Examples of Students Essays

Timothy Allen – How He Learned Vietnamese by Translating a Vietnamese Classic

Learning a language can sometimes go by unexpectedly, thus not the way you’re expecting it to. You don’t always have to devour grammar manuals in order to excel in a language. Timothy Allen has experienced this himself when he was able to improve his Vietnamese language by translating a popular Vietnamese literary creation.

After traveling to Ho Chi Minh city back in 1999, the writer was able to find a Vietnamese classic work that would teach him a lot about the culture and language of the country. As such, he translated it and ended up getting better at his own Vietnamese skills. It’s a story with a nice conclusion, so here’s how Tim Allen had the ability to learn a language through translation.

Who Is Timothy Allen?

Tim Allen is a poet and translator who became known especially for translating “Kieu: A New Lament for a Broken Heart”, a Vietnamese verse-novel. Born in Liverpool in 1960, Tim has worked in many parts of the world, including Albania, Uganda, Liberia, Mozambique, as well as Vietnam and many others. Not to mention, he has translated works for multiple languages, such as Spanish, Vietnamese and many others.

In 2008, he was awarded a prize thanks to his translation of the opening lines of the popular Vietnamese novel, as well as a Hawthornden Fellowship later on. The latter allowed him to continue and, ultimately, complete translating and reworking the poem.

How He Learned Vietnamese through Translation

Timothy arrived in Vietnam in late November 1999, being his first time visiting the country. He was there to look for some projects, for which he had funds from the NGO. After being picked up from the airport by his Vietnamese counterparts, he started telling them about how he’s interested in learning more about their culture and language.

When asking about literature, one of the counterparts told him about a book that Timothy would definitely love, and which would be a life-changing experience for him. Of course, upon hearing the name “Truyen Kieu, the Tale of Kieu”, it didn’t mean much to him, so he couldn’t know how much of an impact it would have on his life. The tale was written by Nguyen Du, a diplomat-poet, and published in 1920.

During his time in Vietnam, Timothy Allen spent enough time analyzing the life of Vietnamese people and was impressed. They had a special sense of family and solidarity.

One evening at the restaurant, Timothy engaged in conversation with one of his new colleagues and asked her to tell him about the “Truyen Kieu” book.

It was revealed that the story takes place in China and is about a Chinese girl who falls in love with a boy. However, the boy has to move away due to a family business, after which she is somehow tricked into working in a brothel. She doesn’t stay there forever – she manages to escape and has plenty of adventures. But one thing is sure – she never forgets her first love.

The story is known by all Vietnamese people, and some even use it as a fortune teller – you open the book and put the finger on a verse, and that’s what future has in store. So, Tim Allen traveled the country and asked locals about the story. Many were eager to share their knowledge about it, and he was even lucky enough to find a bilingual version of it. Therefore, he started deciphering it.

He was impressed by the message of the story. The story told you to keep going despite the difficulties life is throwing at you, and stay true to yourself. It also tells you that bad people will fade away too.

At the end of the trip, when Timothy had to leave Vietnam, he brought the book with him, together with a dictionary. He only wanted to maintain his knowledge of the language, not make a proper translation. But little did he know that reworking the book will develop his own Vietnamese skills.

Apparently, what Allen was aiming for was capturing the essence of the story and being able to deliver the same magic as Nguyen Du was able to. He wanted to maintain the lyricism, as well as the characters and the flow of the story while translating it properly. Now that he translated it, he wishes that many people will be in awe stumbling upon the wonderful story of Kieu.

Final Thoughts

A language can be learned through other methods, rather than simply reading grammar books and dictionaries. As the story of Timothy Allen has proven, you can start translating something out of pure fascination, and before realizing it, your skills have improved.

If you’ve been impressed by this story and now you’re curious about Vietnamese literature, yet you don’t find translated one, don’t hesitate to seek Vietnamese translation services.

Examples of Students Essays

Best Research Paper Writing Services to Choose From

Students can have it tough at times. Schoolwork can be stressful, and the amount of homework they carry can require a lot of time.

One of the biggest challenges in doing schoolwork is writing papers. Whether it be term papers, research papers, or essays, a student needs ample time to do it.

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What exactly are these services offering, and how effective are they? In this article, we’ll break it down to you.

Read more below on why writing services are on the rise. Know about ways to choose the best research paper writing services out there.

Why Hiring the Right Paper Writing Service Is Important

If you’ve decided that the easiest way to pass your subject or course is to hire help, then do so. The important thing is that you know what type of services you should hire. When looking for quality output, you need to hire the right people.

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One of the best ways to find the writing service that you need is from others who have used it. Try to scout recommendations from other students. Make sure to ask those who have the same papers that you need to submit.

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As a student, it’s easy to be afraid of sites that can rip you off. This is why it also matters that you check the kinds of guarantees that the sites offer. Seeing the guarantee means that you get the services that you need.

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Impressive Paper Writing Services You Could Hire

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Upon visiting the site, you’ll immediately see samples of essays and the topics they cover. You’ll also see what sample essays would look like and what the rates are per page.

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Examples of Students Essays

Managers employees and organizational cultures Example

Managers employees and organizational cultures

The technical part is having eight training knowledge and tools so the business can be productive and effective in making sure the customers are happy and return consistently – Managers employees and organizational cultures introduction. Social technical systems theory was started being used by Japanese companies which integrated technical systems and management to achieve high performance. Large U. S. Automakers like Ford and Chrysler also started to look this way. They wanted to understand how the Japanese were applying these tactics to make their business and their products achieves. The second approach is called quantitative management.

This approach helps analysis the decisions and problems of the manager. This helps them to develop formal mathematical models of whatever the problem is. This is the use of science. This started during the World War II around sass. Private companies started to use this theory to get a grip of more complex issues they were having. They use computers to develop certain quantitative methods. This would include techniques such as queuing theory, inventory modeling and simulation. The companies would use these techniques in areas like marketing, planning and human resources.

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Many managers aren’t trained in this area and do not apply this as their primary approach. They might use this approach as a tool in the process off decision. Many managers will use the result that are up to their judgment and beliefs. Overall manager decisions are unpredictable and cannot be expressed in a mathematical form. Organizational behavior is a contemporary approach in which researches and understands management in which will make employees effective by focusing on the hard nature that a certain group utilizes and works together successfully.

Organizational behavior focuses mainly on the behavior of employees which analysis the psychology and the sociology. This approach The fourth approach is called the systems theory. This is the classic approach where everyone involved is criticized as a whole. This theory depended on what the outside world had to say such as human resources and raw materials. Instead of focusing on the external they would use the input as a whole to make OUtpUt needs meet the desires of consumers for what services and goods they needed as the external part.

This then caused people to talk which then caused others to make the next process of the company better. Which then turned into cause and effect. This cause was great for the company who was following through with this because it did wonders for them, who were spreading greatness all around for those who asked and then received. Every association or organizations rely on the input from their consumers to make their goods and services what they demand so they can be the best they can. This is an open system and how they work.

Regarding environments there are a few tepees to consider in an organization. For instance there are macro environment, internal and competitive. Macro environment is about the elements the external business includes that can influence them on strategic decisions they can make. As a whole the technology, demographics, economy and social values all include these regulations and laws are considered. Second environment is called internal. This is where the inside of a certain firm refers to any resources they have and uses them such as manager’s employees and organizational cultures.

The third environment is called competitive. This is extremely important because they need and keep track of other competitors in their line of company and other companies that may cause harm to them. I believe all the approaches go hand and hand with the environments. I believe they all individually have their purpose but each is much needed in the environments. I believe if you use all of the approaches with the environments in the proper times, any business or organization would be extremely successful.

Unit Assignment Essay

Windows Vista was the removable media policies – Unit Assignment Essay introduction. It allowed for the use of USB drives, flash memory cards, external USB hard drives, and CD/DVD writers. These however posed a huge security problem for companies because it allowed the users to easily copy data from their systems, or even place unwanted viruses or mallard onto their neuron. This lead to a lot of companies removing or just destroying these devices so that they wouldn’t work on their workstations. Vista also addressed the power management settings that weren’t available by default in Windows operation systems beforehand.

There were third party software that was used before this release, but companies would prefer if it were built into Windows to reduce costs. Power management policies allowed the companies to save money on electricity, and run at lower temperatures. Hard disk settings were added which allowed the hard drive to be set to turn on or off at specific times. For example when the computer is on battery power, then the hard drive would power down. The other policy that was added for this is for when the computer is plugged in. These allowed for set time values to be set after inactivity or other events happen which would rower down the hard drives.

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There were also settings for the displays which worked the same way as the hard drives. A very useful policy that is called “Require a password when a computer wakes” was added. This made it easier for companies to keep their networks secure. Everyone knows that not all employees and other users log off or lock their computers before walking away to go on break or something. With this setting, after the computer went into a sleep state then when it wakes, the user will have to input their credentials again to verify that they are who they say they are.

Examples of Students Essays

Health and Safety in a Clinical Laboratory Essay Example

Health and Safety in a Clinical Laboratory Essay

HEALTH AND SAFETY IN CLINICAL LABORITORIES Health and safety at work act (1974) show that it is a duty of every employer to ensure as far as reasonably practice to health safety and welfare at work of all of its employees – Health and Safety in a Clinical Laboratory Essay introduction. Risks assessments must be carried out when more than 5 people are employed and implement changes as necessary. Risk assessment is a carefully recorded examination of what might cause harm and accidents to people in work places e. g. staff, visitors, patients, clients and contractors. Many activities are undertaken in clinical laboratories therefore anyone entering is at risk at pathological specimen.

Staff must observe important precautions to protect both themselves and others. The degree of risk will depend upon the sort of work they do and how well they observe the safety rules. Infection control is very important in laboratories because infections may be acquired by breathing in airborne droplets or dust containing infectious micro-organisms and others may be through abrasions wounds or liquid splashing onto mucous membranes into eyes. Any form of cuts or dermatitis should be covered by waterproof dressing before start of work. The cover must be enough to prevent contamination and if in doubt ask the line manager.

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Personal protection equipment [PPE] is very important from reducing the spread of infections. In laboratories always wear a protective gown or coat to protect own clothing from acting as transmitter for infection. Gowns should be changed at least twice per week and neither should personal things such as pencils, combs, brushes taken into the laboratory. Essential items are always provided. Gloves should be worn when handling specimen. If gloves become perforated you should stop work immediately and dispose of into appropriate bin. Wash hands thoroughly and put new gloves.

When gowns are contaminated they should be changed and placed in appropriate container and hands should be washed and put new clean coat. Food, drink, cigarettes are not allowed into the laboratory. Eating, chewing, smoking and applying cosmetics in laboratory are forbidden. All that may bring hands into contact with face and mucosae [eyes, nose and mouth] must be avoided as this spread infections. Hands should be washed thoroughly when leaving the laboratory. Reporting Of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulation 1995 [RIDDOR] was introduced to report any injuries or disease within the workplace

In clinical laboratories if any cuts occur the wound should be encouraged to bleed by washing with running water. This should not be scrubbed as this may encourage infection. Proper treatment dressing is very important and no matter how small the cut is this should be reported to the line manager. If u become ill this should be reported and the doctor should be told where you work by showing medical contact card in case of further information if required. Do not take unnecessary risks always follow the rule. Handling of specimen in the laboratory is the main focus of the job.

Always observe all the requirements and regulations. Gloves should be used to handle specimen which include saliva, blood and urine . Always wear disposable gloves if u are to get in contact with blood or body fluids. The use of protective clothing and equipment [gloves, aprons, full-face visors] will minimise the risk of infection Any spillage which would be infectious should be reported and make sure that the spillage is properly cleaned to prevent accidents which can cause injuries or death if someone slips [shattered lives]. Broken equipment should be placed in containers provided to avoid cuts.

Used materials should be placed in appropriate marked bins and dispose of manner accordingly. Control of Substance Hazardous to Health 2002[COSSH] this was amended to control exposure to chemicals and protect workers. In laboratories activities such as autoclaving and cleaning must only be performed according to instructions and must be followed at all times unless in circumstances to meet special needs. Avoid practices of splashing or releasing of droplets into atmosphere as this causes infections. Pathological material should be carried in a microbiological safety cabinet e. . transport screen . Always protect yourself by putting on full-face visor, gloves and disposable plastic apron over your gown or coat. Mouth pipetting is forbidden always use provided pipetting devices. Protective clothing should be removed on completing the job and place various items in the designated places for disinfection, autoclaving or disposal . Always wash hands at the end of each job. Minimise the use of sharp objects as these can cause cuts, when using them use with extreme condition or whenever possible use plastic. Clear spillages and clutter.

Use racks or trays to contain specimen. Items must be disinfected properly and disposed safely. Labels should be correctly done and never to be licked Do not enter any room which has` Danger of Infection` sign on the door unless you are told it’s safe to do so by your manager. Clinical waste should be properly bagged or safely contained according to local rules. Fire awareness is very important in any form of employment. Employees should be trained and be familiar with surroundings in case of fire. In laboratory the causes of fire could be electrical faults or chemical reaction.

In case of fire staff needs not to panic but to move away from affected area but on the same floor [horizontal evacuation]. This reduce evacuation time by moving to a short distance helps in not moving outside unless absolutely necessary . Regular training is advised [triangle of fire] When collapses it is an individual responsibility to risk assess to the rescuer during resuscitation Firstly u have to approach safely and don’t panic them. Check for response and shout for help. Open airway to make sure it is clear there is no vomit or dentures.

Apply 30 chest compressions and keep checking for normal breathing by looking and feeling . This is very important for every employee to be trained [Basic life support]. When faced with aggressive behaviour one should remain calm, communication, posture, should be considered. We need to use common sense in all what we do. REFERENCES ? HSE. Health Services Advisory Committee. (2003), Safety in Health service Laboratories, HSE Books, UK. ? HSE, (2006), Essentials of Health Safety at work, ? www. hse. gov. uk/biosafety/information. htm

Examples of Students Essays

Unit Assignment Brief Essay Example

Unit Assignment Brief Essay – Part 2

You will also have to take part in the interview and perform the post-interview activities – Unit Assignment Brief Essay introduction. As this is your first interview the HER manager has asked you to analyses and evaluate your experience so that you can improve in future. Tasks You have to produce the interview pack for the interview panel to use. This must include: Shortlist Tasks and test for the interview Interview questions (ensuring they are within the legislation and ethical constraints) Procedure for interview decisions Job offer to the successful candidates

Informing unsuccessful candidates Using your interview pack you must take part in the selection process both as an interviewer and an interviewee You have been asked to write a report to analyses your contribution to the process, and evaluate your experience of planning and participating both as an interviewer and an interviewee. Evidence you must produce for this task Interview pack Report Criteria covered by this task: To achieve the criteria you must show that you are able to: Unit Criterion reference

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Plan to take part in a selection interview 13 L 04. Up Take part in a selection interview ALL. UP Analyses your contribution to the selection process in a given situation 13 ALL. MM Evaluate your experience of planning and participation in the recruitment and selection process 13 ALL. DO Sources of information www. Biked. AC. UK Educational website www. Hallucinogens. AC. UK corporate website vim. Tutor. Co. UK Educational website.

Examples of Students Essays

Risk Assessment and Young People Essay Example

Risk Assessment and Young People Essay

If you care for children of mixed age range you may need to section of certain areas or have activities – Risk Assessment and Young People Essay introduction. This would prevent, for example, a child who is crawling from getting access to a climbing frame or unsupervised water-play. Special needs Some children and young people have special needs related to a physical condition, disability, sensory impairment or a learning difficulty. Keeping these children safe while providing them with equal opportunities to play, explore and be active is an additional challenge that requires careful thought.

You may need to adapt play equipment or find suitable enabling or protective aids. Consider also how to make sure children understand safety instructions and can follow them sufficiently Specific risks There may be particular risks to bear in mind. For example, if you are working with colleague who is pregnant, or individuals with a sensory impairment, you will to make allowances. There may also be specific risks associated with particular activities, so you have to make sure to use the relevant safety equipment and give appropriate safety instructions in preparation.

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For example, if you are starting a baking session, don’t begin without making sure that aprons and oven gloves are available, that children know how who may use matches and how to use them safely, that only open the oven when an adult is present, and understand the importance of personal hygiene while cooking 1. 2 Explain how health and safety is monitored and maintained and how people in your work setting are aware of risk and hazards and encouraged to work safely All care settings must have systems in place so that each aspect of health and safety concerning the workplace and practice re checked regularly.

These should be itemized as part of a health and safety policy and include details about how often the checks should take place, who should make the checks and how information must be recorded and reported. Every member of staff has a right to have their health and safety protected and holds an equal responsibility to protect the health and safety of others. This includes the children and young people in your care, their families, your colleagues, visiting practitioners and Other visitors.

For example, a draftsperson such as an electrician might need to do repair or maintenance work during day of a playgroup. During the electrician’s visit children need to be kept safe from dangers such as tools and exposure to electricity, and the electrician must be kept safe from accidents and incidents, such as falling over a dropped toy or slipping in split juice. 1. 3. Identify sources of current guidance for planning healthy and safe environments and services. There are a number of different sources of information available to you.

Your place of work and your local library are good starting points, and a great deal of information can be found on the internet. People leagues – some of your colleagues may have specialist knowledge or wealth of experience from which you can benefit from visiting practitioners people who practice in other professions but come to your workplace as part of the service provision may be able to give you different insights Documents legislation documents explain ways in which health and safety relates to your work and your work role Policies describe under-running principles for safe working.

There will be specific health and safety policy, as well as other related policies, such as safeguarding and moving and handling procedures et detailed instructions about what must happen in particular circumstances, such as a fire alarm sounding, or if a building is to be evacuated, or in a event of a child or young person going missing other professions such as police, social services or healthcare can be contacted by letter to request specific relevant information Public information Health and Safety Executive (HOSE) is a national independent watchdog for work-related health, safety and illness.

Its role is enforce legislation, provide information and advice and run an advocacy service that supports individuals ho have been injured at work to go through a complaints procedure British Safety Council (BBS) is a UK charity offering information and guidance on health, safety and environmental Health Protection Agency (HAP) is an independent UK organization set up protect up to protect the public from infectious disease and environmental hazards. It others advice and information. 1. Explain how current health and safety legislation, policies and procedures are implemented in own work setting or service. Within my work setting we follow The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974. It is the employer’s duty to put leslies and procedures into place to ensure that the setting is meeting the standards of The Health and Safety at Work Act and the employee’s duty to make sure these are followed. We follow this act by making sure that the building and environment is well maintained, clean and safe.

Equipment is stored properly and is regularly checked to ensure it is safe. Hazardous materials and equipment is locked away and we follow the COACH act. We have systems in place to ensure the safety Of children at all times I. E. Fire procedure, accident and illness procedure. We provide adequate facilities to tit the needs and abilities of all children and young people and all members of staff are qualified, CRY checked and given regular training.

Gloves and aprons are worn at all times when dealing with bodily fluids to prevent cross- infection. All accidents and incidents are recorded are reported to the correct person. Practitioners are first aid qualified and are able to deal with minor injuries within the setting. First aid boxes and fire extinguishers are in every room along with a fire whistle to alert other rooms of a fire. We have a health and safety officer who oversees the running of the setting and ensures that sis assessments are regularly carried out and updated.

Staff members are given guidance on how to protect themselves throughout day to day activities and also regarding manual handling. Risk assessments also have to be signed by each practitioner otherwise they are void because the practitioner can say that they haven’t read them, maybe attend courses on health and safety, food hygiene, manual handling etc. Staff meetings to update health and safety requirements. Display the health and safety poster and make sure it is up to date (recently new updated version in our area). 2. Undertake a health and safety assessment in own work setting or service illustrating how its implantation will reduce risk A health and safety risk assessment is a careful examination of any hazards or situations that could cause harm to people or damage to buildings or equipment. In carrying risk assessments you have the opportunity to recognize potential risk before harm occurs and to take measures to avoid or minimize the impact. You can carry out informal risk assessments many times, often without thinking such every time you cross the road or drive a car.

A formal risk assessment process uses structure to identify and assess the risk and find ways to avoid or reduce it to an acceptable level. The five steps of risk assessment that undertake are, l: [1] 1. Identify the hazards[2] 2. Decide who might be harmed and how[3] 3. Evaluate the risks and decide on precaution[4] 4. Record my findings and implement them[5] 5. Review my assessment and update if necessary 2. 4 Explain how health and safety risk assessments are monitored and reviewed Risk assessment is an ongoing process that needs continuous review until the risk is over.

The law does not expect you to eliminate all risk, UT you are required to protect people as far is reasonably practicable and this means monitoring risk and keeping them under review When you work with children and young people the workplace does not usually stay the same from day to day. Different people are around at different times and each individual will have different needs on different occasions. Also over the weeks, new equipment and new activities will be probably be introduced. This means once for all risk assessment.

Regular monitoring and reviewing keeps up with changes, allowing risk assessments to be adjusted and adapted as necessary. When considering how risk assessment might need to changed, I usually think about: The children and young people taking part The staff members who are going to be involved Other people who are around, such as family members, visitors or strangers The weather conditions Time of day The previous activity and how it may impact on this one Any potential hazard that have arisen will also ask the opinion and advice of others, who may spot things that I may have overlook, or have a different viewpoint.

I will also check what has worked well on other occasions and always learn from previous mistakes. . 1 Explain why it is important to take a balanced approach to risk management As practitioners, our main concern is to keep children safe from harm. Doing this can be very hard, as at the same time we need to encourage them to experience risk and challenges. If we try to remove all risks from children’s lives we could be risking restricting their learning experiences. It is very important that We teach children skills that will help those managing dangers and risk for themselves.

Giving children the opportunity to experience a certain level of risky experiences will help them o develop confidence and competence to make their own balance approach is taken in risk taking, so children are not over protected. Children are allowed to play and explore in safe environment and make right decision about risk with the help of adult. Children need to learn how to control risk themselves; by learning what is a safe boundary are with the help of adult, and showing the children how to recognize the risk and dangers in the safest way possible.

When you do any new activity it does create dilemma and conflict at some point between the duty and care and children rights. The activities we do with children, make they are right age for them, and extra care of children during the activity, because if is any things goes wrong then we have to make balance decision between the risk and child right. 32 Explain the dilemma between the rights and choices of children and people and health and safety requirements: Children learn by trying out new experiences and making choices.

But they do not have the skills and judgment always to make safe choices. Careers have the responsibility to identify potential hazards in any situation and to judge hen it is safe to allow a child to undertake an activity or make a choice. Some children need this freedom to explore risk even more than others. For example a disabled child may be restricted in play at home because of parental concern that the child could hurt themselves. In a well-controlled setting the child can be encouraged to explore and try out new skills. Children are usually very good at deciding what is safe or not.

Using large play equipment is a good example of how children assess and manage risk. In the Outdoor area in Foundation Stage there is a climbing wall where I believe that he children should use with caution but also given the chance to decide whether they can get over without hurting themselves or not, thus they are assessing and managing their own risk. This is a choice that they should make themselves, if they are not happy they will get down. However parents and cares who are being over cautious about children may stop a child trying new things out. 3. Give examples from own practice of supporting children or young people to assess and manage risk All children and people are different, but many do exercise a natural caution when trying a new experience or challenge. This can be seen as a self-protective instinct. Risky behavior often comes about when a child has been over protected and not exposed to any risk, so has not learnt how to asses risk Learning how about risk assessment and risk management is a gradual process in which there should be an increasing number of min-steps along the route to independence.

If a child is allowed to get it wrong sometimes, as long as it within a controlled environment where they cannot come too much harm, they will learn from their mistakes. There are a number of ways that I can help to support a child or young person to asses and manage risks safely Be present to physically support a young child physically as they try out new skills, for example, standing behind a very child to give confidence as they negotiate stairs and to be there if they fall Be positive role model, for example holding a safety rail/wearing a bike helmet/ using safety belts and explaining why these precautions re necessary.

Be encouraging by praising effort and highlighting competence and achievement Create opportunities to practice decision-making such as when crossing a road, suggested a child tells when they think it is safe to do so Talk over the recess of accessing ask as you carrying out task, for example, I’ll use an oven glove so don’t burn myself on the cooker Allow enough time for process of risk assessment to take properly Support parents to let go as they allow children to more independent choices Increase opportunities for independent decision making for children and young people as they get older 4. Explain the policies and procedures of the settings or service in response to accidents, incidents, emergencies and illness In my setting there several policies and procedures that I adhere to which include first aid, fire and accident and emergency. I refer to them at all times. 4. Identify the correct procedures or recording and reporting accidents, incidents emergencies and illness As an early years setting we have policies and procedures in place for how we respond to accidents, incidents, emergencies and illness and procedures for reporting and recording Sickness and illness: The settings policy for the exclusion of children with sick or infectious children is displayed in our waiting room; these include the period of time we require a child to stay home following a bout of sickness or diarrhea or other infectious illness such a chicken pox.

When infectious illness is discovered, such as head lice, parents are notified by signs being put up. If a child, following consultation with a qualified medical professional has an infectious disease which is on the modifiable diseases list then Offset are informed. If a child becomes ill whilst at the setting there parent/career are called, if they are not available we have a list of authorized emergency contacts who can come and collect the child, until such time the child is cared for in an appropriate area of the setting.

If a child becomes unwell and is a cause for serious once then an ambulance would be called. Certain illnesses as Meningitis need rapid action, there are posters in our waiting room to advice people on what to do should meningitis be suspected, age specific symptom lists and aids to diagnose such as the glass test. We have procedures and specific cleaning kit for use on spilled bodily fluids. Accident/First Aid: We have a qualified first eider in the setting or on an outing at any one time.

The first eiders are listed on a notice for everyone to see should they require help. If a child has an accident at the setting and requires first aid then the elevate qualified person will use the settings first aid kit which is easily accessible and regularly checked. When an accident occurs we fill out or accident book which details; where, when, how and what treatment was administered. The parents/career is then informed and asked to sign it at the end of the session.

If the injury is more severe and requires further medical attention then the parent/career or authorized is contacted and informed or following signed consent on the settings registration form the child can be taken to the nearest Accident and Emergency unit. We have a duty to inform Offset and the Health and Safety Executive of any injury that requires treatment by a medical professional or in the event of the death. Reviewing the accident book half termed allows us to identify any potential or actual hazards.

We have an Evacuation Bag which is taken out with us whenever we go outside of the premises or on off site visits/trips the contents of our evacuation bag include: First Aid Kit, Cold Compress, Accident Book, Fire Alarm Whistle, Individual child’s medication in own container, tissues, anti-bacterial hand gel, mobile phones, daily signing in/out sheets, contact details of parents/careers and emergency contacts. Incidents: When an incident occurs at the setting we record it in our Incident book which is kept in the office filing cabinet.

An incident could be a break in or theft, vandalism, dangerous occurrence, injury or fatality. In the incident book we record the date and time of the incident, nature of the event, who was affected, what was done about it – or if it was reported to the police, and if so a crime number. Any follow up, or insurance claim made, should also be recorded. We comply with current HOSE Regulations and report to the Health ND Safety executive.

Risk Assessment and Young People Essay

Support Children and Young People’s Health and Safety – Risk Assessment and Young People Essay introduction. 1 Understand how to plan and provide environments and services that support children and young people’s health and safety. 1. 3 Identify sources of current guidance for planning healthy and safe environments and services. The Health & safety executive: HSE is the national independent watchdog for work-related health, safety and illness. They are an independent regulator and act in the public interest to reduce work-related death and serious injury across Great Britain’s workplaces

Child accident prevention trust: They are committed to reducing the number of children and young people killed, disabled or seriously injured in accidents. Department for schools and families The Department for Education is committed to creating a world-class state education system. They will work to improve the opportunities and experiences available to children and the education workforce by focusing on the following priorities:  Giving greater autonomy to schools Improving parental choice Offering more support for the poorest Whole system improvement

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Great quality provision for children A Workplace’s policies and procedures: Risk Assessment: Risk Assessments are a legal requirement mainly under the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999, although most health and safety legislation requires a risk assessment approach. 1. 4 Explain how current health and safety legislation, policies and procedures are implemented in own work setting or service. We have folders with all the policies and procedures for the whole school in them so if we aren’t sure about something we can go to the folder and find out.

Also when we get new staff they are given a hand book with all the policies and procedures in it which they have to read through before they start. Also we as a team make sure we are following policies and procedures on a day to day basis by reminding each other and supporting each other. For example we have two different policies for personal care in the school in my class the policy is one person to attend to a child’s personal care with the door open, whereas in all the other classes they have to have two people with a child but can close the door.

Examples of Students Essays

The Law egg Sex Discrimination Act Example

The Law egg Sex Discrimination Act – Part 2

Policies and procedures within services: equal opportunities; grievance procedures; bullying and harassment at work; other anti-discrimination policies; recording and monitoring of equal opportunities data and complaints; complaints procedures for service users Diversity issues: employment within public services; development of a diverse workforce through recruitment and staff selection strategies; catering for employees’ needs through support mechanisms (staff unions, associations and federations); aspects of public service work which may impact on individual beliefs Task 2 (UP) deadline Evidence = Individual written document) – The Law egg Sex Discrimination Act introduction. A) Use the case study on p. 0 about positive action in the Humidifiers Fire and rescue Service. What are the positive and negative effects of the positive action policies to the Fire and rescue Service? What is positive Action? This is used to recruit firefighters from under-represented groups within the community as a whole egg women, ethnic minorities, gay men and women and people with disabilities. They are allowed to do this by law egg Sex Discrimination Act, Race Discrimination Act, Disabilities Discrimination Act Positive Effects Currently 97% white men However population is 52% women and 48% men White British 4% Asian 2% Black They want a diverse fire service that represents society as a whole.

So they do the following at Humidifiers Equality and Diversity Officer Evening and weekend awareness courses Opportunity to ask questions of minority officers The positives could be that more ethnic minorities may consider a career in the fire service. Also minority groups may feel able to get information and advice about the fire service. The negative could be that white men feel discriminated against (Telegraph article about Avon Fire Service). It could be that the wrong person is chosen for the job. They may be chosen because of their minority background How might this ensure the Fire and rescue Service has a diverse workforce? Open days provide opportunities for minorities to find out more An equality and Diversity officer may actively every day promote recruitment of minorities b) Use the case study on p. 00 about the Army Equal Opportunities Policy 2000 What are the positive and negative effects of positive action to the Army? Individuals from different religious backgrounds can join the army and still keep ND practice their faith. This includes provision of specialist food, daily prayer when safe, celebration of holy days, Sikh men are allowed to wear turbans, regular liaison with a variety of faiths. Negatives may be that white British men may think they are getting special treatment, the enemy may be able to pick off those with turbans more easily, Generalizations by white British about different faiths may lead to more racism because the minorities are treated differently.

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More costs associated with preparing and ordering specialist food, holy festivals and prayer may not always e practical. How might this ensure the Army has a diverse workforce? If this becomes more widely known it may make more people from different religions want to join the army Task 3 (AS) deadline Choose the Army or the Fire and Rescue Service to research a) What recruitment policies does this public service have to try to ensure its workforce reflects society? Army – Use bullet points from case study b) What policies does the public service have to combat under-representation? Respecting different religions, food, clothing, prayer Open days, information services Task 4 (UP) deadline

Essential content – 3 bullet points for each side heading – in a spider diagram Equality of service: services to individuals; Come to emergency calls egg 999, fire, road traffic crash, chemical spillage, rescue Home visit to check for fire safety Provide advice Same applies to businesses statutory requirements; There are laws to ensure the minimum standards of service are provided accessibility by users; All users must able to fully access fire service premises egg disabled, mobility impaired Fire makes special plans to help all users Leaflets, websites, information must be made available in a variety of formats g Braille, languages, video, talks, home visits recognizing needs of citizens as individuals and groups Fire Service has policies to ensure all needs of all groups can be met. Task 5 (UP) deadline (Evidence = Individual written document).

POI Give 5 examples of how specific public services provide equality of service to all citizens See bullet points in case study Task 6 (MM) deadline Analyses the effectiveness of the methods used by public services to promote equality and diversity in society and within the service Review the case studies from task 2 – answer these questions in detail ) What are the positive and negatives of these policies in terms of recruitment and retention? B) What might these positives and negatives lead to and why? (In terms of recruitment and retention) Possible short term and long term effects because Length – 1 side minimum Task 7 (DO) deadline Write a summary and conclusion for MM. Overall do these policies lead to more negative or positive effects in terms of recruitment and retention for the public service? What is your opinion? What do you recommend the public services should do in the future? 3 Rig Para’s

Unit assignment Essay – Part 2

In this first section, explain the key features of the relevant legislation and regulations applicable to each workplace – Unit assignment Essay introduction. PA. Describe the roles and responsibilities of those involved under current H&S legislation and regulations. For each of the two working environments chosen, discuss the roles and responsibilities of the employer, the employee, the health and safety executive and one other, it says in the specification. The one other, I might recommend, could be an external contractor working on site.

We had quite a lot of information on the roles and responsibilities of contractors from Out Jump, so this could be a handy place to start as we know the names and roles of the main staff involved with H&S at SUMAC and can explain how these relate to the roles and responsibilities within the company. MI . Explaining the consequences of not following legislation. What happens if management do not abide by legislation and regulations when carrying out their roles and responsibilities?

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Base this on one of the engineering workplaces that you have considered during the assignment. Consider who is culpable in the event of an incident and what the possible consequences could include. Tips: Anything in bold and underlined can be regarded as a heading or a sub heading in your assignment. Aim to complete this assignment in approximately 2000 words or 4 sides of AY. Use the HOSE website for examples and legislation information as required. Reference any sources used.

Examples of Students Essays

Compare and Contrast Person Centred with Psychodynamic Essay Example

Compare and Contrast Person Centred with Psychodynamic Essay

When comparing and contrasting the differences in the three approaches, I will review the relationship between client and counsellor – Compare and Contrast Person Centred with Psychodynamic Essay introduction. I will attempt to discover how the relationship is formed and how it is maintained during the therapeutic process. Once this has been established, I will then look at how the changes occur in the therapeutic relationship and which techniques will be used. I will compare and contrast the approaches of Carl Rogers, Sigmund Freud and Albert Ellis. I will look at how their theories have impacted on the counselling processes in modern times and throughout history.

In the humanistic approach in counselling there is a vital importance that the core conditions between client and counselling are present from the outset for the relationship to exist. Roger stated that the core conditions were “necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. ” (Mcleod 2001) Without the core conditions being present, there is no hope for the therapeutic movement for the client. Empathy is seen as being with the client, this is going into the clients frame of reference and experiencing the emotions and feelings that the client is experiencing at that particular moment in time.

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In 1986 Rogers underlined empathy as “ To my mind, empathy is in itself a healing agent. It is one of the most potent aspects of therapy, because it releases, it confirms, it brings even the most frightening client into the human race. If a person is understood, he or she belongs” (Merry 2002) To me this sentence is what empathy is in a nut shell, this shows that the client is being understood, and the counsellor is secure in their own identity so that they don’t get overwhelmed in the client world. Another of the core conditions is congruence, this is the genuineness of the counsellor.

This is where the counsellor has understanding of the complex feelings, thoughts and the attitudes of the client. However there is a fine line between the counsellor an understanding the client needs and the counsellors feelings and thoughts being projected. Congruence should be used to show the client that the counsellor is sincere and that they are not clinical and unemotional. The last core condition is unconditional regard, this is where counsellor show the client acceptance of who they are in the present time.

Where the beliefs and attitude of the counsellor are not used in judgement against the client. It is important skill for the counsellor to have so that the client can feel secure in the emotions that they feeling in the present. In the psychodynamic approach in counselling the relationship between the client and the counsellor is an intensive relationship, and the emotional tone of the client and the attitude towards the counsellor is essential for the relationship to exist.

Through analysing his patients Freud devised a structure that was to define the personality of the individual, these were the id, the ego and the super ego. Freud believed that in order for the human psyche to be balanced and healthy all these have to be in harmony with each other. Freud once stated that“ The conscious mind may be compared to a fountain playing in the sun and falling back into the great subterranean pool of subconscious from which it rises. “ (brainy quotes. com 2010).

A Psychodynamic counsellor can use a technique called transference, this is where the counsellor reflects on in the past so that they can reflect on it in the present. Transference is drawing on the past experience with significant figures such as the mother and the father and the relationship that the client has with them. This is carried out on a unconscious level even thought the client knows that the information is out dated. The counsellor uses the information in a way that gets them to understand some of the problems that they are experiencing.

Once the transference is brought in to the open it is important to use this as a learning experience and for the clients to identify the faulty patterns within their own behaviour with regards to others. Counter transference is where the feelings of the client is unconsciously reacting to the client thoughts and feelings towards the counsellor. However, counter-transference is caused by the counsellors own limitations which might include the counsellor unresolved emotional issues, but a counsellor can use this to their advantage and draw out information that is important to the clients therapeutic process.

In the cognitive behaviour approach to counselling the use of potential outcomes of cognitive behaviour therapy, looking at the fact that there are emotional disorders that result from negative thoughts and thinking on unrealistic terms, and this in time can be altered by changing the unrealistic terms and negative thoughts to positive thoughts and realistic ideas. Rational emotional therapy is there to assist the client to make enlightened changes to themselves. In 1962 Ellis stated that “ human thinking and emotions are, in some of their essences, the same thing, and that by changing the former one does change the latter ( Dryden 2001).

This would let the client to give up the demands of their own psyche, others and the world, and change it to suit their choices and to allow themselves to accept themselves for who they really are. If the counsellor can get the client to do this, they can experience healthy negative emotions such as sadness, concern and disappointment, while still retaining their desires, wishes and needs. The client will rarely experience unhealthy negative emotions that would have surrounded with ‘should,’ ‘musts,’ and ‘oughts. The client and the counsellor has to collaborate within the relationship as it gives autonomy to the client to encompass their own problems, and to overcome and use problem solving as a way of coming to term with the issues. When looking at the differences in the three approaches in counselling it was important to note that the core conditions related to all three theories. In the Humanistic Approach the core conditions are necessary for the therapeutic relationship to develop. In the two other approaches they were sufficient for the relationship to develop.

With humanistic approach all of the core conditions are present, but with psychodynamic non judgemental attitude are poignant to the relationship, and the counsellor will not take side in the conflict, however congruence and empathy is present, but not widely used by the counsellor. With cognitive behaviour again all three core conditions are present but unpositive regard is important to show the client that their imperfections are accepted by the counsellor. There has to be empathy as this helps the counsellor to build a rapport with the client.

I have noticed that there is at least one of the core conditions are present in the therapeutic relationship, with exception of the humanistic approach, where all three are used in conjunction with each other. I also realised that transference is present in the cognitive approach as the client constructs an image of the counsellor, which results in transference, but this is used like psychodynamic transference in a therapeutic way. When looking at how the therapeutic approaches is the three different pproaches to counselling, the humanistic approach is where you understand that this process is client led and that it is where the client wants to go. With the humanistic approach to counselling the counsellor will start the very beginning of the relationship with a contract. This is where the relationship between the counsellor and client is formed. The counsellor will hope that this contract will establish trust between the both parties. Trust is paramount in the relationship, with out trust the client cannot be open and honest with the counsellor.

The counsellor works within the client internal frame of reference. This is where the counsellor tries understands the clients world, thoughts and feelings of the significant points that were happening at that time. Rogers once said “To be of assistance to you I will put aside myself – the self of ordinary interaction – and enter into your world of perception as completely as I am able. I will become, in a sense, another self for you- an alter ego of your own attitudes and feeling – a safe opportunity for you to discern yourself more clearly, to experience yourself more truly and deeply, to choose more significantly. (Rogers 1951) I understand that this is what Rogers was trying to say about the clients internal frame of reference and how the counsellor should try and move around freely with out imposing their own thoughts and feelings. However some times the clients thoughts and feelings are from their conditions of worth. If the client feels that they are useless at most things in their life. This could be due to the fact that there have been negative feelings on them from a early age. Sometimes when the client has been surrounded by feelings of worthlessness they some times lose their inherent values as an individual.

When looking at the process of the therapeutic changes in the Psychodynamic approach to counselling, you have to look at what specific techniques are used, but you have to be clear what the aims of the treatment are. Freud stated that “where id was, let ego be” (McLeod 1993) he said this to summarise his aims. What he means by this is that we are driven by the force and impulses and after therapy people are more rational, aware of their inner emotional life and be able to control these feelings with appropriate behaviour.

McLeod (2003) also stated that “ A key aim of psychoanalysis is, then, the achievement of insight into the true nature of one’s problems…. ” A counsellor also uses the skills of listening, observing, clarifying, linking, interpretation, giving reflective responses and drawing on past events and presenting behaviour. You also have to look at defence mechanism. The ego is govern the Reality Principle which has the task of dealing with demands of the Id, while it is also praising the external reality and then it decides on the what behaviour is suitable for the environment.

It also deals with threat and punishment off the Superego which with all the factors of the Id and Ego, it generated anxiety in the individual. This is where the person’s wishes and external reality is dealt with the use of the defence mechanism. Freud once stated that “The poor ego has a still harder time of it; it has to serve three harsh masters, and it has to do its best to reconcile the claims and demands of all three… The three tyrants are the external world, the superego, and the id. ” From New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis, (1932) psychology. about. com.

Once we know where the emotions that we experience comes from, we will know how to deal with the issues if they were ever to arise again. When a person understands their feelings and emotions they will get a release of the emotional tension of the repressed or buried memories, Freud called this “catharsis”, this means to purify the emotions from the ties that it had to our past. When looking at the process of the therapeutic approach of cognitive behaviour therapy, In 1962 Ellis stated that “ human thinking and emotions are, in some of their essences, the same thing, and that by changing the former one does change the latter ( Dryden 2001).

Ellis went on to put forward a model that would be easy to remember, this is the ABC model. The A is for activating events where the emotional and behaviour leads to the consequences ( C) and the emotional residual is decided by Beliefs (B) this model shows some action or attitude of an individual or physical event that has happened in the clients life. A counsellor will show the client how this can be used to monitor the cognitive reactions to events, this then shows the client how to engage the thoughts and reactions to any events, which then turn give them choice on how to react towards the event.

There is also cognitive change techniques this is where the counsellor can help the client to look at the irrational and rational beliefs. This is done by giving the client homework, which is a imagery technique that helps the client to change their unhealthy negative emotions to healthy ones. This is said to give the client an intellectual insight in their irrational beliefs. This is also used in the behaviour change techniques, this is where the counsellor and client negotiates the homework, where the client aims to putting what they have learnt in therapy in to play.

There is also the emotive-evocative change techniques, this is where the counsellor uses self -disclosure and openly admit that they make errors. When looking at the similarities and the differences to the three approaches on how each of them impact on the outcome of the counselling process, it is important to note that each of them have a variety of different techniques but the outcome is the same for each. However each of the approaches were all governed by the fact that a contract had to be established for trust to develop.

In the humanistic approach the counsellor would stay in the clients frame of reference when they were experiencing the emotions that was difficult to convey. Also the humanistic approach is given a time limit in weeks that both counsellor and client must try to achieve. With Psychodynamic approach it is a timely and an expensive course of therapy. With psychodynamic approach it looks for patterns that happened in childhood that is now no longer tolerated in adulthood.

Where as the humanistic approach is looking at why they feel the negative feeling that other have imposed on them in childhood. In the cognitive behaviour approach this is seen as the therapy that is fast acting and that gives the client homework to do in there own time. This the only approach that give the client homework. This approach is a collaborative between the client and counsellor and the work is mostly done with the client being in control of the therapy.

In conclusion, I understand the core conditions are vital in all approaches to counselling – they are only a necessity in the humanistic approach, but they are sufficient in the other two approaches. I also realised that, when it came to the therapeutic changes in the approaches, even though each of them used different techniques, the outcome was the same. This was to get the client to have autonomy for their own life and that what the past and what others have placed on them is nothing compared to the power that is within the client.

Examples of Students Essays

Person-centred and Systems Theory approach case study based Essay Example

Person-centred and Systems Theory approach case study based Essay

Case Study :

Ramesh is 45 year old Sri Lankan man who works as a telephone call centre agent – Person-centred and Systems Theory approach case study based Essay introduction. He was close to and lived with his mother, who died 18 months ago. Ramesh was recently hospitalised after a suicide attempt. He had been taking anti-depressants for several months before he took an overdose. According to his sister, he had become depressed and was drinking and smoking a lot, and hardly ever eating. He had been taking time off work, and was at risk of losing his job with BT. His sister says that Ramesh went downhill after the death of their mother, but that she was surprised at this as he always complained about all the things he had to do for her when she was alive. The sister has a family of her own, but says that she has tried to involve Ramesh in her family, but he had mostly refused. He had some friends who he used to play cricket with, but he has stopped seeing them. He had been saying that there’s nothing to live for, and he wanted to be left alone. Ramesh is due to be released from hospital in two weeks’ time.

Introduction

The purpose of this essay is to critically analyse the Task-centred and client-centred approaches to Social Work Intervention. I will initially explain their main principles, advantages and disadvantages and apply them to the assessment, planning and intervention of the above case study. Particular attention will be paid to how these perspectives inform the application of anti-oppressive practice (AOP). The word ‘perspective’ describes a partial ‘view of the world’ (Payne 1997:290) and is often used to attempt to order and make sense of experiences and events from a particular and partial viewpoint. The reason for choosing these two theories is because they can be used simultaneously. One of the major attributes of the Person Centred approach is the emphasis on relationship building between the Social Worker and the service user, which therefore makes it easier to set out the tasks that need to be carried out because lines of communication have been opened up

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Task- centred Approach

The task-centred model is a short-term, problem-solving approach to social work practice. It is a major approach in clinical social work perhaps because unlike other several practice models, it was developed for and within Social Work (Stepney and Ford, 2000). My reasoning behind adopting this approach is because it is essentially a clear and practical model that can be adapted for use in a wide range of situations. It is designed to help in the resolution of difficulties that people experience in interacting with their social situations, where internal feelings of discomfort are associated with events in the external world. One of the many benefits of planned short-term work is that both the Social Worker and Client put immediate energy into the work because the time is limited. The dangers of the effectiveness of the intervention being reliant on the Social Worker/Client relationship, which may or may not work out, are minimised in the short-term. The model consists of five phases.

Phase one

This is the problem exploration phase and is characterised by mutual clarity. Problems are defined as an unmet or unsatisfied wants perceived by the client (Reid, 1978). The client should be as clear as the social worker about the processes that will be followed in order to fully participate fully in the work. Involving the service user right from the initial phase has the advantage that they feel empowered and is a good example of anti-oppressive practice. Less commonly the worker may take the lead in identifying the problems but however must be careful not to detract from the clients’ unique expertise in the understanding of their own individual situation. This phase normally takes from one to two interviews although some cases may require more. It ends with setting up of initial tasks. In Ramesh’s case the Social Worker will be using the following sequential Steps.

Identifying with Ramesh the reasons for the intervention in the first place. Explain to Ramesh how long the process will take (roughly between 4- 6 weeks). The social worker has to assess Ramesh’s ability to understand his problems and their extent especially taking into consideration that he has issues with alcohol and dependent on anti-depressant drugs. Establish whether Ramesh acknowledges he has a problem and is willing to do something about it. The process of problem exploration will entail the answering of a series of questions: How did his problems begin?

What happens typically when Ramesh drinks a lot of alcohol?

How often this happening iand what quantities of alcohol is he going through per day/week? What efforts (if any) he himself has put into resolving his problems?

Phase two

This is when the selecting and prioritising of the problems occur. This has to be what both the Social Worker and Ramesh acknowledge as the ‘Target problem’ and explicitly agree will become the focus of their work together. Commonly there will be a series of problems identified and will be ranked in order of their importance (Stepney and Ford, 2000). There are basically three routes for problem identification. The most common is through client initiation. Clients express complaints which are then explored. A second route is interactive. Problems emerge through a dialogue between the practitioner and client in which neither is a clear initiator. In the third route to problem identification the practitioner is clearly the initiator. So for example, using the information in case study, the problems could be listed as: Dependence on alcohol

Excessive smoking

Isolation

Phase three

Following the identification and ranking of target problems stage, the first problem to be identified will need to be framed within a ‘problem statement’. The client’s acceptance of the final problem statement leads to a contract that will guide subsequent work. Both practitioner and client agree to work toward solution of the problem(s) as formulated. The way the problems are framed and defined are crucial in motivating both the Social Worker and the service user. The ultimate goal is to avoid the service user from feeling over-whelmed or that the goals set are unachievable. Therefore they have to be set in a realistic manner which also reflect the concerns and wishes of the service user, again this re-enforces anti-oppressive practice issues. They should be clear and unambiguous and which lend themselves, as far as possible, to some sort of measurement so that the Social Worker and service user can tell what progress is being made. So for instance if it is agreed that Ramesh’s dependence on alcohol is the priority, the Social Worker can suggest and also help him join an Alcohol support group. Agree on the number of meetings he’ll attend. Not only will the support group help him tackle the alcohol issues but will also give him the opportunity to be around other people and interact with them. Gradually this should help eliminate the isolation issues which are major facilitator of depression. Evidence shows that the more support and services the person has, the more stable their environment. The more stable their environment, the better the chances of dealing with their substance problems (Azrin 1976, Costello 1980, Dobkin et al 2002, Powell et al 1998). An important secondary purpose of the model is to bring about contextual change as a means of preventing recurrence of problems and of strengthening the functioning of the client system. One of the issues Ramesh is dealing with is depression which according to his sister was triggered by his mother’s death. With his approval, it might be useful for Ramesh to be referred for bereavement counselling in order to come to terms with losing his mother. Other important things that need to be considered during this phase are ways of establishing incentives and motivation for task performance. The task may not itself satisfy Ramesh’s ‘wants’ but at least he must see it as a step in that direction. Phase four

This is the stage where implementation of tasks between sessions occurs. There is not a great deal to say about this self-evident phase, however, that is not to say it is not an important phase. Its success will depend on all the groundwork undertaken in the previous phases of the process. Task implementation addresses the methods for achieving the task(s), which should be negotiated with the service user, and according to Ford and Postle, (2000:55) should be; ‘’designed to enhance the problem solving skills of participants…it is important that tasks undertaken by clients involve elements of decision making and self-direction…if the work goes well then they will progressively exercise more control over the implementation of tasks, ultimately enhancing their ability to resolve problems independently”. According to Doel (2002:195) tasks should be “carefully negotiated steps from the present problem to the future goal.” Once tasks are set, it is important to review the problems as the intervention progresses in order to reassess that the tasks are still relevant to achieving the goals. Cree and Myers (2008:95) suggest that as circumstances can change, situations may be superseded by new problems. The workers role should be primarily to support the user in order to achieve their tasks and goals which may include providing information and resources, education and role-playing in order to handle difficult situations. In this case Ramesh will go ahead and continue attending his alcohol cessation support group and the Social Worker can work on arranging bereavement counselling for him and liaise with him about when he feels ready to start. Phase five- Termination Session

Termination in the task-centred model begins in the first session, when client and practitioner set time limits for the intervention. Throughout the treatment process the practitioners regularly reminds the client of the time limits and the number of sessions left additional progress. If an extension is made, practitioner and client contract on a small number of additional sessions, usually no more than four interviews. It should also be noted that such extensions occur in less than one fifth of the cases in most settings. Any accomplishments made by the client are particularly stressed in the termination session. This emphasizing of the client’s accomplishment serves as a reinforcer. In another final termination session activity, the practitioner assists the clients in identifying the problem-solving skills they have acquired during the treatment process, review what has not been done and why not. An effort is made to help clients generalize these problem-solving skills, so they can apply them to future problems they may encounter. Person Centred Approach

The key emerging principles of the person centred approaches are that individuals must rely on themselves and liable for their own actions (Howe D, 2009). The Person-Centred Approach developed from the work of the psychologist Dr Carl Rogers (1902 – 1987). He advanced an approach to psychotherapy and counselling that, at the time (1940s – 1960s), was considered extremely radical if not revolutionary (BAPCA). In order for people to realise their full potential they must learn to define themselves rather than allowing others to do it for them. the An important part of this theory is that in a particular psychological environment, the fulfilment of personal potentials includes sociability, the need to be with other human beings and a desire to know and be known by other people. It also includes being open to experience, being trusting and trustworthy, being curious about the world, being creative and compassionate. This is one of the most popular approaches among practitioners (Marsh and Triseliotis 1996: 52) because of its hopefulness, accessibility and flexibility.

The psychological environment described by Rogers was one where a person felt free from threat, both physically and psychologically. This environment could be achieved when being in a relationship with a person who was deeply understanding (empathic), accepting (having unconditional positive regard) and genuine (Trevthick,P, 2005). The approach does not use techniques but relies on the personal qualities of the therapist/person to build a non-judgemental and empathic relationship. This in itself could be an issue because of the sole reliance on the Social ability to engage with service users. However, there are disadvantages to this approach. For example, treating people with respect, kindness, warmth and dignity can be misconstrued as ‘’adopting a person centred approach’’. This means the counselling part of the relationship has a risk of being completely over-looked.

The goal would be to work on a one-to-one with Ramesh mainly using counselling skills. He has a sister who has a family of her own so therefore family work can be included as a possibility. If he is willing to perhaps go and temporarily live with his sister when he is discharged from hospital in two weeks, it will be a positive step for him to spend more time in a family setting rather than by himself. That way he might not feel so isolated and depressed. This will also help build his self-confidence and self-esteem. The lack of motivation that Ramesh has for going to work needs to be further explored. It could be he is feeling unfulfilled and that at 45 years of age he has not achieved much. He needs social work intervention which is geared towards him attaining ‘’human potential’’ (Maslow’s basic theory). The Social Worker should encourage him to come up with ways in which he can work towards that and also look at areas in his life where he can make his own choices with an aim to recognise elements in his situation that constrain these and seek to remove them. For example, if he is not turning up for work because he is unsatisfied with his job perhaps he could enrol for a vocational course in an industry he enjoys which will improve his job prospects. The fact that he says he has nothing to live for means he has no feeling of self-worth and hasn’t reached the stage of self-actualisation in his life, this is something he is going to need support in figuring it out for himself because it is relative.

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Conclusion

It is evident that both the task-centred and person centred approaches are popular and generally successful models of social work practice and can both be used in a variety of situations. Both approaches are based on the establishment of a relationship between the worker and the service user and can address significant social, emotional and practical difficulties (Coulshed & Orme, 2006). They are both structured interventions, so action is planned and fits a predetermined pattern. They also use specific contracts between worker and service user and both aim to improve the individuals capacity to deal with their problems in a clear and more focused approach than other long term non directive methods of practice (Payne 2002,). Both of these approaches have a place in social work practice through promoting empowerment of the service user and validating their worth. They do provide important frameworks which social workers can utilise in order to implement best practice However, there are certain limitations to both of the approaches, for example Further to the constraints of short term interventions Reid and Epstein (1972) suggest that these approaches may not allow sufficient time to attend to all the problems that the service user may want help with and that clients whose achievement was either minimal or partial thought that further help of some kind may be of use in accomplishing their goals. The problems Ramesh is facing are deep rooted psychological problems which may require a longer time frame to sort them out. Depression can take really long to deal with and 4-6 weeks may not be sufficient and the fear is that this might actually have an adverse effect on Ramesh if he does not see any progress within the agreed time frame.

REFERENCES

1. Caplan,G. (1995) Principles of Preventive Psychiatry, London, Tavistock. 2. Coulshed, V. and Orme, J. (2006) Social work practice. 4th ed. Basingstoke,Palgrave, MacMillan. 3. Doel, M. and Marsh, P. (1992). Task-centred Social Work. Aldershot, Ashgate

4. Ford and Postle (2000) Task-centred Practice and Care Management, Social Work Models, Methods and Theories, Russell House

5. Howe,D (2009) A brief Introduction To Social Work Theory, Palgrave, Macmillan 6. http://www.bapca.org.uk/about/what-is-it.html

7. Murgatroyd,S. and Woolf,R. (1982) Coping with Crisis: Understanding and Helping People in Need, London, Harper and Row. 8. O’Hagan,K. (1986) Crisis Intervention in Social Services, Basingstoke, McMillan. 9. Payne, M (1997) Modern Social Work Theory (2nd edn) Macmillan 10. Thompson,N. (1991) Crisis Intervention Revisited: A guide to Modern Practice, Birmingham. PEPAR Publications 11. Trevthick,P,( 2005) Social Work Skills- A Practice Handbook, Open University Press. 12. Cree, V. and Myers, S. (2008) Social Work: Making a Difference, Bristol: The Policy Press

Examples of Students Essays

Unit level assignment Essay Example

Unit level assignment Essay

Scenario: Hartford Grange is a residential care home for 15 older people who have various impairments including dementia, strokes and arthritis – Unit level assignment Essay introduction. Hartford Grange is an old Victorian house set in its own gardens on a busy road. The new manager has asked you to create a report on the potential hazards and harm they may cause. She also asked you to create a booklet for new staff that covers how legislation, policies and procedures influence health and safety at Hartford Grange and promotes the safety of the individuals in the setting.

For this task I will explain six potential hazards in a health and social care setting. There are potential hazards in the Hartford Grange residential home, these shards affect all the people working and living in the residential care setting. There are loads of hazards which can be found in every surface of the care setting. Hazards Harms that may arise Slippery floor The harm that may arise is either a service user or a member of staff slipping and hurting themselves. i. E. Recaptures, sprains, cuts and bruises. This is once again more harmful towards people suffering with arthritis as it will just make pains worse and if someone suffering from strokes slips on the floor it may cause them shock or fright that ca possibly trigger of another stroke or make the previous offering worse. Objects left on the floor The harm this may cause is a person tripping over and hurting themselves or if the object has any sharp edges there is a possibility they may cut themselves.

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This is even more serious for people with arthritis as it will cause them immense pain. Equipment blocking fire exits This can be harmful as it may prevent service users and members of staff getting out in time when there is a fire. Also if a service user suffering from dementia is told to leave through the fire exit and it is blocked it will quite possibly confuse them. This is also dangerous for the staff working the Hartford House as it will be much harder for them to get residents and themselves out safely.

Also , the residents will breath in the smoke if it takes too long and since their lungs are not as strong due to being to fragile, it can easily cause death. And if there is anyone suffering from asthma and their inhaler is not in reach and no one can go get it for them, this can also be highly dangerous. Poor Lighting This can be very hazardous to the residents who are visually impaired, due to their poor vision, the staff at Hartford Grange are responsible for taking special are of these residents e. G. Y making sure that there is a good contrast between objects and surroundings such as dark doors in white surrounding or else if the area is dark and difficult to see the visually impaired patient would then be at great risk of possibly falling over or bump into something sharp causing themselves serious harm or fracture. Equipment not functioning and placed correctly Equipment that is not functioning or placed correctly e. G. Cord pulls for call help systems, not within easy reach of the residents who may be in wheelchairs ay have the residents overstretching and this may cause them to fall.

Another example would be if the residents which have arthritis have a sudden serious cramp and fall over, an out of reach cord pull is useless to them if they are trying to call for help. Busy road near by The risk of road traffic accidents may be likely to occur if residents with dementia get confused, they may become disorientated and get lost. Along with this there are people who suffer from arthritis, which means they may possibly walk slower than normal and this can be an issue when walking along a busy road.