas and conflicts and also negotiating agreed boundaries on behaviour. Part of your role is to develop effective systems and approaches to handle conflicts and dilemmas.

5.4 EXPLAIN HOW LEGISLATION AND REGULATION INFLUENCE WORKING RELATIONSHIPS WITH CARERS, FAMILIES AND SIGNIFICANT OTHERS In your working setting there are numerous legislations and regulations which influence your working relationship with carers, families and significant others. Your own provision will have its own regulations, code of practice and conduct, standards and guidance for both employers and employees which will dictate your own roles, responsibilities and accountability when leading others and also when managing working with the individuals family. There are also local, national, UK European and international legislation, standards, guidance and organisational requirements for the leadership and management of work with individuals, families, carers and significant others, which include: The need to achieve positive outcomes for people.

The need to safeguard and protect people from all forms of danger, harm and abuse. Employment practices for the provision and service.

Data protection, recording and reporting.

Making and dealing with comments and complaints to improve services. Whistle blowing.

Health & safety.

Equality and diversity.

These all affect the way you work with individuals and their families. The CQC regulates, inspects and reviews all adult social care services in the public, private and voluntary sectors in England. THE ESSENTIAL STANDARDS FOR QUALITY AND SAFETY- From 1st October 2010, every health and adult social care service in England is legally responsible for making sure it meets new essential standards as part of a new registration system which focuses on people rather than policies, on outcomes rather than systems. The essential standards relate to important aspects of care such as involvement and information for people, personalised care and treatment, safety and safeguarding. The CQC will continuously monitor compliance with essential standards as part of a more dynamic, responsive, robust system of regulation accompanied by new enforcement powers.

Standards an individual can expect from their care provider: THE ESSENTIAL STANDARDS:

1) YOU CAN EXPECT TO BE INVOLVED AND TOLD WHATS HAPPENING AT EVERY STAGE OF YOUR CARE. You will always be involved in discussions about your care and treatment and your privacy and dignity will be respected by all staff. You will be given opportunities, encouragement and support to promote your independence. You will be able to agree or reject any type of examination, care, treatment or support before you receive it. 2) YOU CAN EXPECT CARE, TREATMENT AND SUPPORT THAT MEETS YOUR NEEDS. Your personal needs will be assessed to make sure you get care that is safe and supports your rights. You will get the food and drink you need to meet your dietary needs. You get the treatment that that you and your health or care professional agree will make a difference to your health and wellbeing. You will get safe and co-ordinated care where more than one care provider is involved or if you are moved between services. 3) YOU CAN EXPECT TO BE SAFE.

You will be protected from abuse or the risk of abuse and staff will respect your human rights. You will be cared for in a clean environment where you are protected from infection. You will get the medication you need, when you need them and in a safe way. You will be cared for in a safe and accessible place that will help you as you recover. You will not be harmed by unsafe or unsuitable equipment.

4) YOU CAN EXPECT TO BE CARED FOR BY QUALIFIED STAFF.

Your health and welfare needs are met by staff who are properly qualified. There will always be enough members of staff available to keep you safe and meet your health and welfare needs. You will be looked after by staff who are well managed and have the chance to develop and improve their skills. 5) YOU CAN EXPECT YOUR CARE PROVIDER TO CONSTANTLY CHECK THE QUALITY OF ITS SERVICES. Your care provider will continuously monitor the quality of its services to make sure you are safe. If you or someone acting on your behalf makes a complaint, you will be listened to and it will be acted upon properly. Your personal records including medical records, will be accurate and kept safe and confidential. LISA GOTTS

514 SAFEGUARDING AND PROTECTION OF VULNERABLE ADULTS.

1.2 EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF POLICY DEVELOPMENTS ON APPROACHES TO SAFEGUARDING VULNERABLE ADULTS IN OWN SERVICE SETTING. Our health, our care, our say.

A new direction for community services ( June 2006 ) the Government white paper identifies four goals to implement effective care and support for disadvantaged people: Better prevention services

More choice and a louder voice

Tackling inequalities and improving access to community service More support for people with long term needs.

Our health, our choice, our say set out to ensure a more personalised service and to ensure service users had a voice regards needed improvements to services.

In safe hands

Established the national framework for development of local policies, procedures and guidance for the protection of vulnerable adults. ‘In safe hands’ provides for social services departments to take a co-ordinating lead with a range of other local partners including the NHS and the policy to develop and implement local arrangements to prevent, identify, respond to and ameliorate abuse of vulnerable adults in all settings and to take appropriate action against perpetrators of abuse.

Putting people first

‘a shared vision and commitment to the transformation of Adult Social Care ( 2007) department of health. In the UK the government policy ‘putting people first’ stated that person centred planning must become maainstream. Putting people first recognises that person-centred planning and self-directed support are central to delivering personalisation and maximising choice and control. In 2010 guidance was issued to help councils use person centred thinking and planning to deliver the personalisation agenda. Putting people first is a public service reform programme which is co-produced, co-developed and will be co-evaluated. It recognises that to achieve real change, users and carers must participate at every stage. This marks a change in status of people who use services from consumers to co-producers,

set out four areas on which councils and their partners should focus in order to personalise services. These areas are:

Universal services- transport, leisure, health, education, housing and access to information and advice. Choice and control- shaping services to meet peoples needs rather than shaping people to fit in with the services on offer. Social capital- care and support that individuals and their carers can get from their local community ( friends, family, neighbours or community groups ) Early intervention and prevention- support that is available for people who need help to stay independent for as long as possible to keep their home or garden tidy, or to start taking regular exercise.

No secrets

In march 2000 the government issued a guidance document, No secrets which gave social services departments a co-ordinating role in developing local policies and procedures for protecting vulnerable adults from abuse. It came about in response to the media coverage of adult abuse. It required all agencies: police, probation services, social services and health services, to work collaboratively to protect vulnerable adults. The no secrets created a framework for action within which all responsible agencies work together to ensure a coherent policy for the safeguarding of vulnerable adults at risk of abuse and a consistent effective response to any circumstances giving ground for concern or formal complaints or expressions of anxiety. As a result, the protection of vulnerable adults ( POVA) was established. POVA’s remit was to provide help and support to adults experiencing abuse, investigate cases where appropriate and protect people from further abuse. In 2007 more emphasis was placed on early intervention and prevention, reflected in a change of name to safeguarding of vulnerable adults from abuse ( SOVA). The SOVA register replaced the POVA register.

Vetting and barring scheme/independent safeguarding authority The Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006 provides the legal framework for the new vetting and barring scheme, which came into full force in October 2009. Background: The safeguarding vulnerable groups act is a major element of a

wide-ranging and ambitious program of work established across government to address the systemic failures identified by the Bichard inquiry into Soham murders. The act was created in response to recommendation 19 of the Bichard Inquiry Report, which states: New arrangements have been introduced requiring those who wish to work with children or vulnerable adults, to be registered. The register would confirm that there is no known reason why an individual should not work with these clients. In March 2005 Sir Michael Bichard endorsed department for education and skills and department of healths proposal to implement recommendation 19 through the development of a central scheme whereby unsuitable people would be barred from working with children and/or vulnerable adults. The safeguarding vulnerable groups act recognises that any adult receiving any form of healthcare is vulnerable. There is no formal definition of vulnerability within health care although some people receiving health care may be at greater risk from harm than others, sometimes as a complication of their presenting condition and their individual circumstances. The risks that increase a persons vulnerability should be appropriately assessed and identified by the health care professional at first contact and continue throughout the care pathway. The independent safeguarding authority’s ( ISA ) role is to help prevent unsuitable people from working with children and vulnerable adults. Referrals are made to the ISA when an employer or an organisation, EG: a regulatory body has concerns that a person has caused harm or poses a future risk of harm to children or vulnerable adults.

Local safeguarding adults boards

Councils are responsible for ensuring they have in place safeguarding adults boards which have a critical role to play in terms of leadership and the management of safeguarding services across partners. Members of the board will include staff from a full rage of partners: Adult social care and other council departments, representation from district councils in two tier areas, NHS trusts and primary care providers the police, crown prosecution service and courts and key service providers. Representatives should be at a senior enough level to represent their organisation, influence its practice and consistently “ get things done “ The membership should be coherent even where some members will have remits that are either larger or smaller than

the local authority area. Membership may also include key or reprehensive third sector organisations. Boards should have mechanisms to ensure that the views of people who have used ( or might need to use ) safeguarding services are central to the work of the board.

1.3, EXPLAIN THE LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR SAFEGUARDING VULNERABLE ADULTS. There have always been laws which provide guidance with the rights of service users and the requirements of those providing their care. Disability Discrimination Act 1995

NHS Community Care Act 1990

National Assistance Act 1948

Mental Health Act 1983

Chronically sick and Disabled Person Act 1986

The first Act to be aimed specifically at the protection of vulnerable adults was the Care Standards Act 2000. The care standards act has had an enormous impact on everyone working in the social care sector. It created a new regulatory framework for all regulated social care and independent health care services. The act has two fundamental aims: Protect vulnerable people from abuse and neglect.

Protect the highest standards of quality in the care that people receive. The aim is to ensure that children in care are protected from abuse and neglect, older people and people with disability who rely on care services get appropriate standards of care and the protection they deserve. Private hospitals and clinics provide modern standards of healthcare and patients who use child minders or day care can be assured that their children are in safe hands. The General Social Care Council ( GSCC ) was set up under the Care Standards Act 2000, along with the National Care Standards Commission ( NCSC ) and the Social Services Inspectorate ( SSI ). NCSE and SSI merged in April 2004 to become the Commission for Social Care Inspection ( CSCI ) which is now the Care Quality Commission ( CQC ).

The Human Rights Act means that residents of the United Kingdom will now be able to seek help from the courts if they believe that their human rights

have been infringed. It is likely that anyone working within health and social care will be working within the provision of the Human Rights Act, which guarantees the following rights: The right to life

The right to freedom from torture and inhuman or degrading punishment The right to freedom from slavery, servitude and forced or compulsory labour The right to liberty and security of person

The right to a fair and public trail within a reasonable time The right to freedom from retrospective criminal law and no punishment without law The right to respect for private and family life, home and correspondence The right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion

The right to freedom of expression

The right to freedom of assembly and association

The right to marry and found a family

The prohibition of discrimination in the enjoyment of convention rights The right to peaceful enjoyment of possessions and protection of property The right to access to an education

The right to free elections

The right not to be subjected to the death penalty

With the introduction of the Human Rights Act the government had to show commitment to protecting the most vulnerable adults as well as children. In the past some people had not always been able to access their rights, this will now be regarded as violation of an individuals human rights.

The Safeguarding of Vulnerable Groups ( SVG ) Act 2006

Is in response to the Bichard Inquiry 2005, into the failings around Ian Huntley case. The SVG act is intended to prevent unsuitable people from working with vulnerable people and to reform current vetting and barring practices. The act sets out legal framework for the Independent Safeguarding Authority ( ISA ) scheme which was to be introduced in 2009 (but currently under review as a result of the 2010 General Election)

Mental Capacity Act 2005 ( MCA)

The MCA has been in force since 2007 and applies to England and Wales. The

primary purpose of the MCA is to promote and safeguard decision-making within a legal framework. It does this in two ways: By empowering people to make decisions for themselves wherever possible and by protecting people who lack capacity by providing a flexible framework that places individuals at the heart of the decision making process. By allowing people to plan ahead for a time in the future when they might lack the capacity for any number of reasons. FIVE KEY PRINCIPLES

1) A presumption of capacity-every adult has the right to make his or her own decisions and must be assumed to have capacity to do so unless it is proved otherwise. This means that you cannot assume that someone cannot make a decision for themselves just because they have a particular medical condition or disability. 2) Individuals being supported to make their own decisions-a person must be given all practicable help before anyone treats them as not being able to make their own decisions. This means you should make every effort to encourage and support people to make the decision for themselves. If lack of capacity is established it is still important that you involve the person as far as possible in making decisions. 3) unwise decisions-people have the right to make decisions that others might regard as unwise or eccentric. You cannot treat someone as lacking capacity for this reason. Everyone has their own values, beliefs and preferences which may not be the same as those of other people. 4) Best interests-anything done for or on behalf of a person who lacks mental capacity must be done in their best interests. 5) Less restrictive option-someone making a decision or acting on behalf of a person who lacks capacity must consider whether it is possible to decide or act in a way that would refer less with the persons rights and freedoms of action or whether there is a need to decide or act at all. Any intervention should be weighed up in the particular circumstances of the case.

1.4, EVALUATE HOW SERIOUS CASE REVIEWS OR INQUIRIES HAVE INFLUENCED QUALITY ASSURANCE, REGULATION AND INSPECTION RELATING TO THE SAFEGUARDING OF VULNERABLE ADULTS. The Purpose of Serious Case Review or inquiries is not to reinvestigate or to apportion blame, but rather:

To establish whether there are lessons to be learnt from the circumstances of the case about the way in which local professionals and agencies work together to safeguard vulnerable adults and to learn from past experience. To review the effectiveness of procedures ( both multi-agency and those of individual organisations ) and to improve future practice by acting on the learning. To inform and improve local inter-agency practice and improve multi agency working. To improve practice by acting on learning ( developing best practice ). To prepare or commission an overview report which brings together and analyses the findings of the various reports from agencies in order to make recommendations for future action and to review safeguarding adults procedures. Adult abuse pervades the lives of many people around the world today. The current definition of adult abuse used health and social care today states abuse-may consist of a single or repeated act. It may be physical, verbal or psychological, it may be an act of neglect or failure to act or it may occur when a vulnerable person is persuaded to enter into a financial or sexual transaction to which he/she has not consented or cannot give consent. ( Department of Health 2000 ). Adult abuse has received increasing recognition over the past 40 years at national and international level. Initial focus has been on the abuse of older people, however there is now an awareness of the vulnerability of other groups of adults to abuse including those with learning difficulties and mental health problems. There have been several high profile cases of abuse in recent years resulting in serious case reviews. Two examples where serious case reviews or inquires have influenced quality assurance, regulation and inspection relating to the safeguarding of vulnerable adults. THE BIRCHARD INQUIRY: following the case of Ian Huntley and the Soham murders. Although the abuse which took place was involving children, the report had far reaching affects on all areas of protection for both children and adult care. The Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups act is a major element of a wide-ranging and ambitious programme of work established across government to address the systemic failures identified by the inquiry. It introduced a requirement for those who wish to work with children or vulnerable adults, to be registered. This would confirm that there was no known reason why an individual should not work with these clients. The Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998 or ‘Whistlblowing’ is officially defined as ‘making a disclosure that is in the

public interest’. it will usually occur when an employee discloses to a public body, usually the police or a regulatory commission that their employer is partaking in unlawful practices. A series of disasters, crimes and scandals in the late 1980s and early 1990s resulted in a number of public inquiries. These inquiries found that often people within the organisations knew of the potential dangers or malpractice and for a variety of reasons either were unwilling to raise the alarm or if they did raise it, did so with the wrong person or in the wrong way. An example is the drowning of four children at Lyme Bay. Before the canoe disaster at Lyme Bay an instructor had been so concerned about the safety standards at the activity centre that she had written to the managing director. In her letter she stated that if safety standards were not improved ‘you might find yourself trying to explain why someone’s child will not be coming home’, shortly after four schoolchildren drowned. Because he had ignored such graphic warning, the managing director was jailed for two years for manslaughter. Had whistle blowing policies been in place at the time, the instructor could have reported this by following the correct processes and their employment rights would have been protected. If you decide to blow the whistle on an organisation you are protected and your employer cannot victimise you. Whislleblowers are protected for public interest to encourage people to speak out if they find malpractice illegal or negligent behaviour by anyone in an organisation or workplace. MISUSE OF DRUGS ACT 1971

The CQC providing external scrutiny on how other regulators and agencies work together, following the Governments response on the management of controlled drugs, after the fourth report of the Shipman inquiry. The CQC publishing their fifth annual report on safer management of controlled drugs in July 2012. Under statutory arrangements introduced as a result of the Shipman inquiry, the CQC is responsible for assuring that all providers of health and social care and regulatory bodies and agencies work together to create a safe environment for the management of controlled drugs. Recommendations in the report included the need for organisations to notify the CQC when the controlled drugs accountable officer changes, for the officers to have systems in place to assure the safe prescribing and administration of controlled drugs in all possible situations and the need to encourage the

use of the Controlled Drug Requisition Form.

1.5, EXPLAIN THE PROTOCOLS AND REFERRAL PROCEDURES WHEN HARM OR ABUSE IS ALLEGED OR SUSPECTED. All persons have the right to live their lives free from violence and abuse. This right is underpinned by the duty on public agencies under the Human Rights Act 1998 to intervene proportionately to protect the rights of citizens. These rights include Article 2: the Right to life, 3: freedom from torture ( including humiliating and degrading treatment ) and Article 8: rights to family life ( one that sustains the individual ). When an allegation of abuse is made the receiving agency must always notify the appropriate regulatory body within any stipulated time limits and also any other authority who may be using the service provider. Residential care homes are required under the Registered Homes Act 1984 ( as amended in 1991 ) ‘to notify the Registration Authority not later than 24 hrs from the time of its occurrence of any event in the home which affects the well-being of any resident’ and specifically of: Any serious injury to any person residing in the home ( Regulation 14 (1) (b). Any event in the home which affects the well-being of any resident ( Regulation 14 (1) (d). RESPONDING TO ABUSE AND NEGLECT

Standards 6,7,8 and 9

The primary responsibility of the ‘safeguarding adults’ partnership is to enable all adults who is or may be eligible for community care services to access appropriate services if they need support to live a life that is free from abuse and neglect. The framework for enabling adults to access such support is referred to as the ‘safeguarding adults’ procedures. They should ensure that those adults who is or may be eligible for community care services and who may be experiencing abuse or neglect, receive an assessment of the risk they are facing. Where they face a critical or substantial risk to their independence and wellbeing, community care services should be considered as part of a safeguarding plan. Where the assessment does not lead to community care services being provided or purchased other appropriate services should be signposted. The procedures should be based on the presumption of mental capacity and on the consequent right of such adults to make their own choices in relation to safety from abuse and

neglect-except where the rights of others would be compromised. For people who are eligible for community care services and who have mental capacity. ‘safeguarding adults procedures should enable them access to mainstream services that will support them to live safer lives as well as providing specific services to meet additional needs. EG: some adults have impairments which mean that they need assistance to overcome current barriers to existing services in order to choose how to achieve a safer life.

Standards 9.1 the multi-agency ‘safeguarding adults’ procedures detail the following stages: ALERT-Reporting concerns of abuse or neglect which are received or noticed within a partner organisation. Any immediate protection needs are addressed. REFERRAL -Placing information about that concern into a multiagency context. DECISION-Deciding whether the ‘safeguarding adults’ procedures are appropriate to address the concern. SAFEGUARDING ASSESSMENT STRATEGY-Formulating a multi-agency plan for assessing the risk and addressing any immediate protection needs. SAFEGUARDING ASSESSMENT-Co-ordinating the collection of the information about abuse or neglect that has occurred or might occur. This may include an investigation EG: a criminal or disciplinary investigation. SAFEGUARDING PLAN-Co-ordinating a multi-agency response to the risk of abuse that has been identified. REVIEW-The review of that plan.

RECORDING AND MONITORING-Recording and monitoring the ‘safeguarding adults’ process and its outcomes.

GOOD PRACTICE

Based within the community care assessment time frame.

Maximum time frame:

ALERT- Immediate action to safeguard anyone at immediate risk. REFERRAL – Within the same working day.

DECISION – By the end of the working day following the one on which the safeguarding referral was made. SAFEGUARDING ASSESSMENT STRATEGY – Within five working days. SAFEGUARDING ASSESSMENT – Within four weeks of the safeguarding referral. SAFEGUARDING PLAN – Within four weeks of the safeguarding assessment being completed. REVIEW – Within six months for

first review and thereafter yearly.

GOOD PRACTICE

Receivers of alerts and referrals should respond by:

Reassure the person.

Remaining calm and not showing shock or disbelief.

Listening carefully to what is being said.

Not asking detailed or probing questions.

Demonstrating a sympathetic approach by acknowledging regret and concern that what has been reported has happened. Ensuring that any emergency action needed has been taken.

Confirming that the information will be treated seriously.

Giving them information about the steps that will be taken.

Informing them that they will receive feedback as to the result of the concerns they have raised and from whom. Giving the person contact details so that they can report any further issues or ask any questions that may arise.

2.3, WHAT ARE THE POLICY AND PROCEDURES IN YOUR OWN WORK SETTING THAT CONTRIBUTE TOWARDS SAFEGUARDING AND THE PREVENTION OF ABUSE.

4.2, EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES TO PROTECT VULNERABLE ADULTS IN YOUR OWN SETTING. Periodic audits of individual adult protection case records will enable strengths and weaknesses in current practice to be identified. Accurate and consistent monitoring of vulnerable adult data will enable you to base your workplace policy and practice on sound and relevant evidence, highlighting trends and assisting in the planning process. By monitoring and auditing the individuals complaints and by listening to members of staff, you should be able to determine and evaluate if the systems and procedures in your own work setting are effective in protecting vulnerable adults.

Examples of Students Essays

Person-centred approach differs to cognitive bahavioural approaches Essay Example

Person-centred approach differs to cognitive bahavioural approaches Essay

In order to be able to say what the differences are between PCT, CBT and Psychodynamic approaches to counselling I have first of all set out below a brief summary of all three; Person centred therapy concentrates mainly on the subjective experience of the client and on how they might lose touch with their own organismic experiencing through taking on board the evaluations of others and treating them as if their own – Person-centred approach differs to cognitive bahavioural approaches Essay introduction. Therapy puts importance on a relationship built on empathy; respect and non-possessive warmth. Cognitive therapy works on the assumption that clients become distressed because of faulty processors of information leading them to jump to unwarranted conclusions. Therapy involves educating clients to test the reality of their thinking and by making use of a style of questioning which helps the client to become more aware of how he thinks. Real life experiments might also be used. Psychodynamic approaches pays attention to unconscious factors which have caused neurosis. The treatment consists of working through transference where the client regards the therapist as an important figure from their past. Also the interpretation of dreams may be used. (Nelson-Jones, 2011).

It appears that some of the ways that the PCT approach differs from CBT and psychodynamic approaches is that PCT relies on the relationship that is built between therapist and client and also makes a point of not directing the client. This is what makes PCT so unique from other approaches. PCT was developed by Carl Rogers, an American psychotherapist, researcher and academic. Rogers and his colleagues developed the person centred techniques from about 1940 onwards. At the time it was considered to be a very radical way of working with people because it sharply moved away from Freudian and cognitive-behavioural approaches that were so dominant at the time. PCT moved away from the need and belief of a diagnostic assessment and labelling, instead it concentrated on building a relationship between client and therapist. (Sanders, 2012).

More Essay Examples on Psychology Rubric

Roger’s developments of the conditions which are non-directive are

1. That two persons are in psychological contract;

2. The client is in a state of incongruence;

3. The therapist is congruent;

4. The therapist experiences unconditional regard towards the client;

5. The therapist is experiencing an empathic understanding of the client’s internal frame of reference (and endeavours to show it to the client);

6. That the client perceives conditions 4 and 5, the unconditional positive regard of the therapist for him/her, as well as the empathic understanding of the therapist. The above conditions are thought to be all that is needed to achieve a constructive personality change. This highlights that the fact that one of the key differences between PCT and cognitive/psychodynamic approaches is that it is the relationship between therapist and client which is the agent for change. Because PCT declared no other conditions were necessary to bring about change it created a direct challenge to the other approaches that were based on the theoretical knowledge or expertise of the therapist, including a diagnosis of symptoms followed by the application of specific techniques. In fact Rogers believed that each individual had the capacity to heal himself if the correct conditions are in place, i.e. the client merely needs to be at the centre of a self-directed process facilitated by another, (the therapist) and ‘experts’ were not needed. (Sanders, 2012). Roger’s was of the belief that the 6 conditions could be demonstrated by anyone who acquired experiential training, as opposed to special intellectual professional knowledge, whether it be psychological, psychiatric or medical. A fundamental difference therefore, is that PCT works on the assumption that the client has the capacity for self-determination and the counsellor guides the client into doing something about her/himself. The counsellor might help the client to move towards self-growth and development by recognizing obstacles. Special techniques are not used to enable the client; it is merely the practising successfully the core conditions of congruence, empathy and unconditional regard; i.e. truly being able to place yourself into client’s shoes so to speak; not judging and being able to be real in the relationship. The main concept always being that the client has a natural urge towards growth and is also the expert on how to achieve it. This above approach is in direct opposition to the psychodynamic approach which assumes it is the counsellor that is the expert in knowing how to alleviate distress in the client because he/she has the knowledge of how the

unconscious mind works. There is the belief that problems are caused as a result of links between past experience and the present state of mind. (Bond, 2000). Cognitive Therapy differs again, not only in a reliance on expert knowledge, but also in the fact that there are no reservations about advice giving, and will also employ methods that include undertaking special exercise or activities regarded as homework between sessions. Albert Ellis, whose work was developed by cognitive therapists, was very critical of counsellors who avoid challenging inappropriate or self-destructive beliefs and he argued that the timidity of the counsellor is colluding with the clients own destructive urges. (Dryden, 1997). Cognitive therapy was further developed in the early 1960’s by Dr Aaron Beck who was of the opinion that during client’s cognitive development they learn incorrect habits of processing and interpreting information. The therapist helps the client to become aware of distortions and then to learn different and more realistic ways of processing and reality-testing information. This is achieved by observing the client; interpreting his observations and then using methods of interventions. The client is basically taught how to think about their thinking and in so doing correcting dysfunctions. Therapy is usually time-based and goals are enforced with a definition of problems. Generally therapy ends when goals are achieved. (Nelson-Jones, 2011).

Finally, in considering the differences of the approaches discussed, I think the most important thing to keep in mind is that Roger’s believed that individuals have within themselves their own capacity to develop their potential as a human being, but sometimes they may need the help of a person-centred approach to help them to tap into the resources they already have in order to create full realisation. Rogers did believe, like other theorists, that early childhood influences the kind of person we might become. The difference is that unlike many approaches to personality, PCT believes that significant changes to personality are possible later in life but sometimes need to be helped to tap into their own innate resources, this is in opposition to a belief that expertise might be needed or that the client needs to be taught.

Examples of Students Essays

The Causes and Effects of Growing Up in an Abusive Home Essay Example

The Causes and Effects of Growing Up in an Abusive Home Essay

Coming from an abusive home myself I personally know what the uncalled for causes and the dramatic effects of abuse are – The Causes and Effects of Growing Up in an Abusive Home Essay introduction. During the ages of 5 until I was 16 my stepfather physically abused me almost daily. I get beat with a belt, a wire hanger, extension cords, wooden spoons or anything else he could get his hands on. I was 4 or 5 the first time it happened, he told me to clean my room and when he came to check on me I was not yet done. He then began to count to 10 and when he got there if I was not done he beat me. This would continue until my room was clean which seemed like an eternity but was more like 10 minutes.

As I grew the beatings also grew and at some point when I was 13 or 14 he slapped me so hard across my face that he broke my nose and I had a bright green bruise on my cheek for a week. I was so embarrassed about it that I tried to cover it with make-up every day until it was gone. Finally, it all stopped one night at the age of 16 when he kicked me out of the house for sticking up for my friend who he had threatened to hit. I was so happy to be out of that house but I was terrified at the same time. The one thing I think that bothered me the most was that while all of this was going on my mom just stood by and let it happen. The causes of abuse are numerous and the effects are significantly higher in number. My stepfather blamed his rage on stress and my being defiant. What he did not realize is that I was only defiant because of his anger towards me which is just one of the effects of abuse, another would be low self-esteem. These effects can last long after the abuse stops and can ruin future relationships for the rest of ones life. Many different stressors including work issues, money problems and even sleep deprivation might bring on abuse.

More Essay Examples on Family Rubric

My stepfather and mom ran an auto body business and on the days when things did not go well at the shop my stepfather would take it out on me. It almost seemed like he would try to pick a fight with me just so he could beat me and make himself feel better. One time when I was 12 or 13 my granddad was in he hospital dying and we had driven 8 hours in the middle of the night to be with him. He was like a father to me and I loved him very much so I asked my grandma if I could stay at the hospital with her. My stepfather told me no and I was very upset by this so I began to cry.

When my family got out to the parking lot my stepfather told me I should feel like the smallest piece of s*** on the planet. This made me very angry so I threw my things on the ground and began running away from him. As he chased me I screamed at the top of my lungs for someone to help me because I knew if he caught me that he would beat me. My grandma came out of the hospital room to see what the problem was and I was hiding behind a food cart crying hysterically as my stepfather tried to get at me. He later apologized and blamed his anger on being tired from the long drive.

Financial problems seem to be a big cause of stress among families and mine was no different. Even though we had our own business we were still very poor. This was probably because my stepfather had an expensive hobby of driving modified midget racecars. Every weekend in the summer we would go to the track and spend hundreds of dollars on food, drinks, gas, and parts for the racecar. Then there were the many trips across the country for the state and national races, which cost thousands of dollars. This went on for 9 years so one could imagine the kind of money that was put into this hobby.

Needless to say my stepfather was stressed out all of the time and I was the one that usually got the ugly end of the deal. In my case I was a very defiant child for a variety of reasons. I went from being the younger of 2 kids to being the middle of 7 in a matter of 3 years. No longer was the attention on me because it was on my 3 new stepbrothers and my new stepsister. Then 2 days before my 7th birthday my mom had my little sister, which meant that I would have to share my birthday with her now. I was very resentful towards my little sister for many years after that.

So yes, I was a defiant child and then the beatings started and I got worse. All I wanted was attention and I really did not care how I got it. I would back talk my mom; totally disrespect my stepfather, beat up on my sisters and lied to everyone regularly. When I would ask my mom if I could have a friend over, my stepfather would answer for her and that irritated me. When he would do that I simply looked at him and would say, “Is your name mom! ” and then I would ask my mom again. She usually would say the same thing my stepfather said but I did not care. I know that on several ccasions I threatened both my mom and my stepfather with violence and showed no remorse for it. Skipping school became a regular thing for me in high school and I rarely go caught. When I did though I would get very aggressive when my mom or stepfather would punish me. They later admitted to me that they were afraid of me but I already knew that. I could see how it would be hard to handle a kid like that but still it is no reason to abuse them. The effects of abuse, however, are much more severe in my eyes. Being a defiant child may not last forever but the long-term effects can include low self-esteem.

I can recall my stepfather telling me that I was fat, stupid, ugly and several other things when he would beat me. I began to believe this as some point in my life because the kids at school began to say the same things to me. I felt like an outcast and like no one would ever be my friend or love me at all. I don’t remember ever hearing my mom tell me she loved me but I heard her say it to my sisters all the time. Still to this day she never says it to me but does to my sisters and I don’t know why that is. I do not think very highly of myself now as an adult, though I try not to show it.

Deep down inside I feel ugly, fat and stupid just like my stepfather use to say to me so many years ago. No matter how hard I have tried to forget the past or tell myself that I am good enough to be loved, the thought will not leave my head. It follows me in my everyday life and I fear that it will for the rest of my life. Just because someone is stressed because of financial issues or tired from lack of sleep does not make it okay for them to take it out on their kids. What we as parents need to keep in mind is how our actions towards our kids are going to effect them later in life as well as right now.

We should try to put ourselves in their shoes and think of how what we are doing would make us feel. By doing this we could come up with alternative ways of disciplining our kids that do not include intimidation or fear. Now that I am 30 years old and have 2 wonderful kids of my own I make sure to tell them everyday how much I love them. I do not ever want them to feel the way I did growing up. I would never do to them what was done to me because I know what it felt like not only physically but also emotionally.